3.A Pre-assessment

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Assessment Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The molecules that contain genetic information in living organisms are DNA and RNA. Which of the following is a major difference between DNA and RNA?

    • A.

      DNA is a nucleic acid, RNA is a protein

    • B.

      DNA creates proteins, RNA creates enzymes

    • C.

      DNA contains uracil, RNA contains thymine

    • D.

      DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single helix

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single helix
    Explanation
    DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids that contain genetic information in living organisms. One major difference between DNA and RNA is their structural configuration. DNA is a double helix, meaning it has two strands that are twisted together in a spiral shape. On the other hand, RNA is a single helix, consisting of only one strand. This structural difference plays a crucial role in their respective functions and abilities to carry out genetic processes.

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  • 2. 

    DNA's structure is made up of free floating nucleotides bonded together to form a double helix. The backbone of the DNA strand is made up of a _____________.

    • A.

      A phosphate group only

    • B.

      Sugar and phosphate group

    • C.

      Nitrogenous base and sugar

    • D.

      Phosphate group and nitrogenous base

    Correct Answer
    B. Sugar and phosphate group
    Explanation
    The structure of DNA is composed of nucleotides, which consist of three components: a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar and phosphate group make up the backbone of the DNA strand, while the nitrogenous bases attach to the sugar molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is "sugar and phosphate group."

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  • 3. 

    Nucleotides are the building blocks for all nucleic acids. Which of the following is included in a nucleotide?

    • A.

      DNA, sugar, and phosphate group

    • B.

      Sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base

    • C.

      Sugar, phosphate group, and RNA

    • D.

      Sugar, phosphate group, and amino acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base
    Explanation
    A nucleotide is composed of three components: a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. The sugar molecule provides the backbone for the nucleotide, the phosphate group connects the nucleotides together, and the nitrogen base determines the specific genetic information carried by the nucleotide. Therefore, the correct answer is "sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base."

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  • 4. 

    In the DNA segment, the structure labeled D is ______________.

    • A.

      Deoxyribose

    • B.

      A phosphate group

    • C.

      A nitrogen base

    • D.

      Ribose

    Correct Answer
    C. A nitrogen base
    Explanation
    The structure labeled D in the DNA segment is a nitrogen base. Nitrogen bases are the building blocks of DNA and RNA molecules. They are responsible for carrying genetic information and determining the genetic code. There are four types of nitrogen bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine, forming the rungs of the DNA ladder-like structure. Therefore, the structure labeled D is most likely one of these nitrogen bases.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following forms of RNA plays a role in protein synthesis?

    • A.

      MRNA only

    • B.

      RRNA and tRNA only

    • C.

      TRNA and mRNA only

    • D.

      MRNA, rRNA, and tRNA

    Correct Answer
    D. MRNA, rRNA, and tRNA
    Explanation
    mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA all play a role in protein synthesis. mRNA carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosomes, providing a platform for protein synthesis. tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes, matching them with the appropriate codons on the mRNA to assemble the protein. Therefore, all three forms of RNA are essential for protein synthesis.

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  • 6. 

    In the DNA double helix structure, thymine (T) always pairs with ______________.

    • A.

      Uracil

    • B.

      Adenine

    • C.

      Cytosine

    • D.

      Guanine

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenine
    Explanation
    In the DNA double helix structure, thymine (T) always pairs with adenine. This is because adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine, creating a stable base pair. These base pairs are essential for DNA replication and transcription, as they ensure accurate copying and reading of the genetic information. Thymine and adenine are complementary bases, meaning that they fit together perfectly due to their specific chemical structure and bonding capabilities. This complementary pairing is a fundamental principle of DNA structure and function.

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  • 7. 

    One of the similarities between DNA and RNA is that they both ___________.

    • A.

      Contain the nitrogen base thymine

    • B.

      Are always single stranded

    • C.

      Contain the sugar ribose

    • D.

      Contain the nitrogen base adenine

    Correct Answer
    D. Contain the nitrogen base adenine
    Explanation
    Both DNA and RNA contain the nitrogen base adenine. Adenine is one of the four nitrogenous bases found in nucleic acids, along with guanine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Adenine pairs with thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA through hydrogen bonds, forming the base pairs that make up the genetic code. Therefore, the presence of adenine is a similarity between DNA and RNA.

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  • 8. 

    The structure of DNA is commonly known as a ___________.

    • A.

      Phospholipid bilayer

    • B.

      Globular shape

    • C.

      Double helix

    • D.

      Single strand

    Correct Answer
    C. Double helix
    Explanation
    The structure of DNA is commonly known as a double helix because it consists of two strands that are twisted around each other in a spiral shape. This structure allows DNA to store and transmit genetic information efficiently. The double helix is formed by the pairing of nucleotides, with adenine (A) always pairing with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) always pairing with guanine (G). This complementary base pairing is essential for DNA replication and the accurate transmission of genetic information during cell division.

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  • 9. 

    What part of the DNA determines the traits of an organism?

    • A.

      The amount of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

    • B.

      The number of sugars in the backbone of the double helix

    • C.

      The specific sequence of the nitrogen bases

    • D.

      The hydrogen bonds holding the double helix together

    Correct Answer
    C. The specific sequence of the nitrogen bases
    Explanation
    The specific sequence of the nitrogen bases in DNA determines the traits of an organism. The order of the nitrogen bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine) in DNA is responsible for encoding the genetic information that determines an organism's traits. Each sequence of bases codes for a specific amino acid, which in turn determines the structure and function of proteins in the organism. Therefore, the specific sequence of the nitrogen bases is crucial in determining the traits and characteristics of an organism.

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  • 10. 

    Differences in structure between DNA and RNA include all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Only DNA is made of nucleotides

    • B.

      RNA uses a ribose sugar

    • C.

      RNA uses uracil

    • D.

      RNA is single stranded

    Correct Answer
    A. Only DNA is made of nucleotides
    Explanation
    This answer is incorrect because both DNA and RNA are made of nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of both DNA and RNA molecules.

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  • 11. 

    During semi-conservative replication, which of these DNA strands would be created as a complement to the strand A-C-T-G-A-C-T?

    • A.

      A-C-T-G-A-C-T

    • B.

      C-A-G-T-C-A-G

    • C.

      G-T-C-A-G-T-C

    • D.

      T-G-A-C-T-G-A

    Correct Answer
    D. T-G-A-C-T-G-A
    Explanation
    During semi-conservative replication, the DNA strands separate and each strand serves as a template for the creation of a new complementary strand. In this case, the original strand A-C-T-G-A-C-T would pair with its complementary bases to form the new strand. Adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). Therefore, the new complementary strand would be T-G-A-C-T-G-A.

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  • 12. 

    Below are strands of DNA and their transcribed counterparts. Which of the strands of DNA were transcribed correctly?

    • A.

      DNA: ATGCTTACAGTC mRNA: TACGAATGTCAG

    • B.

      DNA: UGACGAUGUGCA mRNA: ACTGCTACACGT

    • C.

      DNA: ATTGCAGTCATG mRNA: UAACGUCAGUAC

    • D.

      DNA: ATGCTGCCAGTA mRNA: UACGAGCCUCAU

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA: ATTGCAGTCATG mRNA: UAACGUCAGUAC
    Explanation
    The given DNA strand "ATTGCAGTCATG" was transcribed correctly into the mRNA strand "UAACGUCAGUAC". This is because during transcription, the DNA template strand is used to synthesize an mRNA strand that is complementary to it. In RNA, the base thymine (T) is replaced by uracil (U). Therefore, the adenine (A) in the DNA is correctly transcribed as uracil (U) in the mRNA, the thymine (T) is transcribed as adenine (A), the guanine (G) is transcribed as cytosine (C), and the cytosine (C) is transcribed as guanine (G). The resulting mRNA strand is complementary to the given DNA strand, indicating that it was transcribed correctly.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements is correct concerning transcription?

    • A.

      During transcription the adenine of the DNA joins with thymine of the RNA.

    • B.

      During transcription DNA is used to form a strand of mRNA.

    • C.

      During transcription both strands of the DNA are transcribed at the same time.

    • D.

      During transcription one strand of DNA is the leading strand, and the other is the lagging strand.

    Correct Answer
    B. During transcription DNA is used to form a strand of mRNA.
    Explanation
    During transcription, the process by which genetic information from DNA is copied into mRNA, DNA is indeed used to form a strand of mRNA. This process occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and involves the enzyme RNA polymerase binding to the DNA template strand and synthesizing a complementary mRNA strand. The mRNA molecule then carries the genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it is used as a template for protein synthesis.

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  • 14. 

    Using the original strand of DNA A-T-C-T-G-A-C-T-A-G-C-T, perform DNA replication and apply the base pairing rules to create the complimentary strand.

    • A.

      A-T-C-T-G-A-C-T-A-G-C-T

    • B.

      A-U-G-A-C-U-G-A-U-C-G-A

    • C.

      T-A-G-A-C-T-G-A-T-C-G-A

    • D.

      A-G-C-T-A-G-T-C-A-G-A-T

    Correct Answer
    C. T-A-G-A-C-T-G-A-T-C-G-A
    Explanation
    The given answer shows the complimentary strand of DNA that is formed during DNA replication. According to the base pairing rules, adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C). Therefore, in the complimentary strand, each adenine (A) is replaced with thymine (T), each thymine (T) is replaced with adenine (A), each guanine (G) is replaced with cytosine (C), and each cytosine (C) is replaced with guanine (G). The given answer correctly follows these rules and provides the complimentary strand T-A-G-A-C-T-G-A-T-C-G-A.

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  • 15. 

    The base-pairing rule states that in DNA

    • A.

      Adenine pairs with thymine

    • B.

      Guanine pairs with cytosine

    • C.

      Guanine pairs with thymine

    • D.

      Both A and B

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and B
    Explanation
    The base-pairing rule states that in DNA, adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. This is known as complementary base pairing. Adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds between them, while guanine and cytosine form three hydrogen bonds. Therefore, both statement A (adenine pairs with thymine) and statement B (guanine pairs with cytosine) are correct.

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  • 16. 

    During the process of transcription, DNA is used as a template to make

    • A.

      An identical strand of mRNA

    • B.

      A complementary strand of mRNA

    • C.

      Complementary tRNA molecules

    • D.

      Proteins in the ribosomes

    Correct Answer
    B. A complementary strand of mRNA
    Explanation
    During the process of transcription, DNA is used as a template to make a complementary strand of mRNA. This means that the mRNA molecule that is synthesized during transcription is complementary to the DNA template strand. The mRNA molecule will have a sequence of nucleotides that is complementary to the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA template strand, with the exception that thymine (T) in DNA is replaced by uracil (U) in mRNA. This complementary mRNA molecule will then serve as a template for translation, where it will be used to synthesize proteins in the ribosomes.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following carries amino acids to the ribosome?

    • A.

      MRNA

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      RRNA

    • D.

      TRNA

    Correct Answer
    D. TRNA
    Explanation
    tRNA, or transfer RNA, carries amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis. It is responsible for decoding the mRNA sequence and bringing the corresponding amino acid to the ribosome, where it is added to the growing polypeptide chain. tRNA molecules have a specific anticodon sequence that pairs with the codon on the mRNA, ensuring the correct amino acid is added. This process is essential for the accurate translation of the genetic code into proteins.

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  • 18. 

    During translation, the anticodons of the __________ bond to the codons of the __________, allowing an amino acid chain to be formed.

    • A.

      MRNA, ribosome

    • B.

      MRNA, tRNA

    • C.

      TRNA, ribosome

    • D.

      TRNA, mRNA

    Correct Answer
    D. TRNA, mRNA
    Explanation
    During translation, the anticodons of the tRNA bond to the codons of the mRNA, allowing an amino acid chain to be formed. The tRNA carries the specific amino acid that corresponds to the codon on the mRNA. The anticodon on the tRNA recognizes and pairs with the complementary codon on the mRNA, ensuring that the correct amino acid is added to the growing chain. This process continues until the entire mRNA sequence has been translated and a complete protein is formed.

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  • 19. 

    During translation, ___________ synthesize proteins, using __________ to translate the genetic information in mRNA.

    • A.

      Ribosomes, tRNA

    • B.

      Amino acids, tRNA

    • C.

      Ribosomes, rRNA

    • D.

      Amino acids, rRNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Ribosomes, tRNA
    Explanation
    During translation, ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNA to translate the genetic information in mRNA. Ribosomes are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis, while tRNA molecules carry specific amino acids to the ribosomes. The ribosomes read the mRNA sequence and use the tRNA molecules to assemble the correct sequence of amino acids, ultimately forming a protein. Therefore, the correct answer is ribosomes, tRNA.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is the correct sequence during protein synthesis?

    • A.

      DNA -> transcription -> mRNA -> translation -> protein

    • B.

      MRNA -> transcription -> DNA -> translation -> protein

    • C.

      DNA -> translation -> mRNA -> transcription -> protein

    • D.

      Protein -> transcription -> mRNA -> translation -> DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. DNA -> transcription -> mRNA -> translation -> protein
    Explanation
    During protein synthesis, the process begins with the DNA molecule being transcribed into mRNA through a process called transcription. The mRNA molecule then moves out of the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for translation. During translation, the mRNA is read by ribosomes, and amino acids are brought in and linked together to form a protein. Therefore, the correct sequence during protein synthesis is DNA -> transcription -> mRNA -> translation -> protein.

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