Chapter 1 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz

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Chapter 1 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz - Quiz

Apparently, I have too much time on my hands. Hope this is helpful; it probably has more information than necessary, but I figure better safe than sorry.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Dualism is the belief that...

    • A.

      All thoughts, feelings, and actions are at the mercy of our biochemical and physiological processes, with no free will.

    • B.

      The mind is a manifestation of the workings of the body

    • C.

      The best way to understand a biological phenomena is to understand its useful functions for the organism

    • D.

      The mind and body are separate entities

    Correct Answer
    D. The mind and body are separate entities
    Explanation
    Dualism is the belief that the mind and body are separate entities. This means that the mind is not simply a manifestation of the workings of the body, but rather exists independently from it. Dualists argue that the mind and body have distinct properties and functions, and that they interact with each other in some way. This perspective suggests that there is more to human existence than just our physical bodies, and that the mind plays a significant role in shaping our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

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  • 2. 

    ________ is the belief that some nonphysical force is present in living things.

    • A.

      Dualism

    • B.

      Monism

    • C.

      Vitalism

    • D.

      Determinism

    Correct Answer
    C. Vitalism
    Explanation
    Vitalism is the belief that some nonphysical force is present in living things. This belief suggests that there is a vital force or energy that distinguishes living organisms from non-living matter. It proposes that this force is responsible for the characteristics and activities of living beings, such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism. Vitalism was a prevalent concept in early biology and medicine, but it has been largely discredited by modern science.

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  • 3. 

    According to ________, once we understand the nervous system we will understand all aspects of the mind.

    • A.

      Dualism

    • B.

      Monism

    • C.

      Vitalism

    • D.

      Determinism

    Correct Answer
    B. Monism
    Explanation
    Monism is the belief that the mind and body are inseparable and that all mental phenomena can be explained by physical processes in the brain. This view suggests that the nervous system, which is responsible for transmitting signals and processing information, is the key to understanding all aspects of the mind. By studying the nervous system, we can gain insights into consciousness, perception, emotions, and other mental processes. Therefore, according to monism, understanding the nervous system is crucial for comprehending the mind in its entirety.

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  • 4. 

    According to the doctrine of specific nerve energies, if you apply an electrode to the optic nerve, you will...

    • A.

      Feel a shock

    • B.

      See a light

    • C.

      Feel a shock and see a light

    • D.

      Neither feel a shock nor see a light

    Correct Answer
    B. See a light
    Explanation
    According to the doctrine of specific nerve energies, each nerve in our body is specialized to transmit a specific type of sensation to the brain. In the case of the optic nerve, it is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eyes to the brain. Therefore, if an electrode is applied to the optic nerve, the most likely outcome would be to see a light, as the nerve is specifically dedicated to processing visual stimuli.

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  • 5. 

    __________ is famous for writing the first psychology textbook (Principles of Physiological Psychology).

    • A.

      Pierre Flourens

    • B.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • C.

      Paul Broca

    • D.

      Luigi Galvani

    Correct Answer
    B. Wilhelm Wundt
    Explanation
    Wilhelm Wundt is famous for writing the first psychology textbook, Principles of Physiological Psychology. Wundt is considered the father of experimental psychology and is known for establishing the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. His book, Principles of Physiological Psychology, published in 1874, laid the foundation for the scientific study of psychology and helped establish it as a separate discipline. Wundt's work had a significant impact on the development of psychology as a scientific field and his textbook remains a landmark in the history of psychology.

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  • 6. 

    _________ was a dualist and determinist who proposed the first physiological model of behavior, based on fluid flow and pressure.

    • A.

      Rene Descartes

    • B.

      Johannes Muller

    • C.

      Luigi Galvani

    • D.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    Correct Answer
    A. Rene Descartes
    Explanation
    Rene Descartes was a philosopher who believed in the existence of both the mind and the body as separate entities. He also proposed that all human behavior could be explained through physiological processes, specifically through the flow and pressure of fluids within the body. This idea laid the foundation for the physiological model of behavior, which suggests that behavior can be understood through the workings of the physical body.

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  • 7. 

    _________ is famous for showing that stimulating a frog's nerve resulted in contraction of the attached muscle, even when it was unattached to the rest of the body.

    • A.

      Charles Darwin

    • B.

      Paul Broca

    • C.

      Pierre Flourens

    • D.

      Luigi Galvani

    Correct Answer
    D. Luigi Galvani
    Explanation
    Luigi Galvani is famous for showing that stimulating a frog's nerve resulted in contraction of the attached muscle, even when it was unattached to the rest of the body. This phenomenon, known as Galvanism, demonstrated the existence of electrical impulses in the nervous system and laid the foundation for the study of bioelectricity. Galvani's experiments were groundbreaking in understanding the relationship between electricity and muscle contractions, paving the way for further research in neuroscience and physiology.

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  • 8. 

    _______ is famous for helping to develop experimental physiology and proposing the doctrine of specific nerve energies.

    • A.

      Rene Descartes

    • B.

      Gustav Fritsch

    • C.

      Johannes Muller

    • D.

      Charles Darwin

    Correct Answer
    C. Johannes Muller
    Explanation
    Johannes Muller is famous for helping to develop experimental physiology and proposing the doctrine of specific nerve energies. He made significant contributions to the field of physiology by conducting experiments on animals and studying the nervous system. Muller's doctrine of specific nerve energies proposed that the sensation we experience is not determined by the type of stimulus, but by the specific nerve fibers that are stimulated. This idea revolutionized the understanding of sensory perception and laid the foundation for further research in the field of neuroscience.

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  • 9. 

    _______ is famous for using the method of experimental ablation in animals to determine the functions of various parts of the brain.

    • A.

      Johannes Muller

    • B.

      Pierre Flourens

    • C.

      Hermann von Helmholtz

    • D.

      Eduard Hitzig

    Correct Answer
    B. Pierre Flourens
    Explanation
    Pierre Flourens is famous for using the method of experimental ablation in animals to determine the functions of various parts of the brain. This method involves removing or damaging specific areas of the brain in order to observe the resulting changes in behavior or function. Flourens conducted numerous experiments on birds and other animals, demonstrating the localization of functions in different brain regions. His work laid the foundation for our understanding of brain function and the concept of brain localization.

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  • 10. 

    _______ is famous for observing brain-injured patients to discover the anatomical concomitants to different aspects of behavior.

    • A.

      Paul Broca

    • B.

      Charles Darwin

    • C.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • D.

      Gustav Fritsch

    Correct Answer
    A. Paul Broca
    Explanation
    Paul Broca is famous for observing brain-injured patients to discover the anatomical concomitants to different aspects of behavior. He is known for his work on the localization of speech production in the brain, specifically the discovery of the area now known as Broca's area. Through his observations of patients with language impairments, Broca was able to link specific brain regions to language production. His work laid the foundation for the understanding of the relationship between brain function and behavior.

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  • 11. 

    _________ became famous by electrically stimulating the cerebral cortex of dogs and discovering the contralateral projections from the primary motor cortex.

    • A.

      Johannes Muller

    • B.

      Paul Broca

    • C.

      Rene Descartes

    • D.

      Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig

    Correct Answer
    D. Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig
    Explanation
    Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig became famous by electrically stimulating the cerebral cortex of dogs and discovering the contralateral projections from the primary motor cortex.

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  • 12. 

    _____ became famous by developing the theory of evolution, and in the process influenced early psychologists.

    • A.

      Charles Darwin

    • B.

      Pierre Flourens

    • C.

      Paul Broca

    • D.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    Correct Answer
    A. Charles Darwin
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin became famous by developing the theory of evolution, which revolutionized the scientific understanding of how species evolve over time. Darwin's theory had a profound impact not only on the field of biology but also on other disciplines, including psychology. His ideas challenged traditional beliefs about human nature and the origins of behavior, influencing early psychologists to consider evolutionary principles in their own work. Darwin's theory of evolution provided a framework for understanding the development and diversity of species, including humans, and laid the foundation for the field of evolutionary psychology.

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  • 13. 

    An example of ___________ is how you're listening to your iPod while doing this quiz.

    • A.

      Unilateral processing

    • B.

      Parallel processing

    • C.

      Multi-layer processing

    • D.

      Serial processing

    Correct Answer
    B. Parallel processing
    Explanation
    Parallel processing refers to the ability of the brain to simultaneously process multiple tasks or stimuli. In the given example, listening to an iPod while doing the quiz, the brain is able to divide its attention and process both activities at the same time. This suggests that the brain is capable of parallel processing, where it can allocate resources to different tasks concurrently.

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  • 14. 

    _________ refers to how you can only process a single set of information in consciousness at once.

    • A.

      Serial processing

    • B.

      Multi-layer processing

    • C.

      Parallel processing

    • D.

      Unilateral processing

    Correct Answer
    A. Serial processing
    Explanation
    Serial processing refers to the cognitive ability to only process one set of information at a time in consciousness. This means that the brain sequentially analyzes and interprets incoming data, focusing on one task or stimulus before moving on to the next. Unlike parallel processing, where multiple tasks can be processed simultaneously, serial processing limits our attention to one task at a time. This cognitive limitation is crucial in understanding how our brains prioritize and allocate resources to different tasks or stimuli.

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  • 15. 

    _______ is the belief that all our actions, thoughts, and feelings, are under the mercy of biochemical and physiological processes, and there is no free will.

    • A.

      Monism

    • B.

      Vitalism

    • C.

      Dualism

    • D.

      Determinism

    Correct Answer
    D. Determinism
    Explanation
    Determinism is the belief that all our actions, thoughts, and feelings are determined by biochemical and physiological processes, implying that there is no free will. This means that every event, including human behavior, is caused by previous events and conditions, and there is no room for personal choice or decision-making independent of these causes. Determinism suggests that our actions and choices are predetermined by factors beyond our control, such as genetics, environment, and past experiences.

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  • 16. 

    Split-brain surgery, a surgery involving cutting the corpus callosum, is done in extreme cases of _________.

    • A.

      Depression

    • B.

      Schizophrenia

    • C.

      Epilepsy

    • D.

      Palpatations

    Correct Answer
    C. Epilepsy
    Explanation
    Split-brain surgery is a procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. This surgery is typically performed in extreme cases of epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. By severing the corpus callosum, the spread of seizure activity between the two hemispheres is reduced, helping to control and manage the seizures. Split-brain surgery is not commonly performed for depression, schizophrenia, or palpitations.

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  • 17. 

    A patient who has undergone split-brain surgery may __________.

    • A.

      See objects in their left visual field but ignore them.

    • B.

      Be unable to describe what they see in their left visual field.

    • C.

      Claim to be unable to see anything but be able to point to it.

    • D.

      Lose sensation in the left half of their body.

    Correct Answer
    B. Be unable to describe what they see in their left visual field.
    Explanation
    After undergoing split-brain surgery, the patient's corpus callosum, which connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain, is severed. This results in a disconnection between the two hemispheres. As a result, the patient may be unable to verbally describe or communicate what they see in their left visual field. However, they may still be able to physically point to objects in their left visual field using their right hand, which is controlled by the left hemisphere of the brain. This phenomenon is known as "anomalous visual perception" and is a characteristic outcome of split-brain surgery.

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  • 18. 

    _________ refers to the ability of a patient to localize and touch an object in front of them even though they cannot see it.

    • A.

      Blindsight

    • B.

      Blindness

    • C.

      Unilateral neglect

    • D.

      ESP

    Correct Answer
    A. Blindsight
    Explanation
    Blindsight refers to the ability of a patient to localize and touch an object in front of them even though they cannot see it. This phenomenon occurs due to the intactness of certain visual pathways in the brain, allowing the patient to process visual information unconsciously. Although they are not consciously aware of the object, they can still accurately reach for it. Blindsight is often associated with damage to the primary visual cortex, where conscious visual perception takes place.

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  • 19. 

    A person with unilateral neglect may...

    • A.

      Only count the people on one side of the room when asked how many there are.

    • B.

      Be able to localize and touch objects even though they claim they cannot see it.

    • C.

      Parallel process in the way most people serial process.

    • D.

      Possess the ability of blindsight.

    Correct Answer
    A. Only count the people on one side of the room when asked how many there are.
    Explanation
    A person with unilateral neglect may only count the people on one side of the room when asked how many there are. Unilateral neglect is a condition where individuals have difficulty attending to and perceiving stimuli on one side of their body or environment. This can result in a lack of awareness or attention to one side of space, leading to behaviors such as only counting the people on one side of the room. This condition is often seen in individuals who have suffered damage to the right hemisphere of their brain.

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  • 20. 

    Forced choice experimentation demonstrates that...

    • A.

      Participants can be coerced into performing unethical actions if asked to by a professional looking interviewer.

    • B.

      Better than chance performance can occur on spatial/temporal interval tasks even when the participant verbally reports no percept.

    • C.

      The primary motor cortex is activated when a rubber hand is stroked at the same time that the participant's real hand, hidden from view, is stroked.

    • D.

      Psychic abilities are possible.

    Correct Answer
    B. Better than chance performance can occur on spatial/temporal interval tasks even when the participant verbally reports no percept.
    Explanation
    Forced choice experimentation demonstrates that better than chance performance can occur on spatial/temporal interval tasks even when the participant verbally reports no percept. This suggests that individuals may have unconscious perceptual abilities that are not accessible to conscious awareness or verbal expression. In other words, people may be able to accurately perceive and respond to stimuli without consciously realizing it or being able to verbally articulate their perceptions. This finding challenges the assumption that conscious awareness and verbal reports are always necessary for accurate perception and performance on cognitive tasks.

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  • 21. 

    If one views the nervous system as a Black Box to be analyzed via the patterns of input and output, the input would be ___________ and output would be ________.

    • A.

      Responses; stimuli

    • B.

      Stimuli; thoughts

    • C.

      Stimuli; responses

    • D.

      Feelings; thoughts

    Correct Answer
    C. Stimuli; responses
    Explanation
    In the context of viewing the nervous system as a black box, the input refers to the stimuli that are received by the nervous system, while the output refers to the responses generated by the nervous system in reaction to those stimuli. Therefore, the correct answer is "stimuli; responses".

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  • 22. 

    ___________ is the research goal of forming an overall conclusion based on many observations of similar phenomena.

    • A.

      Vitalism

    • B.

      Reduction

    • C.

      Determinism

    • D.

      Generalization

    Correct Answer
    D. Generalization
    Explanation
    Generalization is the research goal of forming an overall conclusion based on many observations of similar phenomena. This means that researchers aim to draw broad conclusions or general principles from a set of specific observations or data. By examining multiple instances of a phenomenon, researchers can identify patterns and trends that can be applied to a larger population or context. Generalization allows researchers to make predictions and inferences beyond the specific cases they have studied, increasing the applicability and relevance of their findings.

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  • 23. 

    ___________ is the research goal of explaining a phenomena in terms of the more elementary processes that underlie it.

    • A.

      Vitalism

    • B.

      Reduction

    • C.

      Determinism

    • D.

      Generalization

    Correct Answer
    B. Reduction
    Explanation
    Reduction is the research goal of explaining a phenomena in terms of the more elementary processes that underlie it. This means breaking down complex phenomena into simpler components to understand the underlying mechanisms and principles. By reducing complex phenomena to their fundamental elements, researchers can gain a deeper understanding of how they work and how they are interconnected. This approach allows for a more comprehensive and detailed explanation of the phenomena being studied.

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  • 24. 

    Which of these is not one of the four basic types of cells?

    • A.

      Connective-tissue cell

    • B.

      Muscle cell

    • C.

      Inhibitory cell

    • D.

      Nerve cell

    Correct Answer
    C. Inhibitory cell
    Explanation
    The question asks for the cell that is not one of the four basic types of cells. The four basic types of cells are connective-tissue cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, and epithelial cells. The correct answer, inhibitory cell, is not one of these four basic types.

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  • 25. 

    _______ means maintenance of a relatively constant internal stimuli.

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Interstitial

    • C.

      Covalence

    • D.

      Permeability

    Correct Answer
    A. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment within an organism. It involves the regulation of various physiological processes such as body temperature, blood pH, and glucose levels to ensure optimal functioning. Through mechanisms like feedback loops, homeostasis helps to keep the internal stimuli within a narrow range, allowing cells and organs to function properly. It is essential for the survival and overall well-being of an organism.

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  • 26. 

    _______ are negatively charged subatomic particles.

    • A.

      Protons

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Alphatrons

    • D.

      Electrons

    Correct Answer
    D. Electrons
    Explanation
    Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. They are found outside the nucleus of an atom and are responsible for the flow of electricity. Protons, on the other hand, are positively charged particles, while neutrons have no charge. Alphatrons is not a known subatomic particle.

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  • 27. 

    ____________ are largely responsible for determining the chemical properties of an atom.

    • A.

      Protons in nucleus

    • B.

      Electrons in outermost shell

    • C.

      Neutrons in nucleus

    • D.

      Number of photons

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrons in outermost shell
    Explanation
    Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are largely responsible for determining its chemical properties. The number and arrangement of electrons in the outermost shell determine how the atom will interact with other atoms and form chemical bonds. The outermost shell, also known as the valence shell, is involved in chemical reactions and determines the atom's ability to gain, lose, or share electrons. Therefore, the electrons in the outermost shell play a crucial role in determining the chemical properties of an atom.

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  • 28. 

    99.3% of the human body is composed of the following elements:

    • A.

      Hydrogen;Chlorine;Carbon;Sodium

    • B.

      Helium;Oxygen;Chlorine;Nitrogen

    • C.

      Hydrogen;Oxygen;Carbon;Nitrogen

    • D.

      Helium;Oxygen;Carbon;Sodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen;Oxygen;Carbon;Nitrogen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hydrogen;Oxygen;Carbon;Nitrogen. These four elements are the major components of the human body. Hydrogen is the most abundant element, making up about 63% of the body's atoms. Oxygen is the second most abundant element, comprising about 26% of the body's atoms. Carbon is the third most abundant element, making up about 9% of the body's atoms. Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element, comprising about 1% of the body's atoms. Together, these four elements make up approximately 99.3% of the human body.

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  • 29. 

    ___________ bonds involve sharing electrons between atoms.

    • A.

      Covalent

    • B.

      Van der Waals

    • C.

      Ionic

    • D.

      Metallic

    Correct Answer
    A. Covalent
    Explanation
    Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms. In this type of bond, two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons in order to achieve a stable electron configuration. This sharing of electrons allows both atoms to fill their outermost energy levels and become more stable. Covalent bonds are typically formed between nonmetal atoms and are characterized by their strong bond strength.

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  • 30. 

    ___________ bonds involve one atom donating electrons to another atom.

    • A.

      Covalent

    • B.

      Van der Waals

    • C.

      Ionic

    • D.

      Metallic

    Correct Answer
    C. Ionic
    Explanation
    Ionic bonds involve one atom donating electrons to another atom. In an ionic bond, one atom has a higher electronegativity and attracts the electrons more strongly, causing it to gain electrons and become negatively charged (anion), while the other atom loses electrons and becomes positively charged (cation). The resulting attraction between the oppositely charged ions forms the ionic bond. This type of bond typically occurs between a metal and a non-metal.

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  • 31. 

    _______ is an atom/radical that has gained or lost 1 or more electrons.

    • A.

      Hydrophilic

    • B.

      Solvent

    • C.

      Ion

    • D.

      Polar molecule

    Correct Answer
    C. Ion
    Explanation
    An ion is an atom or radical that has gained or lost one or more electrons. When an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes charged and forms an ion. This is because the number of protons (positive charge) no longer balances the number of electrons (negative charge). Therefore, an ion is the correct answer as it accurately describes an atom or radical that has gained or lost electrons.

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  • 32. 

    ________ are molecules that form ions when dissolved in water.

    • A.

      Hydrophilic

    • B.

      Electrolytes

    • C.

      Polar molecules

    • D.

      Solvent

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrolytes
    Explanation
    Electrolytes are molecules that form ions when dissolved in water. When electrolytes dissolve in water, they break apart into positively and negatively charged ions. These ions are then free to move and conduct electricity. Examples of electrolytes include sodium chloride (table salt), potassium chloride, and calcium chloride. Electrolytes are important for maintaining proper hydration and electrolyte balance in the body, as they help regulate nerve and muscle function, maintain fluid balance, and support other essential bodily processes.

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  • 33. 

    ________ are positively charged electrolytes and ________ are negatively charged electrolytes.

    • A.

      Anions; cations

    • B.

      Covalents; ionics

    • C.

      Cations; anions

    • D.

      Ionics; covalents

    Correct Answer
    C. Cations; anions
    Explanation
    Cations are positively charged electrolytes because they have lost one or more electrons, resulting in a net positive charge. Anions, on the other hand, are negatively charged electrolytes because they have gained one or more electrons, resulting in a net negative charge.

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  • 34. 

    _________ possess positive and negative electrical charges at two different locations.

    • A.

      Anions

    • B.

      Polar molecules

    • C.

      Hydrophobics

    • D.

      Hydrophilics

    Correct Answer
    B. Polar molecules
    Explanation
    Polar molecules possess positive and negative electrical charges at two different locations. This is because polar molecules have an uneven distribution of electron density, resulting in a partial positive charge on one end and a partial negative charge on the other end. This polarity allows polar molecules to interact with other polar molecules or ions through electrostatic forces. Anions, hydrophobics, and hydrophilics do not necessarily possess positive and negative charges at two different locations, making polar molecules the correct answer.

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  • 35. 

    ___________ unequally share electrons between two atoms.

    • A.

      Bipolar ionic bonds

    • B.

      Polar ionic bonds

    • C.

      Bipolar covalent bonds

    • D.

      Polar covalent bonds

    Correct Answer
    D. Polar covalent bonds
    Explanation
    Polar covalent bonds occur when two atoms share electrons unequally. In this type of bond, one atom has a higher electronegativity than the other, causing it to attract the shared electrons more strongly. This creates partial positive and partial negative charges on the atoms, resulting in a polar molecule.

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  • 36. 

    If NaCl underwent ____________ it would become NaOH and ClH.

    • A.

      Hydrolysis

    • B.

      Hydrophilic

    • C.

      Dehydration synthesis

    • D.

      Dehydration elimination

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrolysis
    Explanation
    Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which a compound reacts with water to form two or more new compounds. In this case, if NaCl undergoes hydrolysis, it would react with water to form NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and ClH (hydrochloric acid). This reaction occurs due to the breaking of the ionic bond between sodium and chloride ions in NaCl, with the water molecules facilitating the process.

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  • 37. 

    If NaOH and ClH underwent __________, they would become NaCl and H2O

    • A.

      Hydrolysis

    • B.

      Hydrophilic

    • C.

      Dehydration synthesis

    • D.

      Dehydration elimination

    Correct Answer
    C. Dehydration synthesis
    Explanation
    Dehydration synthesis is the correct answer because it is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, while releasing a water molecule as a byproduct. In the given question, NaOH and ClH would undergo dehydration synthesis to form NaCl (sodium chloride) and H2O (water). This reaction involves the removal of a hydroxyl group (-OH) from NaOH and a hydrogen atom from ClH to form water, while the remaining sodium and chlorine atoms combine to form sodium chloride.

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  • 38. 

    A solution is composed of a ___________ and a __________.

    • A.

      Solute; base

    • B.

      Solvent; base

    • C.

      Solute; solvent

    • D.

      Acid; base

    Correct Answer
    C. Solute; solvent
    Explanation
    A solution is composed of a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that is being dissolved, while the solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved. In a solution, the solute particles are dispersed and evenly distributed throughout the solvent, resulting in a homogeneous mixture. This is the fundamental concept of a solution in chemistry.

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  • 39. 

    Sugar is ___________, because it is attracted to and easily dissolved in water.

    • A.

      Hydrophilic

    • B.

      Hydrophobic

    • C.

      Covalent

    • D.

      Ionic

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrophilic
    Explanation
    Sugar is hydrophilic because it is attracted to and easily dissolved in water. This is because sugar molecules have polar hydroxyl groups that form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. These hydrogen bonds allow sugar to mix and dissolve in water, making it hydrophilic.

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  • 40. 

    Olive oil is ___________, because it is not attracted to and insoluble in water.

    • A.

      Hydrophilic

    • B.

      Hydrophobic

    • C.

      Covalent

    • D.

      Ionic

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrophobic
    Explanation
    Olive oil is hydrophobic because it is not attracted to and insoluble in water. Hydrophobic substances repel water molecules due to their nonpolar nature, which prevents them from forming hydrogen bonds with water. Olive oil, being a nonpolar substance, does not mix or dissolve in water and instead forms separate droplets or layers.

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  • 41. 

    Organic chemistry deals with compounds of _________, and biochemistry is the organic chemistry of _________.

    • A.

      Hydrogen; plants

    • B.

      Carbon; plants

    • C.

      Hydrogen; life

    • D.

      Carbon; life.

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbon; life.
    Explanation
    Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of compounds containing carbon. Biochemistry, on the other hand, is the study of chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. Since both organic chemistry and biochemistry are concerned with the study of life and its chemical processes, the correct answer is "carbon; life."

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  • 42. 

    _______ give rise to hydrogen ions in a solution, whereas _______ accept a hydrogen ion in a solution.

    • A.

      Covalents; ionics

    • B.

      Acids; bases

    • C.

      Bases; acids

    • D.

      Ionics; covalents

    Correct Answer
    B. Acids; bases
    Explanation
    Acids give rise to hydrogen ions in a solution, whereas bases accept a hydrogen ion in a solution. Acids are substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, while bases are substances that accept hydrogen ions or donate hydroxide ions. This is based on the Arrhenius definition of acids and bases.

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  • 43. 

    ___________ are also known as saccharides.

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are also known as saccharides because they are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They serve as a major source of energy for the body and are commonly found in foods such as grains, fruits, and vegetables. Carbohydrates can be further classified into simple sugars (monosaccharides) and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides). The term "saccharides" is often used to refer to carbohydrates in scientific literature and biochemistry.

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  • 44. 

    The two most basic types of monosaccharides are ______ and _______.

    • A.

      Lactose; honey

    • B.

      Glucose; fructose

    • C.

      Glucose; lactose

    • D.

      Lactose; fructose

    Correct Answer
    B. Glucose; fructose
    Explanation
    Glucose and fructose are the two most basic types of monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be further broken down into smaller sugars. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body and is found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. Fructose is a naturally occurring sugar found in fruits, honey, and some vegetables. Lactose, on the other hand, is a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, not glucose and fructose. Therefore, the correct answer is glucose; fructose.

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  • 45. 

    The two most basic types of disaccharides are ______ and _______.

    • A.

      Glycogen; fructose

    • B.

      Sucrose; lactose

    • C.

      Fructose; glucose

    • D.

      Glycogen; lactose

    Correct Answer
    B. Sucrose; lactose
    Explanation
    Sucrose and lactose are the two most basic types of disaccharides. Sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose, while lactose is composed of glucose and galactose. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides join together through a glycosidic bond. Glycogen is a polysaccharide made up of many glucose molecules and is not a disaccharide. Fructose and glucose are monosaccharides, not disaccharides. Therefore, the correct answer is sucrose and lactose.

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  • 46. 

    _________ are formed by the liver and muscle cells when there is an excess of glucose in the blood (storing the glucose molecules for later use).

    • A.

      Monosaccharides

    • B.

      Disaccharides

    • C.

      Polysaccharides

    • D.

      Invert sugars

    Correct Answer
    C. Polysaccharides
    Explanation
    Polysaccharides are formed by the liver and muscle cells when there is an excess of glucose in the blood. These molecules are used to store the excess glucose for later use. Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharide units bonded together. Examples of polysaccharides include glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles, and starch, which is stored in plants.

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  • 47. 

    Disaccharides and polysaccharides are formed by joining monosaccharides through ___________

    • A.

      Metal bonds

    • B.

      Dehydration synthesis

    • C.

      Hydrolysis

    • D.

      Nonmetal bonds

    Correct Answer
    B. Dehydration synthesis
    Explanation
    Disaccharides and polysaccharides are formed by joining monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis. Dehydration synthesis is a chemical reaction in which water molecules are removed to form a new bond between monosaccharides, resulting in the formation of larger carbohydrates. This process is also known as condensation reaction. In contrast, hydrolysis is the opposite process where water molecules are added to break down larger carbohydrates into smaller units. Metal and nonmetal bonds are not involved in the formation of disaccharides and polysaccharides.

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  • 48. 

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) are also known as __________.

    • A.

      Alcohol

    • B.

      Table sugar

    • C.

      Table salt

    • D.

      Fat

    Correct Answer
    D. Fat
    Explanation
    Triacylglycerols, also known as triglycerides, are a type of fat. They are composed of three fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule. Triacylglycerols are the main storage form of fat in the body and are an important source of energy. They are found in foods such as oils, butter, and animal fats.

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  • 49. 

    ___________ serve as the building block of several classes of lipids. It's a carbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end.

    • A.

      Fatty acids

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Monosaccharides

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    A. Fatty acids
    Explanation
    Fatty acids serve as the building block of several classes of lipids. They are carbon chains with a carboxyl group at one end. Lipids are organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage and insulation. Fatty acids are also involved in various physiological processes such as inflammation and hormone regulation. Therefore, fatty acids are the correct answer as they fit the description provided in the question.

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  • 50. 

    ________ fatty acids are composed of more than one C double bond; ___________ fatty acids are composed of one or more double bonds of C; and ________ fatty acids are linked by single covalent bonds.

    • A.

      Saturated; unsaturated; polyunsaturated

    • B.

      Unsaturated; polyunsaturated; saturated

    • C.

      Polyunsaturated; unsaturated; saturated

    • D.

      I have no clue what you're talking about

    Correct Answer
    C. Polyunsaturated; unsaturated; saturated
    Explanation
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are composed of more than one C double bond, making them the first blank. Unsaturated fatty acids are composed of one or more double bonds of C, making them the second blank. Saturated fatty acids, on the other hand, are linked by single covalent bonds, making them the third blank.

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