Chapter 12: DNA And RNA

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DNA Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Process in which one strain of bacteria changes into another one

    Explanation
    Transformation is a process in which one strain of bacteria changes into another one. This process involves the uptake and incorporation of foreign genetic material, such as DNA, into the bacterial cell. This genetic material can come from other bacteria, viruses, or the environment. Once the foreign DNA is incorporated into the bacterial genome, it can be expressed and inherited by subsequent generations of bacteria. This process of transformation is important for genetic diversity and the acquisition of new traits in bacteria.

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  • 2. 

    Process in which DNA makes a copy of itself

    Explanation
    Replication refers to the process in which DNA creates an identical copy of itself. During replication, the DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two strands, and each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This ensures that each new cell formed during cell division receives a complete set of genetic information. Replication is a crucial step in the cell cycle and is essential for the growth, development, and reproduction of organisms.

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  • 3. 

    Protein that DNA wraps around in eukaryotic chromosomes

    Explanation
    Histones are proteins that help organize and package DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes. They act as spools around which DNA wraps, forming a structure called a nucleosome. This packaging allows for efficient storage of DNA within the nucleus and also plays a role in regulating gene expression. Therefore, the correct answer for the given question is histone.

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  • 4. 

    Virus that infects bacteria

    Explanation
    A bacteriophage is a type of virus that specifically infects bacteria. It attaches to the surface of a bacterial cell and injects its genetic material into the cell. This genetic material then takes over the bacterial cell's machinery, causing it to produce more copies of the virus. Eventually, the bacterial cell bursts, releasing new phages that can go on to infect other bacteria. Bacteriophages are commonly used in scientific research and have potential applications in medicine, such as using them to target and destroy harmful bacteria.

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  • 5. 

    Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

    Explanation
    A promoter is a region of DNA that serves as a signal for an enzyme to bind and initiate the process of RNA synthesis. It contains specific DNA sequences that are recognized by RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region allows for the accurate initiation of transcription, ensuring that the correct genes are transcribed into RNA molecules. Therefore, the promoter plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression by determining when and where RNA synthesis should occur.

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  • 6. 

    A change in the genetic material

    Explanation
    A mutation refers to a change in the genetic material of an organism. This change can occur in the DNA sequence, resulting in alterations in the genetic code. Mutations can be caused by various factors such as errors during DNA replication, exposure to mutagens (such as radiation or certain chemicals), or spontaneous changes. Mutations can have different effects on an organism, ranging from no noticeable impact to significant changes in its traits or functions. Therefore, the given answer "mutation" accurately describes a change in the genetic material.

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  • 7. 

    Sections of RNA molocules that are not involved in coding for proteins

    Explanation
    Introns are sections of RNA molecules that are not involved in coding for proteins. They are non-coding regions that are transcribed from DNA but are removed during the process of RNA splicing before the final mRNA molecule is formed. Introns do not contain information for protein synthesis and are usually discarded, while the remaining coding regions called exons are joined together to form the mature mRNA. This process allows for alternative splicing, where different combinations of exons can be included or excluded, leading to the generation of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene.

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  • 8. 

    A group of genes that operate together

    Explanation
    An operon is a group of genes that are transcribed together and are under the control of a single promoter. This allows for coordinated regulation of gene expression, as all the genes in the operon are involved in the same biological process or pathway. The operon concept was first proposed by François Jacob and Jacques Monod in the 1960s and has since been widely studied in prokaryotes. In an operon, the genes are usually transcribed as a single mRNA molecule, which can then be translated into multiple proteins.

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  • 9. 

    Three nucleotides that specify a single amino acid to be added to a polypeptide

    Explanation
    A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that determines which specific amino acid will be added to a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis. Each codon corresponds to a specific amino acid, allowing the genetic code to be translated from DNA to protein. The three nucleotides in a codon are read by the ribosome during translation, and the corresponding amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain. Therefore, a codon is responsible for specifying a single amino acid in the synthesis of a protein.

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  • 10. 

    Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

    Explanation
    Differentiation refers to the process in which cells undergo specialization in both structure and function. During differentiation, cells acquire distinct characteristics and functions that enable them to perform specific tasks within an organism. This process is crucial for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, as it allows for the formation of different tissues and organs with specialized functions. Through differentiation, cells become more specialized and efficient in carrying out their designated roles, contributing to the overall functionality and complexity of the organism.

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  • 11. 

    The principal enzyme involved in DNA replication

    Explanation
    DNA polymerase is the principal enzyme involved in DNA replication. It catalyzes the synthesis of a new DNA strand by adding nucleotides to the growing chain. DNA polymerase is responsible for accurately copying the genetic information stored in DNA during replication. It has the ability to recognize the template DNA strand and match complementary nucleotides to synthesize the new strand. Without DNA polymerase, DNA replication would not occur, leading to the inability to pass on genetic information to the next generation.

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  • 12. 

    Condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

    Explanation
    Polyploidy is a condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes. This means that instead of having the usual two sets of chromosomes (diploidy), the organism has three or more sets. Polyploidy can occur naturally or be induced artificially, and it is common in plants. It can lead to changes in the organism's characteristics and can have both positive and negative effects on its fitness and survival.

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  • 13. 

    A(n) ______________, is made up of three parts: a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogeneous base.

    Explanation
    A nucleotide is composed of three components: a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogeneous base. These three parts come together to form a nucleotide, which is the basic building block of DNA. The deoxyribose sugar provides the backbone of the nucleotide, while the phosphate group and nitrogeneous base are attached to the sugar molecule. The nitrogeneous base can be adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), or guanine (G), and it is the sequence of these bases that determines the genetic information encoded in DNA.

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  • 14. 

    The principle of ____________ states that hydrogenbonds can form only between certain bases in DNA.

    Explanation
    The principle of base pairing states that hydrogen bonds can form only between certain bases in DNA. This means that adenine (A) can only form a hydrogen bond with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) can only form a hydrogen bond with guanine (G). This complementary base pairing is essential for the structure and function of DNA, as it allows for the accurate replication and transcription of genetic information.

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  • 15. 

    Eukaryotic chromoromes contain both DNA and protein tightly packed together to form a substance called ____________.

    Explanation
    Eukaryotic chromosomes contain both DNA and protein tightly packed together to form a substance called chromatin. Chromatin is the condensed form of DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It consists of DNA wrapped around histone proteins, forming nucleosomes. The packaging of DNA into chromatin allows for efficient storage and organization of genetic material, as well as regulation of gene expression.

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  • 16. 

    During the process of _____________, RNA molocules are produced by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA.

    Explanation
    During transcription, RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA. This process occurs in the nucleus of a cell and is facilitated by the enzyme RNA polymerase. The resulting RNA molecule is then able to carry the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it is used as a template for protein synthesis. Transcription is a crucial step in gene expression and allows for the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA.

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  • 17. 

    The enzyme that uses one strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a strand of RNA is called ________________.

    Explanation
    RNA polymerase is the enzyme that uses one strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a strand of RNA. It recognizes specific regions on the DNA called promoters and initiates the transcription process by unwinding the DNA double helix and synthesizing an RNA molecule complementary to the DNA template. RNA polymerase is essential for gene expression and plays a crucial role in the synthesis of different types of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

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  • 18. 

    After introns have been cut out of RNA molocules, the remaining peices called _________ are spliced together.

    Explanation
    After introns have been cut out of RNA molecules, the remaining pieces called exons are spliced together. Exons are the coding regions of DNA that contain the instructions for protein synthesis. They are transcribed into RNA and can be joined together to form a mature mRNA molecule, which can then be translated into a protein. This splicing process removes the non-coding introns and ensures that only the necessary genetic information is used to build proteins.

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  • 19. 

    The decoding of an mRNA message into a protein is known as __________.

    Explanation
    Translation is the process by which the mRNA message is decoded and translated into a protein. During translation, ribosomes read the mRNA sequence and use it as a template to assemble the corresponding amino acids in the correct order, forming a protein. This process occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and is essential for protein synthesis.

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  • 20. 

    Three bases on the tRNA molocule are that complementary to one of the mRNA codons are called a(n) _____________.

    Explanation
    The three bases on the tRNA molecule that are complementary to one of the mRNA codons are called an anticodon. The anticodon plays a crucial role in protein synthesis as it allows the tRNA to recognize and pair with the correct mRNA codon during translation. By forming base pairs with the codon, the anticodon ensures that the correct amino acid is added to the growing protein chain.

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  • 21. 

    When the lac repressor protein binds to the ___________________, the lac operon is turned off.

    Explanation
    The lac repressor protein is responsible for regulating the expression of genes in the lac operon. When it binds to the operator region, it prevents RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter region and transcribing the genes in the operon. This effectively turns off the lac operon, as the genes are not being transcribed and therefore not being translated into proteins.

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  • 22. 

    A series of genes, called the __________________, controls the development of organs and tissues in various parts of an embryo.

    Explanation
    The hox gene is a series of genes that play a crucial role in controlling the development of organs and tissues in different parts of an embryo. These genes provide instructions for the formation of body structures and help determine the overall body plan of an organism. They regulate the timing and positioning of body segments, ensuring that organs and tissues develop in the correct locations. The hox gene is essential for the proper development and differentiation of cells during embryonic development.

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