YMCA L3 Anatomy - Nervous System

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YMCA L3 Anatomy - Nervous System - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the function of the muscle spindle cells?

    • A.

      Respond to excessive lengthening of muscles

    • B.

      Detect excessive muscle tension

    • C.

      Detect changes in levels of chemicals

    • D.

      Respond to tightness in ligaments

    Correct Answer
    A. Respond to excessive lengthening of muscles
    Explanation
    Muscle spindle cells are specialized sensory receptors located within the skeletal muscles. They play a crucial role in detecting changes in muscle length. When a muscle is excessively stretched or lengthened, the muscle spindle cells detect this change and send signals to the spinal cord, which in turn triggers a reflex contraction of the muscle. This reflex action helps to protect the muscle from being overstretched or injured. Therefore, the function of muscle spindle cells is to respond to excessive lengthening of muscles.

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  • 2. 

    What term means: ‘maintaining balance or returning a system to functioning within its normal range’?

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Osteoporosis

    • C.

      Proprioception

    • D.

      Hormones

    Correct Answer
    A. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the process of maintaining balance or returning a system to functioning within its normal range. It is a vital mechanism in biological systems that allows organisms to regulate their internal environment despite external changes. This process ensures stability and optimal conditions for cells and organs to function properly. Homeostasis involves various physiological processes such as temperature regulation, pH balance, and blood sugar control. It is essential for the overall well-being and survival of an organism.

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  • 3. 

    Complete the sentence: _________ link to form a motor unit

    • A.

      Motor neuron and muscle fibre cell

    • B.

      Axon and dendrite

    • C.

      Muscle fibre and golgi tendon organ

    • D.

      Motor neuron and sensroy neuron

    Correct Answer
    A. Motor neuron and muscle fibre cell
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Motor neuron and muscle fibre cell. Motor neurons are nerve cells that transmit signals from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, while muscle fibre cells are the individual cells that make up muscles. When a motor neuron connects with a muscle fibre cell, it forms a motor unit, which allows for the coordinated contraction of the muscle. This connection is essential for muscle movement and control.

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  • 4. 

    Speeding up the frequency of nerve impulses to motor units is a neuromuscular adaptation which leads to:      

    • A.

      Stronger muscular contractions

    • B.

      Improved efficiency of proprioceptors

    • C.

      Improved neural connections

    • D.

      Development of new connections

    Correct Answer
    A. Stronger muscular contractions
    Explanation
    Speeding up the frequency of nerve impulses to motor units can lead to stronger muscular contractions. When nerve impulses are sent more rapidly to motor units, it results in a greater recruitment of muscle fibers, leading to stronger contractions. This increased recruitment allows for more force to be generated by the muscles, resulting in stronger contractions.

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  • 5. 

    What is a synapse?

    • A.

      A junction between nerve cells

    • B.

      A link between motor neuron and muscle fibres

    • C.

      A fatty sheath that covers the axon

    • D.

      A tree like extension that receives information

    Correct Answer
    A. A junction between nerve cells
    Explanation
    A synapse is a junction between nerve cells where electrical or chemical signals are transmitted. It allows for communication between neurons and is essential for the functioning of the nervous system.

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  • 6. 

    What is the function of the Golgi tendon organ?

    • A.

      Detect excessive muscle tension or contraction

    • B.

      Initiating the stretch reflex

    • C.

      Sends messages to the spinal cord

    • D.

      Monitor the degree of tension in a muscle

    Correct Answer
    A. Detect excessive muscle tension or contraction
    Explanation
    The Golgi tendon organ is a sensory receptor located in the tendons that connect muscles to bones. Its function is to detect excessive muscle tension or contraction. When the muscle contracts too forcefully, the Golgi tendon organ sends signals to the spinal cord, which in turn causes the muscle to relax and prevent injury. By monitoring the degree of tension in a muscle, the Golgi tendon organ helps maintain muscle balance and prevent overexertion.

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  • 7. 

    What structures transmit information from receptors to the central nervous system?

    • A.

      Afferent nerves

    • B.

      Efferent nerves

    • C.

      Sympathetic nerves

    • D.

      Parasympathetic nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Afferent nerves
    Explanation
    Afferent nerves are the structures that transmit information from receptors to the central nervous system. These nerves carry sensory information from the body's sensory organs, such as the skin, eyes, and ears, to the brain and spinal cord. This allows the central nervous system to receive and process sensory input, which is essential for perception and response to the external environment. Efferent nerves, on the other hand, transmit information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands to initiate motor responses. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves are subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system and are responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions.

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  • 8. 

    As the agonist contracts, the antagonist muscle relaxes to allow movement. What is this occurrence known as?

    • A.

      Reciprocal inhibition

    • B.

      Stretch reflex

    • C.

      Autogenic inhibition

    • D.

      Homestasis

    Correct Answer
    A. Reciprocal inhibition
    Explanation
    Reciprocal inhibition refers to the phenomenon where the antagonist muscle relaxes while the agonist muscle contracts, allowing smooth movement. This occurs to ensure coordinated and balanced movement, as the contraction of one muscle is accompanied by the relaxation of its opposing muscle. Reciprocal inhibition plays a crucial role in maintaining proper muscle function and preventing muscle imbalances or excessive tension.

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  • 9. 

    Improved neuromuscular efficiency can lead to what benefits?

    • A.

      Strengthening of existing connections

    • B.

      Decreased agility

    • C.

      Fewer nervous impulses

    • D.

      Proprioceptors remain the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Strengthening of existing connections
    Explanation
    Improved neuromuscular efficiency refers to the ability of the nervous system and muscles to work together more effectively. When neuromuscular efficiency improves, the connections between the nervous system and muscles become stronger. This leads to benefits such as increased strength, power, and coordination. Strengthening of existing connections allows for better communication between the brain and muscles, resulting in improved overall performance and reduced risk of injury.

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  • 10. 

    What is the role of a motor unit?

    • A.

      To contract a group of muscle fibres in response to a nerve impulse

    • B.

      To sense changes in the external environment

    • C.

      To detect temperature changes

    • D.

      Control cardiac and smooth muscles

    Correct Answer
    A. To contract a group of muscle fibres in response to a nerve impulse
    Explanation
    The role of a motor unit is to contract a group of muscle fibers in response to a nerve impulse. This means that when a nerve sends a signal to the motor unit, it activates the muscle fibers connected to it, causing them to contract and produce movement. Motor units are responsible for the coordination and control of muscle movement in the body.

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  • 11. 

    What structure forms the junction between a neuron and a target cell?

    • A.

      Synapse

    • B.

      Proprioceptor

    • C.

      Axon

    • D.

      Dendrite

    Correct Answer
    A. Synapse
    Explanation
    A synapse is the structure that forms the junction between a neuron and a target cell. It is a specialized connection where electrical or chemical signals are transmitted from the neuron to the target cell. The synapse allows for communication and transmission of information between neurons and other cells in the body, such as muscle cells or other neurons.

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  • 12. 

    Describe the process of motor unit recruitment?

    • A.

      An efferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibres in the motor unit to contract

    • B.

      An afferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibres in the motor unit to contract

    • C.

      An efferent nerve impulse triggers one muscle fibre in the motor unit to contract

    • D.

      An afferent nerve impulse triggers one muscle fibre in the motor unit to contract

    Correct Answer
    A. An efferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibres in the motor unit to contract
    Explanation
    When a motor unit is recruited, an efferent nerve impulse is sent from the central nervous system to the motor unit. This impulse triggers all of the muscle fibers within the motor unit to contract simultaneously. This allows for a coordinated and synchronized contraction of the entire motor unit, leading to a more efficient and effective movement.

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  • 13. 

    What is a neuromuscular adaptation associated with training?

    • A.

      Better inter-muscular coordination during movement

    • B.

      Decreased motor recruitment patterns

    • C.

      Lower frequency of neural connections

    • D.

      Common movement patterns become harder

    Correct Answer
    A. Better inter-muscular coordination during movement
    Explanation
    Neuromuscular adaptation associated with training refers to the improvements in the communication and coordination between the nervous system and muscles during movement. This adaptation leads to better inter-muscular coordination during movement, meaning that different muscles work together more efficiently and effectively. This can result in improved performance, increased strength, and enhanced movement patterns.

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  • 14. 

    By what transmission method does a nerve impulse cross a synapse?

    • A.

      Action potential

    • B.

      Proprioception

    • C.

      Stretch reflex

    • D.

      Motor signals

    Correct Answer
    A. Action potential
    Explanation
    A nerve impulse crosses a synapse through the transmission method called action potential. Action potential refers to the electrical signal that travels along the axon of a neuron. When the action potential reaches the end of the axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the receiving neuron, allowing the nerve impulse to continue its journey.

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  • 15. 

    During contraction of the biceps, reciprocal inhibition causes what?

    • A.

      Flexion

    • B.

      Extension

    • C.

      Abduction

    • D.

      Adduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Flexion
    Explanation
    During contraction of the biceps, reciprocal inhibition causes flexion. Reciprocal inhibition is a neural mechanism that ensures the coordinated movement of muscles. When the biceps contract to perform flexion, the antagonistic muscles, in this case, the triceps, are inhibited to allow for smooth and coordinated movement. This inhibition prevents the triceps from contracting simultaneously and opposing the action of the biceps, allowing for effective flexion of the arm.

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  • 16. 

    Motor units that contain a small number of muscle fibres have what characteristics?

    • A.

      Enable very fine movements

    • B.

      Require larger force development

    • C.

      Produce more forceful contractions

    • D.

      Greater stimulus to be recruited

    Correct Answer
    A. Enable very fine movements
    Explanation
    Motor units that contain a small number of muscle fibers have the characteristic of enabling very fine movements. This is because when only a few muscle fibers are involved in a motor unit, they can provide precise control and coordination, allowing for delicate and precise movements. In contrast, motor units with a larger number of muscle fibers are responsible for generating larger force development and more forceful contractions.

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  • 17. 

    What structure insulates a neuron?

    • A.

      Myelin sheath

    • B.

      Axon terminal

    • C.

      Cell body

    • D.

      Dendrites

    Correct Answer
    A. Myelin sheath
    Explanation
    The myelin sheath is a protective covering that insulates the neuron, allowing for faster and more efficient transmission of electrical signals along the axon. It is made up of layers of fatty substances called myelin, which act as an insulator to prevent the loss of electrical signals and enhance the speed of signal conduction. Without the myelin sheath, the electrical signals would be slower and more susceptible to interference, resulting in decreased efficiency of communication between neurons.

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  • 18. 

    When a motor neuron reaches its firing threshold, every muscle cell in the motor unit it supplies will contract maximally. This is known as

    • A.

      'All or none' law

    • B.

      Action potential

    • C.

      Neurotransmission

    • D.

      Reciprocal inhibition

    Correct Answer
    A. 'All or none' law
    Explanation
    The 'All or none' law states that when a motor neuron reaches its firing threshold, all the muscle cells in the motor unit it supplies will contract maximally. This means that either all the muscle cells in the motor unit will contract or none of them will contract. There is no partial contraction. This law helps to ensure coordinated and efficient muscle movement, as all the muscle cells in a motor unit work together to produce a strong and synchronized contraction.

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  • 19. 

    What is controlled by the somatic nervous system?

    • A.

      Skeletal muscles

    • B.

      Endocrine glands

    • C.

      Digestive system

    • D.

      The heart

    Correct Answer
    A. Skeletal muscles
    Explanation
    The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements and actions in the body. It is responsible for transmitting signals from the brain to the skeletal muscles, allowing us to move and perform physical activities. Therefore, skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system.

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  • 20. 

    What receptors are activated during a developmental stretch?

    • A.

      Muscle spindles

    • B.

      Golgi tendon organs

    • C.

      Barorecptors

    • D.

      Somatic spindles

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscle spindles
    Explanation
    During a developmental stretch, muscle spindles are activated. Muscle spindles are sensory receptors located within the muscle fibers that detect changes in muscle length and help maintain muscle tone and posture. When a muscle is stretched during development, the muscle spindles are activated and send signals to the central nervous system, which in turn triggers a reflex contraction of the muscle. This reflex contraction helps protect the muscle from overstretching and potential injury. Therefore, muscle spindles play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of proper muscle function.

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  • 21. 

    What sensory organs register the position of the body?              

    • A.

      Proprioceptors

    • B.

      Thermoreceptors

    • C.

      Chemoreceptors

    • D.

      Baroreceptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Proprioceptors
    Explanation
    Proprioceptors are sensory receptors that are responsible for registering the position of the body. They are located in muscles, tendons, and joints, and provide information about the body's position, movement, and posture. This information is then sent to the brain, allowing us to have a sense of where our body is in space. Thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors are sensory receptors that are responsible for registering temperature, chemical changes, and pressure, respectively, but they do not specifically register the position of the body.

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  • 22. 

    What is the central nervous system made up of?

    • A.

      Brain and spinal cord

    • B.

      Sensory neurons

    • C.

      Motor neurons

    • D.

      Body organs

    Correct Answer
    A. Brain and spinal cord
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. These two components work together to process and coordinate information from the body's sensory organs and control the body's responses. The brain is responsible for higher cognitive functions, such as thinking and memory, while the spinal cord relays messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Together, they form the central command center of the nervous system.

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  • 23. 

    Interpreting and collating information and deciding on a response is the role of which nervous system?

    • A.

      Central

    • B.

      Peripheral

    • C.

      Automatic

    • D.

      Somatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Central
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is responsible for interpreting and collating information and deciding on a response. It consists of the brain and spinal cord, which receive and process sensory information from the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system then sends out motor responses to the rest of the body. The peripheral nervous system, on the other hand, consists of the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body and is responsible for transmitting sensory information to the central nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary bodily functions, while the somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements.

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  • 24. 

    What is the peripheral nervous system made up of?

    • A.

      Nerves

    • B.

      Brain and spinal cord

    • C.

      Organs

    • D.

      Body systems

    Correct Answer
    A. Nerves
    Explanation
    The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves, which are the long, thread-like structures that transmit signals between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. Nerves are responsible for carrying sensory information from the body to the brain and spinal cord, as well as transmitting motor signals from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and organs. Therefore, the correct answer is nerves.

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  • 25. 

    Which set of nerves carry information from the CNS to the body?

    • A.

      Efferent

    • B.

      Afferent

    • C.

      Parasympathetic

    • D.

      Automatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Efferent
    Explanation
    Efferent nerves carry information from the central nervous system (CNS) to the body. These nerves are responsible for transmitting motor signals, allowing the CNS to control and regulate various bodily functions. Unlike afferent nerves, which carry information from the body to the CNS, efferent nerves play a crucial role in initiating and coordinating voluntary movements and involuntary responses. The parasympathetic and autonomic nerves are subdivisions of the efferent nervous system, but they specifically control specific functions such as digestion and heart rate regulation, respectively.

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  • 26. 

    The sequence of nervous system activity can be described as

    • A.

      ACE

    • B.

      CAE

    • C.

      CAP

    • D.

      PAC

    Correct Answer
    A. ACE
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ACE because it follows the pattern of starting with the letter A, followed by the letter C, and ending with the letter E. This sequence is repeated in the given options, and ACE is the only option that follows this pattern.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the nervous systems are not under our conscious control?

    • A.

      Autonomic

    • B.

      Automatic

    • C.

      Somatic

    • D.

      Parasympathetic

    Correct Answer
    A. Autonomic
    Explanation
    The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. These functions occur automatically without our conscious control. Therefore, the autonomic nervous system is not under our conscious control.

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  • 28. 

    Changes in the internal and external environment are detected by

    • A.

      Sensory receptors

    • B.

      Motor neurones

    • C.

      Proprioceptors

    • D.

      Somatic receptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory receptors
    Explanation
    Sensory receptors are specialized cells that detect changes in the internal and external environment. They are responsible for sensing various stimuli such as light, sound, pressure, temperature, and chemicals. Once these receptors detect a stimulus, they send signals to the brain and spinal cord through sensory neurons, which then process and interpret the information. This allows the body to respond and adapt to changes in the environment.

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  • 29. 

    Which sensory receptor monitors the degree of stretch or tension in a muscle and relays information back to the CNS?

    • A.

      Proprioceptors

    • B.

      Propreceptors

    • C.

      Prioreceptors

    • D.

      Proreceptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Proprioceptors
    Explanation
    Proprioceptors are sensory receptors that monitor the degree of stretch or tension in a muscle and relay this information back to the central nervous system (CNS). These receptors are responsible for providing feedback about the position, movement, and orientation of the body. They play a crucial role in maintaining balance, coordination, and posture.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is responsible for initiating a stretch reflex?

    • A.

      Muscle spindles

    • B.

      Golgi-tendon organs

    • C.

      Sensory neurons

    • D.

      Axon terminal

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscle spindles
    Explanation
    Muscle spindles are responsible for initiating a stretch reflex. These specialized sensory receptors are located within the muscle fibers and detect changes in muscle length and tension. When a muscle is stretched, the muscle spindles send signals to the spinal cord, which then triggers a reflex contraction of the muscle to prevent overstretching and maintain muscle tone. Golgi-tendon organs, on the other hand, detect changes in muscle tension and are involved in the inverse stretch reflex. Sensory neurons and axon terminals are not directly responsible for initiating the stretch reflex.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following plays a vital role in the ‘fight or flight’ mechanism?

    • A.

      Sympathetic nerves

    • B.

      Parasympathetic nerves

    • C.

      Afferent nerves

    • D.

      Efferent nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Sympathetic nerves
    Explanation
    The sympathetic nerves play a vital role in the 'fight or flight' mechanism. This mechanism is a response to stress or danger, where the body prepares to either confront the threat or escape from it. The sympathetic nerves are responsible for activating various physiological responses such as increased heart rate, dilated pupils, and increased blood flow to the muscles. These responses help to prepare the body for physical activity and enhance its ability to respond to the perceived threat.

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  • 32. 

    Increased breathing rate and heart rate is what type of nervous system response?

    • A.

      Sympathetic

    • B.

      Parasympathetic

    • C.

      Automatic

    • D.

      Somatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Sympathetic
    Explanation
    Increased breathing rate and heart rate are both physiological responses that occur during the "fight or flight" response, which is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for activating the body's stress response, increasing alertness, and preparing the body for action.

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  • 33. 

    Parasympathetic nerves are responsible for 

    • A.

      Decreasing activity

    • B.

      Increasing activity

    • C.

      Keeping activity the same

    • D.

      Growing activity

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreasing activity
    Explanation
    Parasympathetic nerves are responsible for decreasing activity. The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions. It works in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for increasing activity. The parasympathetic nerves help to slow down bodily functions, conserve energy, and promote relaxation. This includes decreasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and stimulating digestion. Therefore, the correct answer is decreasing activity.

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  • 34. 

    Where are muscle spindles found?

    • A.

      Belly of the muscle

    • B.

      In the ligaments

    • C.

      In the tendons

    • D.

      At the end of the muscle

    Correct Answer
    A. Belly of the muscle
    Explanation
    Muscle spindles are sensory receptors found within the belly of the muscle. These specialized structures are responsible for detecting changes in muscle length and rate of change, providing important feedback to the central nervous system about muscle length and tension. Located within the muscle fibers, muscle spindles play a crucial role in regulating muscle contraction and maintaining posture.

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  • 35. 

    Where are the golgi-tendon organs found?

    • A.

      In the tendons

    • B.

      In the ligaments

    • C.

      Belly of the muscle

    • D.

      In the heart

    Correct Answer
    A. In the tendons
    Explanation
    Golgi-tendon organs are sensory receptors that are found in the tendons. These organs provide information about the tension and force being applied to the tendons, allowing the body to regulate muscle contraction and protect against excessive force. The Golgi-tendon organs are not found in the ligaments, belly of the muscle, or in the heart.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 15, 2018
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