Campbell Biology - Chapter 5 - The Working Cell

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Campbell Biology - Chapter 5 - The Working Cell - Quiz

The scientific study of biology covers all of the bases of life, looking at bacteria, animals, plants and oh so much more, but in the following quiz, we’ll be taking a closer look under the microscope to see what little building blocks are used to make up all of these organisms; the cells! What do you know about the cell, its structure, and its many functions? Take the quiz to find out!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Biological membranes are composed of what? (Check all that apply.)

    • A.

      Phospholipids

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Fluid mosaic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Phospholipids
    B. Proteins
    Explanation
    Fluid mosaic is just another word for a membrane. The membrane or fluid mosaic itself is actually MADE from phospholipids and proteins.

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  • 2. 

    What keeps the phospholipids in a fluid mosaic (membrane) from being packed too tightly together? What keeps it so fluid?

    • A.

      Enzymes

    • B.

      Double bond "kinks" in the unsaturated fatty acid layer

    • C.

      Monosaccharides

    Correct Answer
    B. Double bond "kinks" in the unsaturated fatty acid layer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Double bond 'kinks' in the unsaturated fatty acid layer." The presence of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid layer of the phospholipids creates bends or kinks in the fatty acid tails. These kinks prevent the phospholipids from being packed too tightly together, maintaining the fluidity of the membrane. The double bonds introduce flexibility and prevent the formation of a rigid structure, allowing the phospholipids to move and interact with other molecules in the membrane.

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  • 3. 

    What role does the steroid cholesterol play in the phospholipid bilayer?

    • A.

      None - there is no cholesterol in a phospholipid bilayer.

    • B.

      The cholesterol helps keep the membrane fluid.

    • C.

      The cholesterol helps stabilize and keep the bilayer warm and fluid at colder temperatures.

    Correct Answer
    C. The cholesterol helps stabilize and keep the bilayer warm and fluid at colder temperatures.
    Explanation
    Cholesterol plays a crucial role in the phospholipid bilayer by helping to stabilize and maintain the fluidity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures. It acts as a buffer, preventing the fatty acid chains of phospholipids from packing too closely together and solidifying the membrane. This allows the membrane to remain flexible and functional, ensuring proper cell function even in colder environments.

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  • 4. 

    More than 50 kinds of proteins have been found in the plasma membrane of red blood cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because research has identified over 50 different types of proteins in the plasma membrane of red blood cells. These proteins play various roles in the cell, including transporting molecules across the membrane, maintaining cell shape, and facilitating cell-cell interactions. The presence of these proteins is essential for the proper functioning of red blood cells and their ability to carry out their oxygen transport function.

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  • 5. 

    Membranes have selective permeability. What does this mean?

    • A.

      They do not allow any substances to pass through.

    • B.

      They allow all substances to pass through.

    • C.

      They allow some substances to pass through.

    Correct Answer
    C. They allow some substances to pass through.
    Explanation
    Membranes have selective permeability means that they only allow certain substances to pass through while blocking others. This is due to the presence of specific channels or transport proteins that regulate the movement of molecules across the membrane. The selectivity of the membrane allows for the maintenance of internal conditions within the cell and controls the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules with the external environment.

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  • 6. 

    What is "diffusion"?

    • A.

      The tendency for particles to spread out evenly in an available space.

    • B.

      A chemical process that releases energy.

    • C.

      Another word for the photosynthesis process.

    Correct Answer
    A. The tendency for particles to spread out evenly in an available space.
    Explanation
    Diffusion is the process by which particles spread out evenly in an available space. This occurs due to the random motion of particles, where they move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This process is driven by the principle of entropy, which states that systems tend to move towards a state of greater disorder. Therefore, the correct answer accurately describes the concept of diffusion.

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  • 7. 

    Imagine a small area of water that is divided in half by a membrane that is permeable to dye, meaning that dye molecules can pass through it. Red dye is placed on just one side of the membrane. What will happen?

    • A.

      The red dye will stay on one side of the membrane.

    • B.

      All of the red dye will move to the other side of the membrane.

    • C.

      Some of the red dye will move to the other side until both sides of the membrane are equally filled with red dye molecules.

    Correct Answer
    C. Some of the red dye will move to the other side until both sides of the membrane are equally filled with red dye molecules.
    Explanation
    The end result is the process of "diffusion."

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  • 8. 

    Diffusion requires energy from cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Diffusion is a passive transport that requires no energy from the cell. Plain old diffusion is not the same as facilitated diffusion.

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  • 9. 

    Suppose there is a membrane that is permeable to water but NOT to glucose. The membrane is in the water. Glucose is mixed in the water on both sides of the membrane. Although there is an EQUAL amount of water on both sides of the membrane, here are more glucose molecules on one side of the membrane. What will happen?

    • A.

      Nothing

    • B.

      More water will migrate through the membrane towards the side with MORE glucose molecules

    • C.

      More water will migrate through the membrane towards the side with FEWER glucose molecules

    Correct Answer
    B. More water will migrate through the membrane towards the side with MORE glucose molecules
    Explanation
    Through a process called osmosis, water will seek to make the solution concentrations equal on both sides of the membrane. In order to do this, more water will migrate to where there are more glucose molecules.

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  • 10. 

    When an animal cell is submerged in an isotonic solution, the cell's volume will remain constant. In other words, it will neither shrivel up nor "explode."

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When a solution is isotonic, that means the solute concentration of both the inside of the cell and the cell's surrounding environment are EQUAL. "Iso" means "same." "Tonos" means tension. Equal tension on both sides of the cell membrane means the cell isn't going to cave in or burst.

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  • 11. 

    Animal cells have a tendency to burst like balloons in hypotonic solutions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When the cell contains more of a solute than its surrounding environment, more water will move into the cell to equalize the concentration on both sides. Unfortunately, an animal cell can only contain so much water, so this has the effect of swelling up the cell until it pops.

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  • 12. 

    Animal cells in a hypertonic solution will shrivel up and die.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If an animal cell is in an environment where the solute concentration is greater there than inside the cell, the water inside the cell will migrate outside to equalize things. So the cell loses water, shrivels up, and dies horribly.

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  • 13. 

    Plant cells thrive in an isotonic solution.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This is true for *animal* cells. However, plant cells prefer hypotonic solutions that give them an inflow of water. When a plant cell is submerged in a solution of equal solute concentration (in other words, more water is not compelled to move in or out of the cell), it just goes limp. Limp, droopy plant cells are not happy, healthy plant cells.

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  • 14. 

    Plant cells shrivel up in hypertonic solutions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Like animal cells, plant cells will shrivel up in hypertonic (NOT hypotonic) solutions. Water will move out of the plant cell and into the surrounding environment to equalize solute concentration. Neither plant cells nor animal cells like to lose water, since it tends to kill them.

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  • 15. 

    What is a hypotonic solution?

    • A.

      A solution with a solute concentration lower than that of a cell

    • B.

      A solution with a solute concentration higher than that of a cell

    • C.

      A solution with a solute concentration equal to that of a cell

    Correct Answer
    A. A solution with a solute concentration lower than that of a cell
    Explanation
    A hypotonic solution refers to a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes compared to a cell. When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water will move into the cell through osmosis, causing the cell to swell or potentially burst. This is because the concentration of solutes inside the cell is higher than that of the surrounding solution, leading to the movement of water from an area of lower solute concentration (the solution) to an area of higher solute concentration (the cell).

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  • 16. 

    What does a transport protein do?

    • A.

      Transport certain solutes through the cell membrane

    • B.

      Transport DNA instructions to ribosomes

    • C.

      Turn the phospholipid bilayer inside-out

    Correct Answer
    A. Transport certain solutes through the cell membrane
    Explanation
    A transport protein is responsible for facilitating the movement of specific solutes across the cell membrane. These solutes can include ions, molecules, or other substances that need to enter or exit the cell. The transport protein acts as a channel or carrier, allowing the solutes to pass through the hydrophobic interior of the cell membrane, which they would not be able to do on their own due to the lipid bilayer. This process is essential for maintaining the balance of substances inside and outside the cell, as well as for various cellular processes such as nutrient uptake and waste removal.

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  • 17. 

    What is an aquaporin?

    • A.

      A type of blood cell

    • B.

      A base solution

    • C.

      A membrane protein that allows the rapid entry and exit of water molecules.

    Correct Answer
    C. A membrane protein that allows the rapid entry and exit of water molecules.
    Explanation
    An aquaporin is a membrane protein that facilitates the movement of water molecules across cell membranes. It acts as a channel, allowing water to rapidly enter or exit the cell. This protein is essential for maintaining water balance in cells and tissues, and it plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as kidney function, fluid secretion, and plant water transport.

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  • 18. 

    What does a cell use to move a solute against its concentration gradient (ie, moving a through a membrane to a side where the solute is more concentrated)?

    • A.

      Aquaporins

    • B.

      Active transport

    • C.

      Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Active transport
    Explanation
    Active transport is the correct answer because it is the process by which a cell uses energy to move a solute against its concentration gradient. This process requires the use of specific proteins called transporters or pumps that actively move the solute across the cell membrane, consuming ATP in the process. Aquaporins, on the other hand, are proteins that facilitate the movement of water across the cell membrane, while diffusion is the passive movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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  • 19. 

    Which process do cells use to take in a substance?

    • A.

      Exocytosis

    • B.

      Endocytosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Endocytosis
    Explanation
    Exo: outside. Endo: inside.

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  • 20. 

    Kinetic energy is associated with...

    • A.

      Thermal energy (random movement of atoms/molecules)

    • B.

      Light energy (used for photosynthesis)

    • C.

      Both A and B

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B
    Explanation
    Kinetic energy is associated with both thermal energy and light energy. Thermal energy refers to the random movement of atoms and molecules, which is a form of kinetic energy. Light energy, on the other hand, is used for photosynthesis, which involves the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in plants. Therefore, both A (thermal energy) and B (light energy) are correct explanations for the association of kinetic energy.

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  • 21. 

    Chemical energy is a potential energy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This refers to the potential energy that would be released with a chemical reaction.

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  • 22. 

    What is cellular respiration?

    • A.

      The rhythmic breathing of a cell

    • B.

      Energy conversion (converting "food" energy to ATP)

    • C.

      Cytoplasmic regulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Energy conversion (converting "food" energy to ATP)
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that provides energy for cellular activities. This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose through a series of chemical reactions. Through cellular respiration, cells are able to extract energy from food and convert it into a usable form, ATP, which is essential for various cellular functions and processes.

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  • 23. 

    An enzyme is a type of carbohydrate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    An enzyme is a protein.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 01, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Catherine Halcomb
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