Pharm Principles Of Pharm W Exp

20 Questions | Total Attempts: 94

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Pharm Principles Of Pharm W Exp

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 45-year-old man with a medical history of atrial fibrillation and diabetes was recently diagnosed with bone tuberculosis. Oral medications taken by the patient included: Pyrazinamide ......(base, pKa = 10.0) Warfarin ..............(acid, pKa = 5.0) Isoniazid............ (base, pKa = 3.8) Ethambutol ........(base, pKa = 6.3) Glyburide ............(acid, pKa = 5.3) Which of the listed drugs was most ionized in the patient’s stomach lumen (assuming a pH = 1.5?
    • A. 

      Pyrazinamide

    • B. 

      Warfarin

    • C. 

      Isoniazid

    • D. 

      Ethambutol

    • E. 

      Glyburide

  • 2. 
    A 62-year-old man, recently diagnosed with ventricular tachycardia, started a treatment with amiodarone, 200 mg daily. The drug has a Vd of about 1290 L, and an a t½ of about 25 days. Which of the following was most likely the time needed for amiodarone plasma concentration to reach practically the steady state in this patient?
    • A. 

      50 days

    • B. 

      100 days

    • C. 

      25 days

    • D. 

      12 days

    • E. 

      150 days

    • F. 

      125 days

  • 3. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new a drug was studied in laboratory animals. A 200 mg dose of the drug was given IV and blood samples were drawn and analyzed for drug content. The drug concentrations at various times were obtained and plotted below. Which of the following was most likely the Vd of the drug, in liters?
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      10

    • D. 

      15

    • E. 

      20

    • F. 

      8

  • 4. 
    A 75-year-old woman was treated with doxycycline (200 mg IV every 8 hours) for a severe rickettsial pneumonia. knowing that the clearance of doxycycline is about 22 L/hr, which of the following was most likely the plasma concentration of the drug (in mg/L) at the steady state, in this patient?
    • A. 

      0.50

    • B. 

      0.05

    • C. 

      0.25

    • D. 

      1.45

    • E. 

      1.13

    • F. 

      1.78

  • 5. 
    A 54-year-old obese patient (weight: 130 kg), recently diagnosed with essential hypertension, started a treatment with diltiazem, 30 mg tablet twice daily. The drug has a t1/2 of about 4 hours and a Vd of 1.7 L/Kg. Which of the following was most likely the total clearance (in L/hr) of diltiazem in this patient?
    • A. 

      45.5

    • B. 

      24.2

    • C. 

      58.1

    • D. 

      38.5

    • E. 

      13.4

    • F. 

      75.2

  • 6. 
    A 17-year-old boy took a tablet of ibuprofen because of a disturbing headache. Ibuprofen is weak acid with a pKa of 4.8. What percentage of the drug was most likely water soluble in the patient’s plasma?
    • A. 

      1%

    • B. 

      24%

    • C. 

      50%

    • D. 

      76%

    • E. 

      99%

    • F. 

      > 99%

  • 7. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new drug that follows a first-order, one compartment model kinetics, was studied in a healthy volunteer. A 20 mg dose was given IV. The plasma concentration of the drug turned out to be 2 mg/L initially, and 1 mg/L 2 hours later. Which of the following was most likely the total clearance of the drug (in L/h)?
    • A. 

      2.5

    • B. 

      8.4

    • C. 

      5.5

    • D. 

      6.7

    • E. 

      3.5

    • F. 

      4.9

  • 8. 
    A 41-year-old man, admitted to the coronary unit because of a myocardial infarction, developed a sustained tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation. A loading dose of lidocaine was given IV. Lidocaine has a t½ of 1.8 hours, a total CL of 38 L/hr and is effective at an initial plasma concentration of 3 mg/L. Which loading dose (in mg) was most likely administered to this patient?
    • A. 

      294

    • B. 

      244

    • C. 

      127

    • D. 

      98

    • E. 

      350

    • F. 

      72

  • 9. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new a drug was studied in a healthy volunteer. A 32mg dose was given IV and blood samples were drawn and analyzed for drug content. The drug concentrations at various times were obtained and plotted below. Which of the following was most likely the total CL of the drug, in L/hr?
    • A. 

      2.25

    • B. 

      1.40

    • C. 

      3.02

    • D. 

      2.01

    • E. 

      2.87

  • 10. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new drug was studied in a healthy volunteer. The drug was given by IV infusion at a rate of 300 mg/h . The drug concentrations at various times were obtained and the curve interpolating these concentrations is depicted below. Which of the following was most likely the total CL of the drug in L/h?
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      20

    • D. 

      8

    • E. 

      26

    • F. 

      6

  • 11. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new drug that follows first-order, one compartment model kinetics, was studied in a healthy volunteer. A 900 mg dose was given by oral route. It was found that the drug had an oral bioavailability of 0.05, volume of distribution (Vd) of about 2500 liters and total clearance of 10 mL/min. Which of the following statements best explains why the drug had such a large Vd in this subject?
    • A. 

      It was concentrated intracellularly

    • B. 

      It distributed in the total body water

    • C. 

      Its administered dose was very high

    • D. 

      It had a low oral bioavailability

    • E. 

      It had a low total clearance

  • 12. 
    A 54-year-old woman, suffering from metastatic breast cancer, started a treatment with buprenorphine by sublingual route. Buprenorphine is a basic drug with a pKa of about 8.4. The sublingual bioavailability of the drug is about 50% whereas its oral bioavailability is < 20%. Which of the following statements best explains the reason of this difference?
    • A. 

      Sublingual mucosa has higher absorption capacity than intestinal mucosa

    • B. 

      The drug is mainly non-ionized in the intestinal lumen

    • C. 

      Saliva pH is higher than the pH of the intestinal lumen

    • D. 

      The hepatic clearance of the drug is very high

    • E. 

      Surface area of sublingual mucosa is quite large

  • 13. 
    A 63-year-old woman with atrial flutter had been receiving diltiazem, an antiarrhythmic drug biotransformed by CYP3A4 isozyme. Few days ago she was diagnosed with tuberculosis and started a treatment which included rifampin. Knowing that rifampin can affect diltiazem metabolism, which of the following might occur?
    • A. 

      Plasma levels of diltiazem may increase

    • B. 

      The pharmacological effects of diltiazem may be reduced

    • C. 

      The therapeutic index of diltiazem may decrease

    • D. 

      The dose of diltiazem may need to be decreased

    • E. 

      Overdose toxicity of diltiazem is more likely

  • 14. 
    A 57-year-old man, who was in the hospital after a surgical operation, complained from a severe abdominal pain and the physician decided to start an analgesic treatment. The drugs he was considering were morphine (10 mg IM) and buprenorphine (0.3 mg IM). Morphine is a full agonist at opioid mu receptors whereas buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the same receptors. The above mentioned doses of the two drugs are equieffective doses. Which of the following pairs of statements correctly defines the potency and efficacy of morphine and buprenorphine?
    • A. 

      Morphine most potent. Buprenorphine most effective

    • B. 

      Morphine most potent. Buprenorphine least effective

    • C. 

      Morphine least potent. Buprenorphine most effective

    • D. 

      Morphine least potent. Buprenorphine least effective

  • 15. 
    Drug A and Drug B, tested in an in vitro system, turn out to have equal affinity for the same receptor and intrinsic activities greater than zero. The maximal efficacy of drug B is 100%. When Drug B is co-administered with a fixed dose of Drug A, the log dose-effect curve of Drug B is shifted to the left.  Which of the following terms best defines drug A?
    • A. 

      Full agonist

    • B. 

      Partial agonist

    • C. 

      Competitive antagonist

    • D. 

      Irreversible antagonist

    • E. 

      Functional antagonist

  • 16. 
    The graph below represents the relationship between increasing doses of a drug and percent individuals showing a predefined effect. Which of the following phrases best defines the depicted relationship?
    • A. 

      Graded log dose-response curve

    • B. 

      Cumulative frequency distribution of doses

    • C. 

      Therapeutic/ toxic dose relationship

    • D. 

      Graded dose-response curve

    • E. 

      Quantal log dose-response curve

  • 17. 
    In the figure below, curve X depicts the log dose-response curve for a full alpha-1 agonist on contraction of vascular smooth muscle. Which of the curves best depicts the log dose-response curve of that agonist when a fixed dose of a competitive alpha-1 antagonist is given concomitantly?
    • A. 

      Curve A

    • B. 

      Curve B

    • C. 

      Curve C

    • D. 

      Curve D

    • E. 

      Curve E

  • 18. 
    A 65-year-old woman, admitted to the hospital with a myocardial infarction, developed a ventricular tachycardia and received an IV injection of lidocaine. The cardiologist knew that the dose given must be within the range of doses that have a high probability of therapeutic success. Which of the following terms best defines this range?
    • A. 

      Intrinsic activity

    • B. 

      Efficacy

    • C. 

      Potency

    • D. 

      Therapeutic index

    • E. 

      Therapeutic window

    • F. 

      Response variability

  • 19. 
    A 17-year-old girl started smoking one month ago and now she is smoking 5-10 cigarettes daily. She has noticed that the first cigarette of the day often causes mild tachycardia, which usually disappears with the following cigarettes. Which of the following terms best defines this tolerance pattern?
    • A. 

      Cross tolerance

    • B. 

      Tachyphylaxis

    • C. 

      Pharmacokinetic tolerance

    • D. 

      Innate tolerance

    • E. 

      Sensitization

  • 20. 
    A 54-year-old man had been diagnosed with peptic ulcer and an appropriate therapy was prescribed. The therapy included antacids ‘as needed’, in order to antagonize the effects of the hydrochloric acid secreted by gastric parietal cells. Which of the following terms best defines this acid-antacid antagonism?
    • A. 

      Competitive

    • B. 

      Noncompetitive

    • C. 

      Functional

    • D. 

      Chemical

    • E. 

      Pharmacokinetic

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