Chapter 10: Nervous System

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Chapter 10: Nervous System - Quiz

Anatomy Chapter 10: Nervous Tissue: Nervous Tissue and Brain


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    These branching structures carry information toward the cell body of a neuron.

    • A.

      Synapes

    • B.

      Axons

    • C.

      Dendrites

    • D.

      Nodes of Ranvier

    Correct Answer
    C. Dendrites
    Explanation
    Dendrites are the branching structures that carry information toward the cell body of a neuron. They receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors and transmit them to the cell body, where the signals are integrated and processed. Dendrites play a crucial role in the communication between neurons, as they receive and transmit electrical and chemical signals, allowing for the transmission of information throughout the nervous system.

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  • 2. 

    The neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) are stored within the

    • A.

      Tips of the dendrites

    • B.

      Cell body

    • C.

      Postsynaptic receptors

    • D.

      Axon terminals

    Correct Answer
    D. Axon terminals
    Explanation
    Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) are stored within the axon terminals. Axon terminals are the end points of the axon, where the neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles. When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, these vesicles release the neurotransmitters into the synapse, allowing them to bind to the postsynaptic receptors and transmit signals to the next neuron. Therefore, the axon terminals play a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons.

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  • 3. 

    What is the name of the space between the axon of one of the neuron and the dendrite of a second neuron?

    • A.

      Vesicle

    • B.

      Cell body

    • C.

      Synapse

    • D.

      Node of Ranvier

    Correct Answer
    C. Synapse
    Explanation
    The correct answer is synapse. A synapse is the name for the space or junction between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron. It is a crucial site for communication between neurons, where electrical or chemical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another.

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  • 4. 

    What is the name of the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine?

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      ACh

    • C.

      Acetylcholinesterase

    • D.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer
    C. Acetylcholinesterase
    Explanation
    Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine in the body. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of nerve impulses. By breaking down acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase helps to regulate its levels and prevent excessive stimulation of the nervous system. Dopamine and norepinephrine are other neurotransmitters that have different functions in the body, but they do not directly destroy acetylcholine. Therefore, the correct answer is acetylcholinesterase.

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  • 5. 

    What term describes the hopping of the action potential (nerve impulse) along the axon from one node (of Ranvier) to the next?

    • A.

      Myelination

    • B.

      Depolarization

    • C.

      Saltatory conduction

    • D.

      Repolarization

    Correct Answer
    C. Saltatory conduction
    Explanation
    Saltatory conduction is the term that describes the hopping of the action potential along the axon from one node of Ranvier to the next. This process occurs in myelinated axons, where the myelin sheath acts as an insulating layer, allowing the action potential to jump from one node to another. This mechanism speeds up the transmission of the nerve impulse, making it more efficient compared to continuous conduction. Depolarization refers to the change in membrane potential during the initiation of an action potential, while repolarization is the return of the membrane potential to its resting state after depolarization. Myelination, on the other hand, is the process of forming the myelin sheath around axons.

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  • 6. 

    The primary somatosensory area and the primary motor area are seperated by

    • A.

      Broca's area

    • B.

      The cecntral sulcus

    • C.

      The pia mater

    • D.

      The longitudinal fissure

    Correct Answer
    B. The cecntral sulcus
    Explanation
    The primary somatosensory area and the primary motor area are separated by the central sulcus. The central sulcus is a prominent groove that runs across the surface of the brain, dividing the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. The primary somatosensory area is located in the parietal lobe and is responsible for processing sensory information from the body, while the primary motor area is located in the frontal lobe and is involved in the initiation and control of voluntary movements. The central sulcus acts as a boundary between these two areas, with the primary somatosensory area located posteriorly and the primary motor area located anteriorly.

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  • 7. 

    There are four major areas of the brain: the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and the

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Medulla oblongata

    • C.

      Limbic system

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    D. Cerebellum
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is one of the four major areas of the brain. It is responsible for coordinating voluntary movements, balance, and posture. It receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain, and then integrates this information to fine-tune motor activity. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control and motor learning, and damage to this area can result in difficulties with coordination and movement.

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  • 8. 

    The frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes form the

    • A.

      Brain stem

    • B.

      Cerebrum

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Reticular formation

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebrum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cerebrum. The frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes are all parts of the cerebrum, which is the largest and most highly developed part of the brain. It is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, memory, perception, and voluntary movement. The cerebrum plays a crucial role in our ability to process information and make decisions.

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  • 9. 

    Which word best describes the precentralgyrus?

    • A.

      Olfactory

    • B.

      Visual

    • C.

      Motor

    • D.

      Language

    Correct Answer
    C. Motor
    Explanation
    The precentral gyrus is a region in the brain that is primarily responsible for controlling voluntary movements. It is part of the motor cortex and plays a crucial role in coordinating and executing motor functions. Therefore, the word "motor" best describes the precentral gyrus.

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  • 10. 

    The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are referred to as the

    • A.

      Diencephalons

    • B.

      Brain stem

    • C.

      Limbic system

    • D.

      Emotional brain

    Correct Answer
    B. Brain stem
    Explanation
    The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata are collectively referred to as the brain stem. The brain stem is responsible for many vital functions such as controlling breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a pathway for nerve fibers to transmit signals between the brain and the spinal cord. The brain stem plays a crucial role in maintaining basic bodily functions and is essential for survival.

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  • 11. 

    Excessive opioids (narcotics) depress the medulla oblongata and therefore cause

    • A.

      Parkinson's disease

    • B.

      Blindness

    • C.

      Respiratory depression

    • D.

      Hypertension

    Correct Answer
    C. Respiratory depression
    Explanation
    Excessive opioids depress the medulla oblongata, which is responsible for regulating breathing. This leads to a decrease in respiratory function, resulting in respiratory depression.

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  • 12. 

    Endorphins

    • A.

      Natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being

    • B.

      Energy sources much like ATP

    • C.

      Secreted by the choroi plexus and circulated within the subarachnoid space

    • D.

      Waste products generated by depolarizing neurons

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being
    Explanation
    Endorphins are natural morphine-like substances that can reduce anxiety and induce a sense of well-being. They act as neurotransmitters in the brain and are released in response to various stimuli such as exercise, laughter, and certain foods. Endorphins work by binding to opioid receptors in the brain, which then leads to a decrease in pain perception and an increase in feelings of pleasure and happiness. These natural chemicals play a crucial role in regulating mood and are often referred to as the body's natural painkillers.

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  • 13. 

    The surface of the cerebrum is folded into elevations that resemble speed bumps; these speed bumps are called

    • A.

      Fissures

    • B.

      Sulci

    • C.

      Foramen

    • D.

      Convultions, or gyri

    Correct Answer
    D. Convultions, or gyri
    Explanation
    The correct answer is convolutions, or gyri. The surface of the cerebrum is not smooth, but rather folded into elevations called convolutions or gyri. These gyri increase the surface area of the cerebrum, allowing for more neurons and connections, and therefore increasing its processing power. The folds also help to fit the large cerebrum into the limited space of the skull. Fissures are deep grooves that separate the gyri, while sulci are shallower grooves. Foramen, on the other hand, refers to a hole or opening in a bone.

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  • 14. 

    The depression between the convolutions of the cerebrum is called a

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Gyrus

    • C.

      Sulces

    • D.

      Corpus callosum

    Correct Answer
    C. Sulces
    Explanation
    The depression between the convolutions of the cerebrum is called sulci.

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  • 15. 

    The medulla oblongata descends as the

    • A.

      Diencephalons

    • B.

      Hpothalamus

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    D. Spinal cord
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that connects the brain to the spinal cord. It is responsible for controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata descends as the spinal cord, meaning it continues downwards from the brainstem into the spinal column. This allows for the transmission of signals between the brain and the rest of the body, enabling the coordination of various bodily functions.

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  • 16. 

    The pituitary gland sits beneath the

    • A.

      Medulla oblongata

    • B.

      Brain stem

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is located beneath the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland work together to control processes such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism. Therefore, it is logical that the pituitary gland would be situated beneath the hypothalamus to facilitate communication and coordination between these two important structures.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following best describes the arachnoid mater?

    • A.

      Limbic system

    • B.

      Meninges

    • C.

      Blood-brain barrier

    • D.

      Cranium

    Correct Answer
    B. Meninges
    Explanation
    The arachnoid mater is a membrane that is part of the meninges, which are the protective layers that surround and cushion the brain and spinal cord. The meninges consist of three layers: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The arachnoid mater is located between the dura mater and the pia mater, and it is named for its spider-web-like appearance. It helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury and infection.

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  • 18. 

    The corpus callosum

    • A.

      Connects the right and left hemispheres

    • B.

      Connects the hypothalumus to the posterior pituitary gland

    • C.

      Lines the cerebral ventricles

    • D.

      Connects the brain stem to the cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    A. Connects the right and left hemispheres
    Explanation
    The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain. It allows for communication and coordination between the two hemispheres, enabling them to work together and share information. This connection is crucial for various cognitive functions such as language processing, perception, and problem-solving. Without the corpus callosum, the brain would not be able to integrate information from both hemispheres effectively, leading to impaired functioning.

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  • 19. 

    In which cerebral lobe is Broca's area located?

    • A.

      Parietal

    • B.

      Occipital

    • C.

      Frontal

    • D.

      Temporal

    Correct Answer
    C. Frontal
    Explanation
    Broca's area is located in the frontal lobe of the brain. This area is responsible for the production of speech and language comprehension. It plays a crucial role in the coordination of the muscles involved in speech production. Damage to Broca's area can result in a condition called Broca's aphasia, characterized by difficulty in speaking fluently while comprehension remains intact. Therefore, the correct answer is frontal.

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  • 20. 

    The temporal lobe

    • A.

      Is a brain stem structure

    • B.

      Is a cerebellar structure

    • C.

      Contains the primary auditory cortex

    • D.

      Is a large mass of white matter that joins the right and left cerebral hemispheres

    Correct Answer
    C. Contains the primary auditory cortex
    Explanation
    The temporal lobe is a region in the brain that contains the primary auditory cortex. This means that it is responsible for processing and interpreting auditory information, such as sound and language. The primary auditory cortex plays a crucial role in our ability to perceive and understand sounds, making the temporal lobe an important area for auditory processing.

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  • 21. 

    The occipital lobe

    • A.

      Is a brain stem structure

    • B.

      Performs the "executive" functions

    • C.

      Is called the vital center

    • D.

      Contains the primary visual cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Contains the primary visual cortex
    Explanation
    The occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual information and contains the primary visual cortex. This area of the brain is crucial for interpreting and making sense of visual stimuli. It plays a key role in visual perception, including the recognition of shapes, colors, and movement. Damage to the occipital lobe can result in visual impairments, such as difficulty recognizing objects or faces, and can impact overall visual perception.

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  • 22. 

    The nodes of Ranier

    • A.

      Are located along the postsynaptic membrane

    • B.

      Increase the speed of the action potential

    • C.

      Synthesize the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

    • D.

      Store ACh in tiny vesicles

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase the speed of the action potential
    Explanation
    The nodes of Ranvier are gaps in the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of neurons. These nodes are located along the postsynaptic membrane and play a crucial role in increasing the speed of the action potential. The myelin sheath acts as an insulator, preventing the dissipation of the electrical signal as it travels along the axon. However, the action potential needs to be regenerated periodically to maintain its strength. The nodes of Ranvier allow for the rapid and efficient regeneration of the action potential, allowing it to propagate more quickly along the axon.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is located within the subarachnoid space?

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      Lymph

    • C.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    C. Cerebrospinal fluid
    Explanation
    The subarachnoid space is a space located between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, two of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord. It is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which acts as a cushion to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. CSF also helps to regulate the chemical environment of the central nervous system and remove waste products. Therefore, the correct answer is cerebrospinal fluid.

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  • 24. 

    What is the function of the ependymal cell (choroid plexus)?

    • A.

      Synthesize neurotransmitters such as ACh

    • B.

      Form cerebrospinal fluid

    • C.

      Phagocytose debris

    • D.

      Secrete myelin

    Correct Answer
    B. Form cerebrospinal fluid
    Explanation
    Ependymal cells in the choroid plexus are responsible for the formation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a clear fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing cushioning and support to these structures. It also helps in the removal of waste products and provides a medium for the transport of nutrients and chemical messengers. Ependymal cells line the ventricles of the brain and have cilia that help in the movement of CSF. Therefore, their main function is to produce and regulate the flow of CSF in the central nervous system.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is the type of nervous tissue that conducts a nerve impulse?

    • A.

      Astrocyte

    • B.

      Neuroglia

    • C.

      Neuron

    • D.

      Ependymal cell

    Correct Answer
    C. Neuron
    Explanation
    A neuron is the type of nervous tissue that conducts a nerve impulse. Neurons are specialized cells that transmit electrical signals in the form of nerve impulses throughout the body. They have a unique structure that allows them to receive, process, and transmit information. Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system and play a crucial role in communication within the body.

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  • 26. 

    The astrocytes

    • A.

      Support and protect the neurons and help to form the blood-brain barrier

    • B.

      Secrete myelin

    • C.

      Secrete cerebrospinal fluid

    • D.

      Are concentrated within the choroid process

    Correct Answer
    A. Support and protect the neurons and help to form the blood-brain barrier
    Explanation
    Astrocytes are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that play a crucial role in supporting and protecting neurons. They provide structural support to neurons, regulate the extracellular environment by removing excess neurotransmitters and ions, and help to form the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is a protective barrier that prevents harmful substances from entering the brain, and astrocytes contribute to its formation by regulating the permeability of blood vessels in the brain. Therefore, the statement "support and protect the neurons and help to form the blood-brain barrier" accurately describes the functions of astrocytes.

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  • 27. 

    What is the name of clusters of cell bodies that are located outside the central nervous system?

    • A.

      Glia

    • B.

      Nodes of Ranvier

    • C.

      Nuclei

    • D.

      Ganglia

    Correct Answer
    D. Ganglia
    Explanation
    Ganglia are clusters of cell bodies that are located outside the central nervous system. They are found in the peripheral nervous system and play a crucial role in coordinating and transmitting signals between different parts of the body. Ganglia are responsible for functions such as sensory perception, motor control, and autonomic processes.

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  • 28. 

    What is the fatty insulating material that surrounds the axons?

    • A.

      Glia

    • B.

      Choroid plexus

    • C.

      Myelin sheath

    • D.

      Sarcolemma

    Correct Answer
    C. Myelin sheath
    Explanation
    The myelin sheath is the correct answer because it is the fatty insulating material that surrounds the axons. It is produced by specialized cells called glia and plays a crucial role in speeding up the transmission of electrical signals along the axons. The myelin sheath acts as an insulator, preventing the loss of electrical signals and allowing for efficient communication between neurons. The other options, glia, choroid plexus, and sarcolemma, are not directly involved in the insulation of axons.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is most related to "saltory conduction"

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Choroid plexus

    • C.

      Nodes of Ranvier

    • D.

      Astrocytes

    Correct Answer
    C. Nodes of Ranvier
    Explanation
    Saltatory conduction refers to the rapid jumping of action potentials from one node of Ranvier to another along a myelinated axon. Nodes of Ranvier are the small gaps in the myelin sheath where the axon is exposed. These nodes play a crucial role in increasing the speed of conduction by allowing the action potential to "leap" from one node to the next, rather than propagating along the entire length of the axon. Therefore, nodes of Ranvier are most closely related to saltatory conduction.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following structures brings information toward the cell body?

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Axons

    • C.

      Nodes of Ranvier

    • D.

      Axon terminals

    Correct Answer
    A. Dendrites
    Explanation
    Dendrites are the structures that bring information toward the cell body. They are branched extensions of the neuron that receive signals from other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. Dendrites play a crucial role in integrating and processing incoming signals, allowing the neuron to make decisions on whether to transmit the signal further or not. Axons, on the other hand, transmit information away from the cell body, while nodes of Ranvier are gaps in the myelin sheath that help in the rapid conduction of electrical signals along the axon. Axon terminals are the end points of the axon where the signal is transmitted to other neurons or target cells.

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  • 31. 

    What makes white matter "white"?

    • A.

      Cell bodies

    • B.

      Neurotransmitters

    • C.

      Synapses

    • D.

      Myelin sheath

    Correct Answer
    D. Myelin sheath
    Explanation
    White matter is called "white" because of the presence of the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is a fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. This insulation gives the white matter its white color. The myelin sheath helps in the efficient transmission of electrical signals between different regions of the brain and spinal cord. It acts as an insulator, preventing the electrical signals from leaking out and speeding up the transmission of information.

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  • 32. 

    The inside of the unstimulated neuron is negative; this electrical charge is due to the outward leak of potassium and is called

    • A.

      Depolarization

    • B.

      The action potential

    • C.

      The resting membrane potential

    • D.

      The refracory period

    Correct Answer
    C. The resting membrane potential
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the resting membrane potential. The inside of an unstimulated neuron is negative due to the outward leak of potassium ions. This creates an electrical charge across the cell membrane, known as the resting membrane potential. It is the baseline electrical state of the neuron when it is not actively transmitting signals.

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  • 33. 

    What is the name of the first phase of the action potential that is caused by the inward movement of sodium?

    • A.

      Repolarization

    • B.

      Refractory period

    • C.

      Depolarization

    • D.

      Saltatory conduction

    Correct Answer
    C. Depolarization
    Explanation
    Depolarization is the correct answer because it refers to the first phase of the action potential where the cell's membrane potential becomes less negative. This is caused by the inward movement of sodium ions through ion channels, which leads to a rapid change in the electrical charge across the cell membrane. Depolarization is an essential step in the propagation of nerve impulses and plays a crucial role in transmitting signals throughout the nervous system.

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  • 34. 

    What is the term applied to the inability of a neuron to accept a stimulus while the neuron is still depolarized?

    • A.

      Repolarization

    • B.

      Threshold potential

    • C.

      Resting membrane potential

    • D.

      Refractory period

    Correct Answer
    D. Refractory period
    Explanation
    The refractory period is the term applied to the inability of a neuron to accept a stimulus while the neuron is still depolarized. During this period, the neuron is temporarily unresponsive and unable to generate an action potential. This is important for maintaining the proper timing and directionality of nerve impulses, preventing them from overlapping or firing too rapidly. The refractory period allows the neuron to reset and return to its resting state before it can be stimulated again.

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  • 35. 

    Which ofthe following is the convultion located on the frontal lobe anterior to the central sulcas?

    • A.

      Broca's area

    • B.

      Primary motor area

    • C.

      Somatosensory area

    • D.

      Visual cortex

    Correct Answer
    B. Primary motor area
    Explanation
    The primary motor area is located on the frontal lobe anterior to the central sulcus. It is responsible for the initiation and control of voluntary movement. This area contains neurons that send signals to the muscles, allowing us to perform various motor tasks. Damage to the primary motor area can result in difficulties with movement and coordination.

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  • 36. 

    What is the name of the motor speech area located in the frontal lobe?

    • A.

      The brain stem

    • B.

      The pons

    • C.

      Broca's area

    • D.

      The diencephalon

    Correct Answer
    C. Broca's area
    Explanation
    Broca's area is the correct answer because it is a motor speech area located in the frontal lobe of the brain. It is responsible for the production of speech and plays a crucial role in the coordination of the muscles involved in speech production. Damage to Broca's area can result in a condition called Broca's aphasia, characterized by difficulty in speaking fluently while comprehension remains intact. The other options, such as the brain stem, the pons, and the diencephalon, are not specific motor speech areas and do not accurately answer the question.

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  • 37. 

    Which structure is also called the "emotional brain"?

    • A.

      Cerebellum

    • B.

      Basil ganglia

    • C.

      Medulla oblongata

    • D.

      Limbic system

    Correct Answer
    D. Limbic system
    Explanation
    The limbic system is often referred to as the "emotional brain" because it plays a crucial role in regulating emotions and emotional responses. It is responsible for processing and experiencing emotions, as well as forming and retrieving memories. The limbic system includes several structures such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, which are involved in various emotional and memory-related functions.

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  • 38. 

    The purpose of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump in the neuronal membrane is to

    • A.

      Depolarize the membrane

    • B.

      Repolarize

    • C.

      Establish the Na+ and K+ gradiemts necessary for the development of an action potential

    • D.

      Secrete myelin

    Correct Answer
    C. Establish the Na+ and K+ gradiemts necessary for the development of an action potential
    Explanation
    The Na+/K+ ATPase pump plays a crucial role in maintaining the resting membrane potential in neurons. It actively transports three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell, against their concentration gradients. This creates an electrochemical gradient, with more sodium outside and more potassium inside the cell. This gradient is essential for the generation of an action potential, as it allows for the rapid influx of sodium ions and efflux of potassium ions during depolarization and repolarization phases. Therefore, the purpose of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump is to establish the Na+ and K+ gradients necessary for the development of an action potential.

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  • 39. 

    This structure is part of the diencephalon; it regulates the anterior pituitary gland, water balance, appetite, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system

    • A.

      Cerebellum

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Medulla oblongata

    • D.

      Hypothalamus

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is a structure located in the diencephalon region of the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes in the body. It controls the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn affects many functions such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. The hypothalamus also helps maintain water balance by controlling thirst and urine production. It regulates appetite by influencing feelings of hunger and fullness. Additionally, it plays a role in controlling body temperature and the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion.

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  • 40. 

    This structure plays a key role in personality development and emotional and behaivoral expression; carries out the "executive" functions

    • A.

      Cerebellum

    • B.

      Frontal lobe

    • C.

      Basal ganglia

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata

    Correct Answer
    B. Frontal lobe
    Explanation
    The frontal lobe is responsible for personality development and emotional and behavioral expression. It is also involved in carrying out the "executive" functions, such as decision-making, problem-solving, and planning. This lobe is located at the front of the brain and is crucial for higher cognitive functions and social behavior. It helps regulate emotions, control impulses, and coordinate complex movements.

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  • 41. 

    Injury to the occipital lobe is most likely to cause

    • A.

      Hearing loss

    • B.

      Paralysis

    • C.

      Loss of vision

    • D.

      Disturbances in gait

    Correct Answer
    C. Loss of vision
    Explanation
    Injury to the occipital lobe is most likely to cause loss of vision because the occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual information. It receives and interprets signals from the eyes, allowing us to see and perceive the world around us. Therefore, damage to this area can result in a loss or impairment of vision.

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  • 42. 

    Which structure is called the lateral, third, and fourth?

    • A.

      Meninges

    • B.

      Ventricles

    • C.

      Cerebral lobes

    • D.

      Parts of the brain stem

    Correct Answer
    B. Ventricles
    Explanation
    The ventricles are called the lateral, third, and fourth. The ventricles are interconnected cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. They play a crucial role in protecting and cushioning the brain, as well as providing nutrients and removing waste products. The lateral ventricles are the largest and are located in the cerebral hemispheres. The third ventricle is located in the diencephalon, and the fourth ventricle is located between the brainstem and the cerebellum.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following contans cerebrospinal fluid?

    • A.

      Central sulcas

    • B.

      Precentral gyrus

    • C.

      Broca's area

    • D.

      Subarachnoid space

    Correct Answer
    D. Subarachnoid space
    Explanation
    The subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid. This space is located between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, which are two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the ventricles of the brain and circulates through the subarachnoid space, providing cushioning and support to the central nervous system.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is the middle layer of the meninges and looks like a spiderweb?

    • A.

      Dura mater

    • B.

      Arachnoid mater

    • C.

      Pia mater

    • D.

      Reticular formation

    Correct Answer
    B. Arachnoid mater
    Explanation
    The arachnoid mater is the middle layer of the meninges, which are protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. It gets its name from its spiderweb-like appearance. The arachnoid mater is located between the outer dura mater and the inner pia mater. It is a thin, delicate membrane that helps cushion and protect the brain and spinal cord from injury.

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  • 45. 

    The corpus callosum

    • A.

      Connects to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord

    • B.

      Is a band of gray mater that lines the ventricles

    • C.

      Is the point at which all motor fibers decussate

    • D.

      Connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres

    Correct Answer
    D. Connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres
    Explanation
    The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres of the brain. It allows for communication and coordination between the two hemispheres, enabling them to work together and share information. This connection is essential for various cognitive functions, including language processing, perception, and problem-solving.

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  • 46. 

    Parkinson's Disease

    • A.

      Is caused by a deficiency of dopamine within the basal ganglia

    • B.

      Refers to any increase in intracranial pressure

    • C.

      Is a demyelinating disease

    • D.

      Is caused by a slow cerebral bleeding episode

    Correct Answer
    A. Is caused by a deficiency of dopamine within the basal ganglia
    Explanation
    Parkinson's Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a deficiency of dopamine within the basal ganglia. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement and coordination. When there is a deficiency of dopamine in the basal ganglia, it leads to the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's Disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement. The loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain is responsible for this deficiency, and it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

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  • 47. 

    The medulla oblongata descends into the vertebral cavity through the

    • A.

      Corpus callosum

    • B.

      Obturator foramen

    • C.

      Central canal

    • D.

      Foramen magnum

    Correct Answer
    D. Foramen magnum
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata descends into the vertebral cavity through the foramen magnum. The foramen magnum is a large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes. It connects the brain with the spinal cord and allows for the passage of nerves and blood vessels.

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  • 48. 

    The postcentral gyrus

    • A.

      Is the primary visual cortex

    • B.

      Is located in the parietal lobe

    • C.

      Contains the primary motor cortex

    • D.

      Performs the "executive" functions

    Correct Answer
    B. Is located in the parietal lobe
    Explanation
    The postcentral gyrus is located in the parietal lobe. This region of the brain is responsible for processing sensory information from the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain. It is involved in the perception and interpretation of these sensory inputs, allowing us to have a sense of our body's position and movement in space. The postcentral gyrus plays a crucial role in somatosensory processing and is essential for our ability to perceive and interact with the world around us.

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  • 49. 

    The precentral gyrus

    • A.

      Is the primary motor area

    • B.

      Is located in the parietal lobe

    • C.

      Is called the vital center

    • D.

      Contains the medulla oblongata

    Correct Answer
    A. Is the primary motor area
    Explanation
    The precentral gyrus is the primary motor area of the brain. It is responsible for initiating voluntary movements. Located in the frontal lobe, it plays a crucial role in coordinating and executing motor functions. This area contains specialized nerve cells called motor neurons, which send signals to the muscles, enabling us to perform various movements. The precentral gyrus is an essential component of the motor cortex and is involved in the control and coordination of voluntary muscle activity throughout the body.

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  • 50. 

    Broca's area

    • A.

      Is concerned with motor speech

    • B.

      Allows the person to hear and interpret sound

    • C.

      Is located in the temporal lobe

    • D.

      Coordinates eye movements as in scanning a page in a book

    Correct Answer
    A. Is concerned with motor speech
    Explanation
    Broca's area is a region in the brain that is responsible for motor speech. It plays a crucial role in the production of speech and language. Damage to this area can result in difficulties in forming words and sentences, a condition known as Broca's aphasia. This explanation aligns with the given statement that Broca's area is concerned with motor speech.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 18, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Nenegto04
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