Block 9 Vaccines Abx Infxn Cntrl And Ethics MCQ's

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By Chachelly
C
Chachelly
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 514 | Total Attempts: 587,661
Questions: 17 | Attempts: 348

SettingsSettingsSettings
Block 9 Vaccines Abx Infxn Cntrl And Ethics MCQs - Quiz

.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What type of immunity is protective against Haemophilus influenzae type b?

    • A.

      Antibodies and complement

    • B.

      Antibodies and phagocytes

    • C.

      T cells and macrophages

    • D.

      IgE and mast cells

    • E.

      There is no protective immune response

    Correct Answer
    A. Antibodies and complement
    Explanation
    Antibodies and complement play a crucial role in protecting against Haemophilus influenzae type b. Antibodies, produced by B cells, specifically target and neutralize the bacteria. Complement, a group of proteins, enhances the immune response by assisting in the destruction of the bacteria. Together, antibodies and complement work synergistically to eliminate the pathogen and provide immunity against Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    A new virus, the Semester 3-induced Hysteria virus (SIFIV) has been discovered, This virus is oncogenic, causing brain tumors, and establishes latency in certain individuals. Most individuals who experience natural infection become protected from subsequent infection via the production of antibodies. These antibodies recognize a conformational epitope comprised of the juxtaposition of 2 capsid proteins on the surface of the virus. A vaccine for this virus is underway. Which type of vaccine would be best for this virus?

    • A.

      Live attenuated

    • B.

      Formalin-inactivated viral particles

    • C.

      Subunit vaccine comprised of the 2 recombinantly expressed capsid proteins

    • D.

      A hybrid vaccine consisting of the 2 capsid genes inserted into vaccinia virus

    Correct Answer
    B. Formalin-inactivated viral particles
    Explanation
    Inactivated Vaccines
    Inactivated vaccines, as the name implies, can produce a protective immune response without the risk of infection by the agent. They are used for agents that cannot be attenuated, that may cause recurrent infection, or that have ONOGENIC POTENTIAL.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    A new virus, Grouch Papilloma Virus, has been isolated from a Grouch population living in a small community in New York City. While primary infection is largely asymptomatic, the virus is known to establish latency and causes sduamous cell carcinoma in a high proportion of latently infected patients. Development of a vaccine is underway. Why would an inactivated vaccine be a better choice than a live vaccine for this organism?

    • A.

      Inactivated vaccines are strong stimulators of cell-mediated immunity

    • B.

      Live organisms in live vaccines have no chance of establishing latency

    • C.

      Inactivated vaccines are always the best choice for viruses.

    • D.

      With an inactivated vaccine, there is no need for booster shots.

    • E.

      With an inactivated vaccine, there is no risk for the organism to drive oncogenesis.

    Correct Answer
    E. With an inactivated vaccine, there is no risk for the organism to drive oncogenesis.
    Explanation
    Inactivated Vaccines
    Inactivated vaccines, as the name implies, can produce a protective immune response without the risk of infection by the agent. They are used for agents that cannot be attenuated, that may cause recurrent infection, or that have ONOGENIC POTENTIAL.

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    Which of the following vaccines contain toxoids?

    • A.

      Trivalent influenza A and influenza B

    • B.

      Measles, mumps,rubella

    • C.

      Haemophilus influenzae type b

    • D.

      Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    • E.

      Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis

    Correct Answer
    E. Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
    Explanation
    Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTaP) vaccine contains toxoids. Toxoids are inactivated toxins that are used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response without causing the disease. In the case of DTaP vaccine, the toxoids of diphtheria and tetanus are included to provide immunity against these diseases. The vaccine helps the body develop antibodies to fight against the toxins produced by the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    Describe the content of the smallpox vaccine

    • A.

      Live, dsDNA virus derived from variola virus

    • B.

      Live, dsDNA virus derived from vaccinia virus

    • C.

      Killed, dsDNA virus derived from the smallpox virus

    • D.

      Killed, clsRNA virus derived from smallpox virus

    • E.

      Component surface antigen of smallpox virus

    • F.

      Attenuated dsRNA virus derived from cowpox virus

    Correct Answer
    B. Live, dsDNA virus derived from vaccinia virus
    Explanation
    The smallpox vaccine is a live, dsDNA virus derived from the vaccinia virus. This means that the vaccine contains a weakened form of the vaccinia virus, which is similar to the variola virus that causes smallpox. By introducing this weakened virus into the body, the immune system is able to recognize and mount a response against it. This helps to prepare the immune system to fight off a potential smallpox infection in the future.

    Rate this question:

  • 6. 

    The vaccine for Anthrax is a killed cell vaccine. Because of the fact that this vaccine is comprised of killed organism, what is a disadvantage of the vaccine?

    • A.

      There is a risk that the vaccine components will secrete the toxins that cause the disease.

    • B.

      The immunity to the organism will wane as soon as the vaccine components are cleared from the body

    • C.

      This vaccine is not appropriate for use in immuncompromised persons

    • D.

      Immunity to this organism is not typically life-long and sustained immunity will require booster shots.

    • E.

      Maintaining viability of the vaccine is a concern

    Correct Answer
    D. Immunity to this organism is not typically life-long and sustained immunity will require booster shots.
    Explanation
    The disadvantage of the killed cell vaccine for Anthrax is that immunity to the organism is not typically life-long and sustained immunity will require booster shots. This means that the vaccine's effectiveness diminishes over time and individuals will need additional doses to maintain their immunity.

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    A 69-year-old man recently diagnosed with a Proteus mirabilis infection started a treatment with a daily 1M injection of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Which of the following pairs of properties best explains why the drug is usually administered once daily despite the short half-life of gentamicin (about two hours)?

    • A.

      Time-dependent killing and bactericidal effect

    • B.

      Extensive plasma protein binding and bactericidal effect

    • C.

      Dose-dependent renal impairment and bacteriostatic effect

    • D.

      Concentration-dependent killing and long post antibiotic effect

    • E.

      Time-dependent killing and long post antibiotic effect

    Correct Answer
    D. Concentration-dependent killing and long post antibiotic effect
    Explanation
    The reason why gentamicin is usually administered once daily despite its short half-life is because it exhibits concentration-dependent killing and has a long post antibiotic effect. This means that the effectiveness of the drug is dependent on achieving a certain concentration in the body, rather than the duration of exposure. Additionally, gentamicin has a prolonged effect after it is eliminated from the body, allowing for once-daily dosing.

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    Which of the following is true regarding innate immunity?

    • A.

      It provides only weak non-specific responses to pathogens

    • B.

      It operates uniquely at body surfaces

    • C.

      It provides rapid immunity and influences acquired immunity

    • D.

      It involves cells but not secreted proteins

    • E.

      It does not require signaling events

    Correct Answer
    C. It provides rapid immunity and influences acquired immunity
    Explanation
    Innate immunity provides rapid immunity and influences acquired immunity. This means that the innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens and can quickly respond to infections. It also plays a crucial role in shaping the adaptive immune response, which is the acquired immunity. Innate immunity involves both cells and secreted proteins, such as cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. Signaling events are also required for the activation of innate immune responses.

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    Innate immune responses are like adaptive immunity in that they

    • A.

      Are antigen-specific

    • B.

      Demonstrate immune memory

    • C.

      Involve macrophages and complement

    • D.

      Involve T lymphocytes

    • E.

      Involve B lymphocytes

    Correct Answer
    C. Involve macrophages and complement
    Explanation
    Innate immune responses involve macrophages and complement. Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the innate immune response by engulfing and destroying pathogens. Complement is a group of proteins in the blood that also contribute to the innate immune response by assisting in the destruction of pathogens. This is different from adaptive immunity, which is antigen-specific and involves T and B lymphocytes, as well as immune memory.

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    This 40 year old patient is complaining of chest pain which begins on the left side of the chest. On occasion the pain radiates up into the jaw area and down his left arm. You explain that this is the pain of angina pectoris which suggests narrowing of the blood vessels of the heart. You suggest that he takes cardiac catherization to establish the diagnosis. He adamantly refuses, "I am too young for that." Your best ethical course of action is?

    • A.

      Call his wife and explain the situation to her.

    • B.

      Bow to the patient's decision respectfully and do nothing.

    • C.

      Call a meeting of the entire family in his absence, detailing the situation and solicit their help in convincing him to agree to your request.

    • D.

      Let the Ethics Committee decide

    • E.

      Approach the court with an order forcing him for his and his family's welfare to cooperate.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bow to the patient's decision respectfully and do nothing.
    Explanation
    As a healthcare professional, it is important to respect the patient's autonomy and right to make decisions about their own healthcare. In this case, the patient has adamantly refused to undergo cardiac catheterization. It would be ethically appropriate to respect his decision and not force him to undergo the procedure against his will. It is important to engage in open and honest communication with the patient, providing information and addressing any concerns or misconceptions he may have.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    This 90 year old man is brought into the emergency room after a motor vehicle accident. He sustained bilateral fractured ribs and is in respiratory distress because of bilateral pneumothoraces (Pneunornothorax). He is conscious though, but failing fast. He needs to be intubated immediately. His wife calls and tells you that she is on her way with his living will which states that he does not want any heroic measures if he is near death, which in essence he is. What is your best ethical course of action?

    • A.

      Delay intubation until the wife arrives with the living will

    • B.

      Move promptly and intubate your patient in the hope that is life will be saved

    • C.

      Call the other family members and get their opinion

    • D.

      Even though he is in distress, request from him what he now wants to be done,

    • E.

      Defer to the advice of the Ethics Committee

    Correct Answer
    D. Even though he is in distress, request from him what he now wants to be done,
    Explanation
    The best ethical course of action in this situation is to request from the patient what he wants to be done, even though he is in distress. This respects the patient's autonomy and allows him to make decisions about his own medical care. It is important to prioritize the patient's wishes and respect his living will, rather than delaying treatment or seeking input from other family members. Defering to the advice of the Ethics Committee may not be necessary in this case, as the patient's wishes can be directly obtained.

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    Your schizophrenic patient confides in you that he has been hearing voices warning him for weeks now that his parents are trying to kill him. He has now concluded, "I think I will get rid of them before they get rid of me. In fact I will poison them tonight.' How do you manage this situation involving this 16 year old boy?

    • A.

      Ignore the comment because you are sure he will not get rid of these two persons on whom he completely depends.

    • B.

      Immediately admit him to the hospital involuntarily, get an immediate Psychiatry consut and restrain him if necessary.

    • C.

      Discuss the situation with him, finally adding "Both your parents love you, you shou!d not talk this way."

    • D.

      Do not admit him to the hospital but get a Psychiatry consult for two (2) days time

    • E.

      Inform the police but do not inform the parents for both fear of breaching confidentiality and unnecessarily causing them concern.

    Correct Answer
    B. Immediately admit him to the hospital involuntarily, get an immediate Psychiatry consut and restrain him if necessary.
    Explanation
    The patient's statement indicates a clear danger to himself and others, as he is expressing a plan to harm his parents. This is a serious situation that requires immediate intervention to ensure the safety of everyone involved. Admitting him to the hospital involuntarily allows for a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation and the implementation of necessary measures, such as restraint if required, to prevent harm. It is crucial to prioritize the patient's safety and provide appropriate care in this scenario.

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    A male patient is hospitalized while in a diabetic coma. Medical records and information provided by the patient's wife indicate a long-standing history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Examination of the patient reveals a gangrenous right leg. if the leg is not immediately amputated, the patient will die. What is the most reasonable and ethical next step for the physician to take?

    • A.

      Amputate the leg immediately without the patient's consent

    • B.

      Do nothing until the patient is competent to provide consent

    • C.

      Exercise the doctrine of substituted judgment.

    • D.

      Exercise the doctrine of best interest

    Correct Answer
    C. Exercise the doctrine of substituted judgment.
    Explanation
    The most reasonable and ethical next step for the physician to take is to exercise the doctrine of substituted judgment. This means that the physician should make decisions on behalf of the patient based on what the patient would have chosen if they were able to make decisions for themselves. In this case, the patient is in a diabetic coma and unable to provide consent, so the physician must act in their best interest by considering their previous medical history and the urgency of the situation.

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    A former patient calls you on the phone and expresses their interest to pursue a personal and intimate relationship with you. They further express a very strong attraction to your caring, gentle, and highly competent manner of relating to patients. The most ethical manner of dealing with this patient is to:

    • A.

      Feel free to reciprocate if interested

    • B.

      Feel free to reciprocate if you have not seen this patient for at least one year

    • C.

      Consult with a colleague before making a decision.

    • D.

      Respectfully decline the offer while allowing the patient to maintain integrity.

    • E.

      It depends on how hot she is

    Correct Answer
    D. Respectfully decline the offer while allowing the patient to maintain integrity.
    Explanation
    The most ethical manner of dealing with this situation is to respectfully decline the patient's offer while still maintaining their integrity. Engaging in a personal and intimate relationship with a former patient is considered unethical due to the power dynamics and potential for exploitation. It is important to prioritize the patient's well-being and maintain professional boundaries. Consulting with a colleague before making a decision can also be helpful in navigating this situation.

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    Your 68 year old male patient is hospitalized for a gangrenous right leg secondary to his longstanding history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. You inform him that amputation is essential in order to preserve his life. He refuses to consent to such intervention and informs you that he would rather die than be without a leg. What is the most reasonable next step for you to take?

    • A.

      Proceed with the surgery

    • B.

      Report him to his family

    • C.

      Simply leave him alone and respect his wishes

    • D.

      Order a consult for a competency evaluation

    Correct Answer
    D. Order a consult for a competency evaluation
    Explanation
    The most reasonable next step is to order a consult for a competency evaluation. This is because the patient's refusal of a life-saving intervention may indicate impaired decision-making capacity. A competency evaluation will help determine whether the patient is capable of making informed decisions about his own healthcare. It is important to ensure that the patient's refusal is based on informed consent rather than a result of cognitive impairment or other factors that may affect his decision-making ability.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    Due to a psychotic episode your 24 year old female patient, who believes you are conducting medical experiments on her, refuses to undergo critical diagnostic tests for a suspected carcinoma of the lung. The tests you intend to perform are the least intrusive means of determining her medical condition, a condition that could be life-threatening. It has been determined that she is not competent to make decisions regarding her medical care. The most reasonable next step would be to:

    • A.

      Immediately proceed with diagnostic testing,

    • B.

      Attempt to determine what is in the best interest of the patient

    • C.

      Wait and hope that her psychosis abates and competency is restored

    • D.

      Determine from the family what she would have wished had she been competent.

    Correct Answer
    D. Determine from the family what she would have wished had she been competent.
    Explanation
    Given that the patient is experiencing a psychotic episode and is not competent to make decisions regarding her medical care, it is important to consider what she would have wanted if she were competent. In this situation, determining the patient's wishes from her family would be the most reasonable next step. This approach respects the patient's autonomy and ensures that her best interests are taken into account, even if she is unable to make decisions for herself at the moment. It allows for a collaborative decision-making process that considers the patient's values and preferences, ultimately aiming to provide the best possible care for her.

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    You are socializing with some friends at a nightclub when a very attractive patient, whom you examined two days previously, approaches you and whispers in your ear that they cannot stop thinking about you and wishes to get to know you better. They even tell you that they are so interested in you that they intend to no longer be your patient so you can be free to pursue something with them. You feel quite flattered, excited, and interested. The most ethical course of action would be to:

    • A.

      Wait two years and then make a decision

    • B.

      Consult with your attorney

    • C.

      Respectfully decline the offer while allowing patient to maintain integrity

    • D.

      Feel free to pursue a relationship as they are no longer your patient.

    • E.

      If she is really hot, it would be ok, just this one time

    Correct Answer
    C. Respectfully decline the offer while allowing patient to maintain integrity
    Explanation
    The most ethical course of action would be to respectfully decline the offer while allowing the patient to maintain their integrity. Engaging in a romantic or personal relationship with a former patient can be seen as a breach of professional boundaries and can compromise the trust and integrity of the doctor-patient relationship. It is important to prioritize the well-being and best interests of the patient and maintain professionalism in all interactions.

    Rate this question:

Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement
×

Wait!
Here's an interesting quiz for you.

We have other quizzes matching your interest.