Chapter 3 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz

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Physiological Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Structures of the Nervous System


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The __________ is in the anterior/rostral part of the human body.

    • A.

      Top of your head

    • B.

      Face

    • C.

      Left food

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    B. Face
    Explanation
    The face is located in the anterior/rostral part of the human body. It is the front part of the head, including the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, and chin. The face is the main area where facial features and expressions are located, and it plays a crucial role in communication and sensory perception.

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  • 2. 

    The __________ is in the dorsal part of the human body.

    • A.

      Top of your head

    • B.

      Face

    • C.

      Left foot

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. Top of your head
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "top of your head" because the term "dorsal" refers to the back side of the body. In humans, the top of the head is located on the back side, while the face, left foot, and stomach are located on the ventral or front side of the body.

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  • 3. 

    The __________ is in the ventral part of the human body.

    • A.

      Top of your head

    • B.

      Face

    • C.

      Left foot

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    D. Stomach
    Explanation
    The stomach is located in the ventral part of the human body. The ventral part refers to the front or anterior side of the body. The stomach is a muscular organ located in the upper abdomen, below the diaphragm and between the esophagus and the small intestine. It plays a crucial role in the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients.

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  • 4. 

    The __________ is in the caudal/posterior part of the human body.

    • A.

      Top of your head

    • B.

      Face

    • C.

      Left foot

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    C. Left foot
    Explanation
    The left foot is located in the caudal/posterior part of the human body. The term "caudal" refers to the direction towards the tail or lower part of the body, while "posterior" refers to the back or rear. The left foot is situated towards the lower part and back of the body, making it the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Your left foot and left hand are ___________ to one another.

    • A.

      Contralateral

    • B.

      Ventral

    • C.

      Dorsal

    • D.

      Ipsilateral

    Correct Answer
    D. Ipsilateral
    Explanation
    The term "ipsilateral" refers to the same side of the body. In this case, it means that the left foot and left hand are on the same side of the body.

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  • 6. 

    ________ sectioning means you start slicing at the rostral/anterior part of the brain and end at the dorsal part.

    • A.

      Coronal (transverse)

    • B.

      Horizontal

    • C.

      Sagittal

    • D.

      Inverse

    Correct Answer
    A. Coronal (transverse)
    Explanation
    Coronal (transverse) sectioning involves slicing the brain from the rostral/anterior part to the dorsal part. This means that the brain is cut horizontally, dividing it into top and bottom sections. This type of sectioning allows for a comprehensive view of the brain's structures and is commonly used in neuroscience research to study the organization and function of different brain regions.

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  • 7. 

    ________ sectioning means you start slicing at the dorsal part of the brain and end at the ventral part.

    • A.

      Coronal (transverse)

    • B.

      Horizontal

    • C.

      Sagittal

    • D.

      Inverse

    Correct Answer
    B. Horizontal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Horizontal. Horizontal sectioning involves slicing the brain from the top (dorsal) to the bottom (ventral) parts. This type of sectioning allows for a view of the brain structures from a superior-inferior perspective. It is useful for studying the organization and connections of different brain regions in relation to each other.

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  • 8. 

    ________ sectioning means you start slicing at one lateral end of the brain and end at the other lateral end.

    • A.

      Coronal (transverse)

    • B.

      Horizontal

    • C.

      Sagittal

    • D.

      Inverse

    Correct Answer
    C. Sagittal
    Explanation
    Sagittal sectioning involves slicing the brain from one lateral end to the other lateral end. This means that the slices are made in a vertical plane, dividing the brain into left and right halves. It allows for a detailed examination of the structures within the brain and is commonly used in neuroanatomy studies. Coronal sectioning involves slicing the brain from front to back, while horizontal sectioning involves slicing the brain from top to bottom. Inverse sectioning is not a recognized term in brain sectioning techniques.

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  • 9. 

    Afferent nerves are to efferent nerves as ________________

    • A.

      Specific is to general

    • B.

      Sending is to receiving

    • C.

      General is to specific

    • D.

      Receiving is to sending

    Correct Answer
    D. Receiving is to sending
    Explanation
    Afferent nerves carry sensory information from the body to the central nervous system, while efferent nerves transmit motor signals from the central nervous system to the muscles and organs. Similarly, receiving is the action of taking in information, just like afferent nerves, while sending is the action of transmitting information, similar to efferent nerves. Therefore, the analogy "receiving is to sending" accurately represents the relationship between afferent and efferent nerves.

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  • 10. 

    The definition of nuclei is ___________.

    • A.

      The central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA

    • B.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in PNS

    • C.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in CNS

    • D.

      Large bundles of axons that connect one location in CNS to another in PNS

    Correct Answer
    C. A large group of cells and terminal endings in CNS
  • 11. 

    The definition of ganglia is ___________.

    • A.

      The central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA

    • B.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in PNS

    • C.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in CNS

    • D.

      Large bundles of axons that connect one location in CNS to another in PNS

    Correct Answer
    B. A large group of cells and terminal endings in PNS
    Explanation
    Ganglia refers to a large group of cells and terminal endings in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). It is not the central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA, nor is it large bundles of axons that connect one location in the Central Nervous System (CNS) to another in the PNS.

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  • 12. 

    The definition of nerves is ______________.

    • A.

      The central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA

    • B.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in PNS

    • C.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in CNS

    • D.

      Large bundles of axons that connect one location in CNS to another in PNS

    Correct Answer
    D. Large bundles of axons that connect one location in CNS to another in PNS
    Explanation
    Nerves are large bundles of axons that connect one location in the central nervous system (CNS) to another location in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). They transmit signals between the brain and spinal cord (CNS) and the rest of the body (PNS), allowing for communication and coordination of bodily functions.

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  • 13. 

    The definition of nucleus is __________.

    • A.

      The central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA

    • B.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in PNS

    • C.

      A large group of cells and terminal endings in CNS

    • D.

      Large bundles of axons that connect one location in CNS to another in PNS

    Correct Answer
    A. The central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the central cell organelle that stores DNA/RNA." The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains the cell's genetic material, which is stored in the form of DNA or RNA. The nucleus plays a crucial role in controlling the cell's activities and is responsible for the transmission of genetic information to the next generation of cells.

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  • 14. 

    White matter in the brain is that color because _____________.

    • A.

      Of the cell bodies (soma)

    • B.

      Of the myelinated axons.

    • C.

      Of the dendrites

    • D.

      Of the unmyelinated axons.

    Correct Answer
    B. Of the myelinated axons.
    Explanation
    White matter in the brain is that color because of the myelinated axons. Myelin is a fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the axons, which are the long projections of nerve cells. This myelin sheath gives the axons a white appearance. The myelin helps to increase the speed and efficiency of nerve signal transmission, allowing for faster communication between different areas of the brain. Therefore, the presence of myelinated axons is responsible for the white color of the brain's white matter.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is not a meninges?

    • A.

      Pia mater

    • B.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • C.

      Dura mater

    • D.

      Arachnoid membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebrospinal fluid
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid is not a meninges. The meninges are three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, namely the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater. Cerebrospinal fluid, on the other hand, is a clear, colorless fluid that circulates within the meninges, providing cushioning and nourishment to the brain and spinal cord. It is not a membrane itself, but rather a fluid contained within the meninges.

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  • 16. 

    The subarachnoid space is filled with _____________.

    • A.

      Air

    • B.

      Blood

    • C.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • D.

      Myelinated axons

    Correct Answer
    C. Cerebrospinal fluid
    Explanation
    The subarachnoid space is a space located between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, two of the three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. This space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear and colorless fluid that acts as a cushion to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. CSF also helps to remove waste products from the brain and provides nutrients and hormones to the nervous system. Therefore, the correct answer is cerebrospinal fluid.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not a benefit of having the brain immersed in CSF?

    • A.

      Lower net weight

    • B.

      Diminished pressure on the base of the brain

    • C.

      Helps establish the outer layers of the skull during brain development

    • D.

      Reduces shock to CNS from sudden movement

    Correct Answer
    C. Helps establish the outer layers of the skull during brain development
    Explanation
    Having the brain immersed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) does not help establish the outer layers of the skull during brain development. CSF primarily serves as a protective cushion for the brain, reducing shock to the central nervous system from sudden movements. It also helps in maintaining a lower net weight of the brain and diminishes pressure on the base of the brain. However, the development of the outer layers of the skull is not directly influenced by the presence of CSF.

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  • 18. 

    By the 21st day, the ectoderm tissue has ____________________.

    • A.

      Formed the four ventricles and cerebral aqueduct

    • B.

      Spread radial glia the outer most parts of the skull

    • C.

      Formed into a hollow tube known as the neural tube

    • D.

      Begun forming the 6 layers of cerebral cortex

    Correct Answer
    C. Formed into a hollow tube known as the neural tube
    Explanation
    By the 21st day, the ectoderm tissue has formed into a hollow tube known as the neural tube.

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  • 19. 

    __________ is where cerebrospinal fluid is created.

    • A.

      Cerebral aqueduct

    • B.

      Third ventricle

    • C.

      Lateral ventricle

    • D.

      Choroid plexus

    Correct Answer
    D. Choroid plexus
    Explanation
    The choroid plexus is where cerebrospinal fluid is created. It is a network of blood vessels located in the ventricles of the brain. The choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid by filtering blood plasma and secreting it into the ventricles. This fluid then circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing cushioning and nourishment to the nervous system.

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  • 20. 

    During symmetrical division, a proginetor cell becomes _____________.

    • A.

      Two proginetor cells

    • B.

      A proginetor cell and a brain cell

    • C.

      A proginetor cell and a steroid cell

    • D.

      Two brain cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Two proginetor cells
    Explanation
    During symmetrical division, a progenitor cell undergoes cell division and gives rise to two identical progenitor cells. This process ensures the expansion and maintenance of the progenitor cell population.

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  • 21. 

    Radial glia are necessary because ________________.

    • A.

      They make sure the dura mater meninge doesn't shrink or collapse on itself

    • B.

      Provide nourishment to the pia mater

    • C.

      Guide neurons toward the layer of C-R cells

    • D.

      They do not serve a purpose anymore, they do for simpler species but are just an evolutionary byproduct in humans

    Correct Answer
    C. Guide neurons toward the layer of C-R cells
    Explanation
    Radial glia are necessary because they guide neurons toward the layer of C-R cells.

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  • 22. 

    The last layer of neurons to form the cerebral cortex is _________________.

    • A.

      Closest to the center of the brain

    • B.

      Closest to the layer of C-R cells

    • C.

      Near the front of the brain (because it's the most recent evolutionary adaptation)

    • D.

      Near the hindbrain (because it's the oldest evolutionary adaptation)

    Correct Answer
    B. Closest to the layer of C-R cells
    Explanation
    The last layer of neurons to form the cerebral cortex is closest to the layer of C-R cells. This is because the development of the cerebral cortex follows an inside-out pattern, with the deeper layers forming first and the outer layers forming last. The layer of C-R cells is located deep within the cortex, so the last layer of neurons to form would be closest to this layer.

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  • 23. 

    When the proginetor cells receive a signal to begin apoptosis this means they ___________.

    • A.

      Begin symmetrical division

    • B.

      Begin asymmetrical division

    • C.

      Die

    • D.

      Turn into phagocytes

    Correct Answer
    C. Die
    Explanation
    When the progenitor cells receive a signal to begin apoptosis, it means that they undergo programmed cell death. This process is a crucial mechanism in development and tissue homeostasis, eliminating unnecessary or damaged cells. Apoptosis involves a series of cellular events, such as DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing, and cell shrinkage, ultimately leading to the death and removal of the cells.

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  • 24. 

    The axons of approximately 50 percent of neurons in the ventricular zone die, how come?

    • A.

      The brain's complexity continues to develop but the skull isn't growing at the same rate (hence the curved cerebral cortex), so there isn't room for all those neurons.

    • B.

      The axons have to travel relatively far within the brain and many die of lack of nutrition before they make their connections

    • C.

      It makes more sense to make too many neurons and let them battle out for the highest efficiency than to make just the right amount of each neuron.

    • D.

      If the axon of a neuron attaches to the incorrect part of the brain then the postsynaptic cell tells it to die

    Correct Answer
    C. It makes more sense to make too many neurons and let them battle out for the highest efficiency than to make just the right amount of each neuron.
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that it is more efficient to produce an excess of neurons and allow them to compete for survival and functionality. This process, known as neuronal pruning, ensures that only the strongest and most efficient neurons survive and establish connections. By producing more neurons than necessary, the brain can adapt and optimize its neural circuitry based on experience and environmental factors. This mechanism allows for greater flexibility and adaptability in the development of the brain.

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  • 25. 

    ____________ forms the lateral and third ventricle.

    • A.

      Forebrain

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Hindbrain

    • D.

      Spinal column

    Correct Answer
    A. Forebrain
    Explanation
    The forebrain forms the lateral and third ventricle. This is because the forebrain, which includes the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, and hypothalamus, is responsible for the development of the ventricles in the brain. The lateral ventricles are located in the cerebral hemispheres, while the third ventricle is located in the diencephalon, which includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. Therefore, the forebrain is directly involved in the formation of these ventricles.

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  • 26. 

    __________ forms the cerebral aqueduct.

    • A.

      Forebrain

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Hindbrain

    • D.

      Spinal column

    Correct Answer
    B. Midbrain
    Explanation
    The midbrain forms the cerebral aqueduct. The cerebral aqueduct is a narrow channel that connects the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. It allows for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between these two ventricles. The midbrain is located between the forebrain and the hindbrain and plays a crucial role in various sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is responsible for forming the cerebral aqueduct.

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  • 27. 

    __________ forms the fourth ventricle.

    • A.

      Forebrain

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Hindbrain

    • D.

      Spinal column

    Correct Answer
    C. Hindbrain
    Explanation
    The hindbrain forms the fourth ventricle. The hindbrain is the posterior part of the brain that includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. The fourth ventricle is a fluid-filled cavity located in the hindbrain, between the pons and the cerebellum. It is responsible for producing and circulating cerebrospinal fluid, which helps protect and nourish the brain and spinal cord.

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  • 28. 

    The forebrain consists of the ____________ and __________.

    • A.

      Telencephalon; myelencephalon

    • B.

      Mesencephalon; diencephalon

    • C.

      Metencephalon; myelencephalon

    • D.

      Telencephalon; diencephalon

    Correct Answer
    D. Telencephalon; diencephalon
    Explanation
    The forebrain is the anterior part of the brain and is responsible for many higher-order functions such as cognition, memory, and emotion. It consists of two main regions: the telencephalon and the diencephalon. The telencephalon is the largest part of the forebrain and includes structures such as the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system. The diencephalon is located beneath the telencephalon and contains structures such as the thalamus and hypothalamus. Together, the telencephalon and diencephalon play crucial roles in processing sensory information, regulating behavior, and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 29. 

    The midbrain consists of the _____________.

    • A.

      Mesencephalon

    • B.

      Metencephalon

    • C.

      Diencephalon

    • D.

      Myelencephalon

    Correct Answer
    A. Mesencephalon
    Explanation
    The midbrain is the part of the brainstem that connects the forebrain and hindbrain. It is responsible for relaying sensory and motor information between the brain and the spinal cord. The correct answer, mesencephalon, refers specifically to the midbrain and is the only option that accurately describes this region of the brain. The other options, metencephalon, diencephalon, and myelencephalon, refer to different parts of the brain and are not synonymous with the midbrain.

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  • 30. 

    The hindbrain consists of the _____________ and ___________.

    • A.

      Telencephalon; myelencephalon

    • B.

      Mesencephalon; diencephalon

    • C.

      Metencephalon; myelencephalon

    • D.

      Telencephalon; diencephalon

    Correct Answer
    C. Metencephalon; myelencephalon
    Explanation
    The hindbrain is one of the three major divisions of the brain, located at the posterior end. It consists of the metencephalon and myelencephalon. The metencephalon is responsible for functions such as motor control, balance, and coordination. It contains structures like the pons and cerebellum. The myelencephalon, also known as the medulla oblongata, is responsible for vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure regulation. Together, the metencephalon and myelencephalon play crucial roles in maintaining basic bodily functions and coordinating movement.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is a part of the telencephalon?

    • A.

      Tegmentum

    • B.

      Cerebral cortex

    • C.

      Thalamus

    • D.

      Tectum

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebral cortex
    Explanation
    The cerebral cortex is a part of the telencephalon. The telencephalon is the largest division of the brain and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as perception, memory, and language. The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the telencephalon and plays a crucial role in these cognitive functions. It is involved in processing sensory information, initiating voluntary movements, and integrating information from different brain regions. Therefore, the cerebral cortex being a part of the telencephalon makes it the correct answer.

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  • 32. 

    __________ are small grooves in the cerebral cortex.

    • A.

      Sulci

    • B.

      Gyri

    • C.

      Fissures

    • D.

      Tectum

    Correct Answer
    A. Sulci
    Explanation
    Sulci are small grooves in the cerebral cortex. They are the shallow depressions that separate the gyri, which are the raised folds on the surface of the brain. Sulci play an important role in increasing the surface area of the cerebral cortex, allowing for more neurons and connections to be packed into a smaller space. They also help to divide the brain into different functional regions and assist in the localization of specific brain functions. Fissures, on the other hand, are deeper grooves that divide the brain into larger regions, while the tectum is a part of the midbrain involved in sensory processing.

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  • 33. 

    _________ are large grooves in the cerebral cortex.

    • A.

      Sulci

    • B.

      Gyri

    • C.

      Fissures

    • D.

      Tectum

    Correct Answer
    C. Fissures
    Explanation
    Fissures are large grooves in the cerebral cortex. These deep grooves divide the brain into different lobes and help to separate different regions of the brain. They are important for the organization and function of the cerebral cortex, allowing for efficient processing and communication between different areas. Sulci, on the other hand, are smaller grooves, and gyri are the raised folds of the cerebral cortex. Tectum refers to a different part of the brain, specifically the dorsal region of the midbrain.

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  • 34. 

    ____________ are bulges in the cerebral cortex.

    • A.

      Sulci

    • B.

      Gyri

    • C.

      Fissures

    • D.

      Tectum

    Correct Answer
    C. Fissures
    Explanation
    Fissures are deep grooves or indentations in the cerebral cortex. They divide the brain into different lobes and help in organizing and structuring the brain. Fissures are important for functional specialization and communication between different regions of the brain. They play a crucial role in the overall structure and organization of the cerebral cortex.

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  • 35. 

    _____________ is found in the frontal lobe.

    • A.

      Primary motor cortex

    • B.

      Primary visual cortex

    • C.

      Primary auditory cortex

    • D.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary motor cortex
    Explanation
    The primary motor cortex is found in the frontal lobe of the brain. This region is responsible for planning, executing, and controlling voluntary movements of the body. It receives information from other parts of the brain and sends signals to the muscles to initiate movement. Damage to the primary motor cortex can lead to motor deficits, such as weakness or paralysis on the opposite side of the body.

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  • 36. 

    ____________ is found in the parietal lobe.

    • A.

      Primary motor cortex

    • B.

      Primary visual cortex

    • C.

      Primary auditory cortex

    • D.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Primary somatosensory cortex
    Explanation
    The primary somatosensory cortex is found in the parietal lobe. This area of the brain is responsible for processing and interpreting sensory information related to touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of body position and movement). It receives input from sensory receptors throughout the body and allows us to perceive and respond to physical sensations.

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  • 37. 

    The occipital lobe is _____________ to the parietal and temporal lobes.

    • A.

      Rostral/anterior

    • B.

      Ventral

    • C.

      Dorsal

    • D.

      Caudal/posterior

    Correct Answer
    D. Caudal/posterior
    Explanation
    The occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain, towards the posterior or caudal region. This means that it is positioned behind the parietal and temporal lobes, making the answer "caudal/posterior" the correct choice.

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  • 38. 

    The temporal lobe is ____________ to the parietal and frontal lobes.

    • A.

      Rostral/anterior

    • B.

      Ventral

    • C.

      Dorsal

    • D.

      Caudal/posterior

    Correct Answer
    B. Ventral
    Explanation
    The temporal lobe is positioned below and towards the front of the parietal and frontal lobes. It is located in the lower part of the brain, near the temples. The term "ventral" refers to the underside or belly side of an organism, and in this case, it indicates the lower position of the temporal lobe in relation to the parietal and frontal lobes.

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  • 39. 

    The central sulcus divides the brain into the rostral and caudal regions. The rostral reigion is generally related to _____________ whereas the caudal region is related to ___________.

    • A.

      Movement-related activities; perceiving and learning

    • B.

      Perceiving and learning; emotion-based behavior

    • C.

      Planning and executing; emotion-based behavior

    • D.

      Perceiving and learning; movement-related activities

    Correct Answer
    A. Movement-related activities; perceiving and learning
    Explanation
    The central sulcus divides the brain into the rostral and caudal regions. The rostral region is generally related to movement-related activities, while the caudal region is related to perceiving and learning.

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  • 40. 

    The left hemisphere of the brain is related to ______________, whereas the right hemisphere of the brain is related to ____________.

    • A.

      Emotions and empathy; perceiving wholes and drawing 3D objects

    • B.

      Perceiving wholes and drawing 3D objects; reading, writing and speaking

    • C.

      Perceiving wholes and drawing 3D objects; emotions and empathy

    • D.

      Reading, writing and speaking; perceiving wholes and drawing 3D objects

    Correct Answer
    D. Reading, writing and speaking; perceiving wholes and drawing 3D objects
    Explanation
    The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language processing and is involved in reading, writing, and speaking. On the other hand, the right hemisphere of the brain is more involved in visual-spatial tasks such as perceiving wholes and drawing 3D objects.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is a member of the limbic system?

    • A.

      Thalamus

    • B.

      Hippocampus

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Basal ganglia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hippocampus
    Explanation
    The hippocampus is a member of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in memory formation and consolidation, as well as spatial navigation. It is located in the medial temporal lobe and is closely connected with other limbic system structures, such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia are also important brain structures, but they are not part of the limbic system.

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  • 42. 

    Basal ganglia is responsible for ______________.

    • A.

      Emotion-related memories/behaviors

    • B.

      Long-term memory

    • C.

      Control of smooth movements

    • D.

      Species-typical behaviors

    Correct Answer
    C. Control of smooth movements
    Explanation
    The basal ganglia is responsible for the control of smooth movements. It is a group of structures in the brain that play a crucial role in coordinating and regulating motor movements. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, where individuals experience tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with initiating and coordinating movements. Therefore, the basal ganglia's primary function is to ensure the smooth execution of motor actions.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is found in the diencephalon?

    • A.

      Tectum

    • B.

      Hippocampus

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Basal ganglia

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The diencephalon is a part of the brain that is located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain. It includes structures such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. The hypothalamus, which is the correct answer, is a small but vital structure that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including body temperature, hunger and thirst, sleep-wake cycles, and hormone production. It also helps to maintain homeostasis and is involved in controlling the autonomic nervous system.

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  • 44. 

    The thalamus is responsible for _____________.

    • A.

      Emotion-related memories/behaviors

    • B.

      Long-term memory

    • C.

      Species-typical behaviors

    • D.

      Transmitting sensory information to the cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Transmitting sensory information to the cortex
    Explanation
    The thalamus is responsible for transmitting sensory information to the cortex. It acts as a relay station, receiving sensory input from various parts of the body and then sending it to the appropriate areas of the cortex for further processing. This allows us to perceive and interpret sensory stimuli such as touch, taste, smell, sight, and sound. Without the thalamus, our ability to sense and make sense of the world around us would be severely impaired.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following can be found in the mesencephalon?

    • A.

      Basal ganglia

    • B.

      Tegmentum

    • C.

      Medulla oblongata

    • D.

      Pons

    Correct Answer
    B. Tegmentum
    Explanation
    The mesencephalon, also known as the midbrain, is a part of the brainstem. It is responsible for various functions such as visual and auditory processing, eye movement control, and motor coordination. The tegmentum is a major component of the mesencephalon and is located in the ventral part of the midbrain. It contains several important structures, including the red nucleus, substantia nigra, and the reticular formation. These structures are involved in motor control, sensory processing, and arousal. Therefore, the tegmentum can be found in the mesencephalon.

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  • 46. 

    The medial geniculate nucleus is responsible for sending information from ____________ to __________.

    • A.

      Skin receptors; primary somatosensory receptors

    • B.

      Eye; primary visual cortex

    • C.

      Inner ear; primary auditory cortex

    • D.

      Motor neurons; primary motor cortex

    Correct Answer
    C. Inner ear; primary auditory cortex
    Explanation
    The medial geniculate nucleus is responsible for sending information from the inner ear to the primary auditory cortex. This means that it plays a crucial role in processing and transmitting auditory information, allowing us to perceive and interpret sounds. The inner ear contains the cochlea, which converts sound waves into electrical signals that can be sent to the brain for further processing. The primary auditory cortex is the area of the brain that receives these signals and is responsible for the initial perception of sound.

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  • 47. 

    The reticular formation, periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, and substantia nigra are all parts of the ________________.

    • A.

      Tectum

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Tegmentum

    • D.

      Cerebral cortex

    Correct Answer
    C. Tegmentum
    Explanation
    The reticular formation, periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, and substantia nigra are all parts of the tegmentum. The tegmentum is a region in the brainstem that lies beneath the tectum and above the ventral tegmental area. It is involved in various functions such as motor control, sensory processing, and regulation of arousal and consciousness. The reticular formation plays a role in sleep-wake cycle and attention, the periaqueductal gray matter is involved in pain modulation, the red nucleus is important for motor coordination, and the substantia nigra is involved in reward and movement.

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  • 48. 

    Red nucleus is to substantia nigra as ________________.

    • A.

      Localized is to general

    • B.

      Afferent neurons are to efferent neurons

    • C.

      General is to localized

    • D.

      Efferent neurons are to afferent neurons

    Correct Answer
    D. Efferent neurons are to afferent neurons
    Explanation
    The relationship between the red nucleus and substantia nigra is that of one structure being related to another structure in the brain. Similarly, the relationship between efferent neurons and afferent neurons is that of one type of neuron being related to another type of neuron in the nervous system. Both pairs of terms represent a relationship between two different components, making the answer choice "efferent neurons are to afferent neurons" the most appropriate analogy.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following can be found in the metencephalon?

    • A.

      Tectum

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Medulla oblongata

    • D.

      Basal ganglia

    Correct Answer
    B. Pons
    Explanation
    The metencephalon is a region of the brainstem that is composed of the pons and the cerebellum. The pons is located in the metencephalon and serves as a bridge connecting different parts of the brain. It is involved in functions such as sleep, respiration, and communication between different areas of the brain. Therefore, the pons can be found in the metencephalon.

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  • 50. 

    Damage to the cerebellum results in difficulty _____________.

    • A.

      Speaking

    • B.

      Seeing

    • C.

      Standing upright

    • D.

      Learning new skills

    Correct Answer
    C. Standing upright
    Explanation
    Damage to the cerebellum, a part of the brain responsible for coordinating movement and balance, can lead to difficulty standing upright. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in maintaining posture and balance by receiving sensory information from the body and integrating it with motor commands. When the cerebellum is damaged, it can disrupt the coordination of muscles and impair the body's ability to maintain an upright position. This can result in difficulties with balance, coordination, and standing without support.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 17, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Hruka22
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