Chapter 2 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz

57 Questions

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Physiological Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    _______ neurons gather information from the environment so that _________ neurons can relay the information through the body to the brain, so that a message can come down and tell the ______ neurons to contract muscles.
    • A. 

      Motor; sensory; inter

    • B. 

      Motor; inter; sensory

    • C. 

      Sensory; inter; motor

    • D. 

      Inter; sensory; motor

  • 2. 
    _________ is responsible for cutting and splicing messenger RNA to produce a protein.
    • A. 

      Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

    • B. 

      Phospholipid

    • C. 

      Non-coding ribonucleic acid (ncRNA)

    • D. 

      Carboxlyl

  • 3. 
    The cytoplasm includes _______ and ________.
    • A. 

      Cell organelles; cytosol

    • B. 

      Plasma membrane; cytosol

    • C. 

      Cell organelles; nucleus

    • D. 

      Plasma membrane; nucleus

  • 4. 
    ________ are subcellular structures that perform various functions in a cell. 
    • A. 

      Proteins

    • B. 

      Cell organelles

    • C. 

      Glial cells

    • D. 

      Cholesterol

  • 5. 
    The cell membrane is ___________, meaning it serves as a barrier to passage of some molecules, and it is composed of a double layer of ________.
    • A. 

      Hydrophilic; lipid molecules

    • B. 

      Hydrophilic; nucleic acids

    • C. 

      Selectively permeable; nucleic acids

    • D. 

      Selectively permeable; lipid molecules

  • 6. 
    ____________ are permanently attached to the cell membrane; whereas ________ are only temporarily attached.
    • A. 

      Integral membrane proteins; peripheral membrane proteins

    • B. 

      Peripheral membrane proteins; integral membrane proteins

    • C. 

      Peripheral membrane proteins; secondary membrane proteins

    • D. 

      Primary membrane proteins; secondary membrane proteins

  • 7. 
    Nuclear envelope is to __________ as nucleus is to cell.
    • A. 

      Mitochondria

    • B. 

      Cell membrane

    • C. 

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D. 

      Ribosomes

  • 8. 
    Nuclear pores aid in ______________.
    • A. 

      Elimination of waste molecules

    • B. 

      Transport of molecules

    • C. 

      Energy production within the nucleus

    • D. 

      Carbon production in the nucleus

  • 9. 
    ______________ is/are DNA/protein combinations that are condensed for size and are involved in mitosis/meiosis. 
    • A. 

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B. 

      Nuclear pores

    • C. 

      Nucleolus chromatin

    • D. 

      Nuclear envelope

  • 10. 
    The endoplasmic reticulum is the __________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Highway

    • B. 

      Power plant

    • C. 

      Lipid factory

    • D. 

      Packaging center

  • 11. 
    Anterograde axoplasmic transport refers to substances being pushed toward the ________.
    • A. 

      Nucleus

    • B. 

      Dendrites

    • C. 

      Soma

    • D. 

      Terminal buttons

  • 12. 
    Retrograde axoplasmic transport refers to substances being pushed toward the _________.
    • A. 

      Nucleus

    • B. 

      Dendrites

    • C. 

      Soma

    • D. 

      Terminal buttons

  • 13. 
    The granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum produces and packages __________.
    • A. 

      Carbohdyrates

    • B. 

      Lipids

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Nucleic acids

  • 14. 
    The ribosomes, located on the granular endoplasmic reticulum, serve as the ________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Highways

    • B. 

      Protein factories

    • C. 

      Power plants

    • D. 

      Lipid factories

  • 15. 
    Agranular (smooth) endoplasmic reticulum is the __________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Highway

    • B. 

      Protein factory

    • C. 

      Power plant

    • D. 

      Lipid factory

  • 16. 
    The golgi apparatus is the ___________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Highway

    • B. 

      Protein factory

    • C. 

      Power plant

    • D. 

      Packaging center

  • 17. 
    Secretory vesicles in the golgi apparatus contain __________ sent by the granular endoplasmic reticulum, and intend to __________.
    • A. 

      Proteins; secrete proteins to outside of cell

    • B. 

      Lipids; secrete lipids to outside of cell

    • C. 

      Proteins; secrete proteins throughout inside of cell

    • D. 

      Lipids; secrete lipids throughout inside of cell

  • 18. 
    The mitochondria serves as the ___________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Highway

    • B. 

      Protein factory

    • C. 

      Power plant

    • D. 

      Packaging center

  • 19. 
    The mitochondria produces ATP, which is used as __________.
    • A. 

      Messengers between cell membrane and nucleus

    • B. 

      Vesicles to house protein that comes from granular endoplasmic reticulum

    • C. 

      Phagocytes to eat dead cell structures and waste

    • D. 

      Energy for functioning in the cell

  • 20. 
    Lysosomes are the ___________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Respiratory system

    • B. 

      Digestive system

    • C. 

      Endocrine system

    • D. 

      Skeletal system

    • E. 

      Nervous system

  • 21. 
    Filaments form the ____________ of the cell world.
    • A. 

      Digestive system

    • B. 

      Endocrine system

    • C. 

      Skeletal system

    • D. 

      Nervous system

  • 22. 
    __________ is to __________ as input is to output.
    • A. 

      Axons; dendrites

    • B. 

      Soma; axons

    • C. 

      Dendrites; axons

    • D. 

      Axons; soma

  • 23. 
    The axon hillock is the place where the ________ and ________ join.
    • A. 

      Terminal gap; axon

    • B. 

      Soma; axon

    • C. 

      Axon; dendrite

    • D. 

      Axon; postsynaptic cell

  • 24. 
    _________ are responsible for secreting neurotransmitters.
    • A. 

      Terminal buttons

    • B. 

      Axons

    • C. 

      Dendrites

    • D. 

      Somas

  • 25. 
    __________ hold the neurotransmitters in little bubbles, ready to burst at the terminal buttons when an action potential signals it.
    • A. 

      Astrocytes

    • B. 

      Neuroglia

    • C. 

      Terminal buttons

    • D. 

      Synaptic vesicles

  • 26. 
    The most common type of axon/dendrite configuration is a ___________ neuron, with _____ axon(s) and _______ dendrite(s).
    • A. 

      Bipolar; one; many

    • B. 

      Bipolar; one; one

    • C. 

      Multipolar; many; one

    • D. 

      Multipolar; one; many

  • 27. 
    Astrocytes, oligodendrocyte, and Schwann cells are all examples of ___________
    • A. 

      Unipolar neurons

    • B. 

      Neuroglia

    • C. 

      Multipolar neurons

    • D. 

      Cell organelles

  • 28. 
    The purpose of Astrocytes is to ___________.
    • A. 

      Provide nutrition and physical support to surrounding cells

    • B. 

      Myelinate segments of several neurons

    • C. 

      Serve as phagocytes eating dead and dying neurons

    • D. 

      Myelinate a single segment of a neuron

  • 29. 
    The purpose of microglia is to _________.
    • A. 

      Provide nutrition and physical support to surrounding cells

    • B. 

      Myelinate segments of several neurons

    • C. 

      Serve as phagocytes eating dead and dying neurons

    • D. 

      Myelinate a single segment of a neuron

  • 30. 
    The purpose of Oligondenrocytes is to __________.
    • A. 

      Provide nutrition and physical support to surrounding cells

    • B. 

      Myelinate segments of several neurons

    • C. 

      Serve as phagocytes eating dead and dying neurons

    • D. 

      Myelinate a single segment of a neuron

  • 31. 
    • A. 

      Provide nutrition and physical support to surrounding cells

    • B. 

      Myelinate segments of several neurons

    • C. 

      Serve as phagocytes eating dead and dying neurons

    • D. 

      Myelinate a single segment of a neuron

  • 32. 
    ________ potential can be summed up for a cumulative effect.
    • A. 

      Action

    • B. 

      Temporary

    • C. 

      Gradient

    • D. 

      Semi

  • 33. 
    ___________ explains why, after several days, sugar left at the bottom of a glass of water distributes itself even throughout the glass.
    • A. 

      Van der waals force

    • B. 

      Diffusion

    • C. 

      Electrostatic pressure

    • D. 

      Conservation of mass

  • 34. 
    ________ are negative, like the inside of the cell, so they want to get out but they can't because the cell membrane is not permeable to it.
    • A. 

      Anions

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Chlorine

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 35. 
    __________ is positive, unlike the inside of the cell, so electrostatic pressure keeps it concentrated inside the cell.
    • A. 

      Anions

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Chlorine

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 36. 
    ___________ is negative, unlike the outside of the cell, so electrostatic pressure keeps it concentrated outside the cell.
    • A. 

      Anions

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Chlorine

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 37. 
    _________ is positive, like the outside of the cell, so it wants to move inside the cell but the cell membrane is only somewhat permeable to it and a special pump keeps pushing it back out of the cell.
    • A. 

      Anions

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Chlorine

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 38. 
    _________ requires a lot of energy to keep working in a cell, up to 40% of the ATP that the cell produces.
    • A. 

      Mitochondria

    • B. 

      Sodium-Potassium pump

    • C. 

      Nucleus

    • D. 

      Granular Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • 39. 
    When the membrane potential is resting at -70mV, the cell is considered ___________.
    • A. 

      Polarized

    • B. 

      Hyperpolarized

    • C. 

      Depolarized

    • D. 

      Repolarizing

  • 40. 
    • A. 

      At -60mV, the sodium ion channels open up, flooding sodium into the cell membrane and polarizing the cell

    • B. 

      At 0mV, the potassium ion channels open up, the potassium floods out of the cell, the cell stops depolarizing starts repolarizing

    • C. 

      At -70mV, the cell is polarized and neither the sodium nor potassium ion channels are open.

    • D. 

      At -80mV, the cell is considered hyperpolarized and the ion channel corrects the polarization.

  • 41. 
    If one were to apply an electrode to a cell but not provide enough electricity to reach the threshold of excitation, what would occur?
    • A. 

      Potassium ion channel would open but not sodium ion channel

    • B. 

      Sodium ion channel would open but not potassium ion channel

    • C. 

      Both ion channels would open, first the sodium and then the potassium

    • D. 

      Nothing would occur

  • 42. 
    Why is it important for there to be nodes of Ranvier?
    • A. 

      The action potential would go both directions in the axon and cause a never-ending loop of action potentials

    • B. 

      The axon requires nutrition that would be impossible to attain if there were no gaps in the myelinated sheath

    • C. 

      Action potential would lose strength along the axon and not be able to signal the terminal buttons to activate

    • D. 

      There is no specific reason for nodes of Ranvier; the support cells just can't fit close enough to form no gaps

  • 43. 
    ___________ is/are necessary because otherwise the action potential at the next node of Ranvier would activate an action potential at the current node of Ranvier.
    • A. 

      Malleable refractory period

    • B. 

      Myelinated sheaths

    • C. 

      Absolute refractory period

    • D. 

      Glial cells

  • 44. 
    A more intense stimuli may elicit a __________ graded potential and ultimately ________ action potential.
    • A. 

      More intense; more intense

    • B. 

      More intense; same intensity

    • C. 

      Same intensity; same intensity

    • D. 

      Same intensity; more intense

  • 45. 
    Excitatory graded potentials ________________
    • A. 

      Are depolarizing and bring the cell membrane closer to 0mV

    • B. 

      Are hyperpolarizing and bring the cell membrane closer to 0mV

    • C. 

      Are depolarizing and bring the cell membrane further from 0mV

    • D. 

      Are hyperpolarizing and bring the cell membrane further from 0mV

  • 46. 
    Rapid depolarization of the cell membrane during an action potential is a result of _________.
    • A. 

      Potassium ion channel gates openning

    • B. 

      Potassium ion channel gates closing

    • C. 

      Sodium ion channel gates openning

    • D. 

      Sodium ion channel gates closing

  • 47. 
    ______________ contains mitochondria, synaptic vesicles, and cisternae.
    • A. 

      Inter-cellular fluid

    • B. 

      Post-synaptic membrane

    • C. 

      Synaptic cleft

    • D. 

      Pre-synaptic membrane

  • 48. 
    Postsynaptic membrane cannot be a __________.
    • A. 

      Dendrite

    • B. 

      Axon

    • C. 

      Soma

    • D. 

      Nucleus

  • 49. 
    Which of the following is not an example of postsynaptic potential termination?
    • A. 

      Reuptake

    • B. 

      Enzymatic deactivation

    • C. 

      Release of AchE

    • D. 

      Glial cell clean up

  • 50. 
    ____________ is the only neurotransmitter that utilizes enzymatic deactivation.
    • A. 

      Acetylcholine

    • B. 

      GABA

    • C. 

      Dopamine

    • D. 

      Seteronin

  • 51. 
    One reason for having differential permeability in the blood-brain barrier is ______________.
    • A. 

      So that glial cells from the body can pass through the blood-brain barrier and attempt to repair brain damage in the case of trauma

    • B. 

      So that neurotransmitter information coming from the sensory organs already located in the skull are able to transmit information directly

    • C. 

      So that the area postrema, responsible for vomiting behavior, is able to detect toxic substances

    • D. 

      So that dye used in brain scans is able to permeate the brain and facilitate brain scans

  • 52. 
    ____________ are receptors that, upon receiving the proper neurotransmitter, activate and open an ion channel.
    • A. 

      Ionotropic receptor

    • B. 

      Metabotropic receptor

    • C. 

      Neurotropic receptor

    • D. 

      Autoreceptor

  • 53. 
    __________ are receptors within the cell that respond to neurotransmitters that the cell itself released. 
    • A. 

      Ionotropic receptor

    • B. 

      Metabotropic receptor

    • C. 

      Neurotropic receptor

    • D. 

      Autoreceptor

  • 54. 
    _______ are receptors that, upon being activated by the proper neurotransmitter, activate an enzyme and begin a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the membrane.
    • A. 

      Ionotropic receptor

    • B. 

      Metabotropic receptor

    • C. 

      Neurotropic receptor

    • D. 

      Autoreceptor

  • 55. 
    Neuromodulators are different from neurotransmitters because they ____________.
    • A. 

      Fit in any postsynaptic receptor instead of finding a specific one

    • B. 

      Travel further and disperse more than neurotransmitters

    • C. 

      Are only synthesized by humans and animals do not create them

    • D. 

      Are made of carbohydrates and are able to provide power to the cell it attaches itself to

  • 56. 
    Hormones travel through the body through __________________.
    • A. 

      Intracellular fluid

    • B. 

      Intercellular fluid

    • C. 

      Bloodstream

    • D. 

      Filaments forming a cytoskeleton

  • 57. 
    The benefit of steroid hormones being lipids is that ______________.
    • A. 

      They can pass through the cell membrane and go directly to the nucelus

    • B. 

      It stops them from being destroyed through reuptake nor enzymatic deactivation

    • C. 

      They can pass through an axon much faster than neurotransmitters

    • D. 

      They can be manufactured by any cell in the body