Block 6 Anatomy Duod Liv Panc Livr Glblder Umich W Expl

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By Chachelly
C
Chachelly
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 507 | Total Attempts: 608,696
Questions: 24 | Attempts: 180

SettingsSettingsSettings
Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which organ becomes retroperitoneal during rotation of the gut tube?

    • A.

      Duodenum

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Spleen

    • D.

      Stomach

    • E.

      Transverse Colon

    Correct Answer
    A. Duodenum
    Explanation
    This question is asking you to identify the organ that is secondarily retroperitoneal. This means that it started out peritonealized but became pressed against the posterior body wall and stuck there during development. Except for the first few centimeters of the superior segment and the duodenojejunal junction, the duodenum is a secondarily retroperitoneal organ - it used to have a mesentery, but that was lost during gut rotation. Although the kidney is a retroperitoneal organ, it is not secondarily retroperitoneal - it started developing in the retroperitoneum and stayed there. The spleen, stomach, and transverse colon are all peritonealized. What segments of the colon are peritonealized? The cecum, transverse colon, and the sigmoid colon are peritoneal, but the ascending and descending colon are retroperitoneal.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    A 40 year-old male with a long history of duodenal ulcer problems was brought in for emergency surgery to control severe hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity. The surgeons found that erosion by the ulcer of a vessel passing behind the first part of the duodenum was the source of the hemorrhage. Which of the following vessels passes behind the first part of the duodenum and would need to be clamped off to control the bleeding?

    • A.

      Coronary vein

    • B.

      Gastroduodenal artery

    • C.

      Inferior pancreatoduodenal arcade

    • D.

      Proper hepatic artery

    • E.

      Splenic vein

    Correct Answer
    B. Gastroduodenal artery
    Explanation
    The gastroduodenal artery lies behind the superior part of the duodenum. It has three branches: the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and the right gastroomental artery. The other vessels are not near the superior duodenum. The coronary vein is made of the right and left gastric veins and located in the lesser curvature of the stomach. The inferior pancreatoduodenal arcade is found in the inferior part of the head of the pancreas. It supplies the pancreas and duodenum. It is near the horizontal (3rd) part of the duodenum, not the superior part. The proper hepatic artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery which delivers oxygenated blood to the liver. Finally, the splenic vein comes from the spleen--it joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    During a cholecystectomy (removal of the gall bladder), the surgical resident accidentally jabbed a sharp instrument into the area immediately posterior to the epiploic foramen (its posterior boundary). He was horrified to see the surgical field immediately fill with blood, the source which he knew was the:

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Inferior vena cava

    • C.

      Portal vein

    • D.

      Right renal artery

    • E.

      Superior mesenteric vein

    Correct Answer
    B. Inferior vena cava
    Explanation
    The epiploic foramen, also called the omental foramen, is the passageway between the greater and lesser peritoneal sacs. The inferior vena cava lies immediately posterior to this foramen, so this is the vessel that was probably cut. The aorta lies next the inferior vena cava, but it is a little more to the left and a little deeper--it does not lie immediately posterior to the epiploic foramen. The hepatic portal vein is anterior to the epiploic foramen. The right renal artery is a branch off of the aorta. Like the aorta, it is too deep to be a vessel immediately behind the foramen. Finally the superior mesentric vein is anterior to the foramen. Remember, this is one of the two vessels that makes the hepatic portal vein, so if the hepatic portal vein is anterior to the foramen, the SMV should be too. (See Netter's 256 for some relevant pictures)

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    The division between the true right and left lobes (internal lobes) of the liver may be visualized on the outside of the liver as a plane passing through the:

    • A.

      Gallbladder fossa and round ligament of liver

    • B.

      Falciform ligament and ligamentum venosum

    • C.

      Gallbladder fossa and inferior vena cava

    • D.

      Falciform ligament and right hepatic vein

    • E.

      Gallbladder fossa and right triangular ligament

    Correct Answer
    C. Gallbladder fossa and inferior vena cava
    Explanation
    This question is asking you to identify the structures that make the line that separates the true/functional lobes of the liver. The concept of functional lobes contrasts with traditional anatomical terminology, which separated the liver into the left, right, quadrate and caudate lobes. These traditional lobes were based on anatomical appearance, while the functional lobes are based on the distribution of the portal vein, hepatic arteries, and hepatic bile ducts. The functional lobes of the liver are separated into a right and left lobe by the gallbladder fossa and the inferior vena cava. So, the old "right lobe" corresponds to the functional right lobe, while the caudate, quadrate, and left lobes under anatomical terminology are lumped together as one big left lobe.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    Orally ingested contrast medium opacifies all of the following structures except the:

    • A.

      Colon

    • B.

      Duodenum

    • C.

      Esophagus

    • D.

      Gall bladder

    • E.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    D. Gall bladder
    Explanation
    The orally ingested contrast medium would coat all the structures of the gut tube, including the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and colon. The medium should go anywhere that ingested food might go in the GI tract. The gallbladder, however, is not a part of the passageway for food - it concentrates and secretes stored bile. So, the gall bladder would not be filled with contrast.

    Rate this question:

  • 6. 

    To stop hemorrhaging from a ruptured spleen, it was necessary to temporarily ligate the splenic artery near the celiac trunk. The blood supply to which structure is least likely to be affected by the ligation?

    • A.

      Duodenum

    • B.

      Greater omentum

    • C.

      Body of pancreas

    • D.

      Tail of pancreas

    • E.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. Duodenum
    Explanation
    The duodenum receives blood from the gastroduodenal artery, a branch of the common hepatic artery. It also receives blood from the inferior pancreatoduodenal artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. So, the duodenum is receiving blood from the common hepatic artery and the superior mesenteric artery, but it is not receiving any blood from the splenic artery.
    The splenic artery supplies blood to the body of the pancreas with the dorsal and superior pancreatic arteries; it supplies blood to the tail of the pancreas with the caudal pancreatic artery. The splenic artery supplies the fundus of the stomach with short gastric arteries and the left portion of the greater curvature with the left gastroomental artery. The left gastroomental artery also supplies blood to the greater omentum through omental branches. All of these structures would be affected if the splenic artery was ligated.

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    A 50-year-old female patient with severe jaundice was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. You suspect that the tumor is located in which portion of the pancreas?

    • A.

      Head

    • B.

      Neck

    • C.

      Body

    • D.

      Tail

    • E.

      Uncinate process

    Correct Answer
    A. Head
    Explanation
    Tumors in the head of the pancreas often obstruct the common bile duct, blocking the normal bile recycling circuit. This blockade prevents excretion of bilirubin, a yellow-colored pigment that is a red blood cell breakdown product. The accumulation of bilirubin in various tissues, including the skin, causes jaundice. Tumors in other areas of the pancreas are not as likely to block the common bile duct and cause jaundice.

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    A patient was admitted with symptoms of bowel obstruction. Further examination revealed that the obstruction was caused by the nutcracker-like compression of the bowel between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. The compressed bowel is most likely the:

    • A.

      Duodenum

    • B.

      Jejunum

    • C.

      Ileum

    • D.

      Ascending colon

    • E.

      Transverse colon

    Correct Answer
    A. Duodenum
    Explanation
    The superior mesenteric artery crosses over the third part of the duodenum, and the aorta is posterior to the third part of the duodenum. If something causes these vessels to become enlarged, they can crush the duodenum, and food will not be able to pass through the duodenum. This is often called the "nutcracker effect," and it is only seen in the third part of the duodenum. Take a look at Netter Plate 292 for an illustration of the third part of the duodenum lying between these important vessels.

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    A medical student was asked to identify a small specimen taken for pathological examination from a surgically removed duodenum. The student noted that the specimen revealed a thin wall and no circular folds. The specimen is from which segment?

    • A.

      Superior

    • B.

      Descending

    • C.

      Horizontal

    • D.

      Ascending

    Correct Answer
    A. Superior
    Explanation
    The superior part of the duodenum is the one segment of the duodenum that has no circular folds. When food enters the duodenum from the pyloric sphincter, it enters the ampulla, which is a smooth area of the duodenum containing a high percentage of mucosal cells. These cells secrete mucus to neutralize the acidic contents of the stomach. If the stomach contents is not sufficiently neutralized, the thin wall of the ampulla may develop an ulcer. If the ulcer burns through the entire wall, it might jeopardize the gastroduodenal artery, lying behind the first segment of the duodenum. The descending, horizontal, and ascending portions of the duodenum all have circular folds. For an illustration of the different linings of the duodenum, see Netter Plate 262

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    You are observing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The surgeon states that he is next going to expose the cystic artery in order to staple across it. He asks you where he should look for it. You reply, "In the triangle of Calot." What stuctures form this triangle and are the keys to finding the artery?

    • A.

      Common hepatic duct, liver and cystic duct

    • B.

      Cystic duct, right hepatic artery and right hepatic duct

    • C.

      Gall bladder, liver and common bile duct

    • D.

      Left hepatic duct, liver and cystic duct

    • E.

      Right branch of portal vein, liver and common bile duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Common hepatic duct, liver and cystic duct
    Explanation
    The triangle of Calot is formed by the cystic duct laterally, the liver superiorly, and the common hepatic duct medially. It is an important landmark in this region, because the cystic artery can be found in the triangle of Calot. During a cholecystectomy, the cystic artery needs to be ligated. Although the cystic artery usually branches from the right hepatic artery, there is some variation. However, if you locate the triangle of Calot, you can find the cystic artery in that triangle, trace it back to its origin, and then ligate it there.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    Upon endoscopic examination of a 65-year-old man who had a history of a chronic duodenal ulcer, it was found that the ulcer had been eroding the posterior wall of the first part of the duodenum. If erosion perforates the wall, the gastric expellant of high acidity would endanger the structures in its vicinity. Which is least likely to be endangered?

    • A.

      Common bile duct

    • B.

      Gastroduodenal artery

    • C.

      Main pancreatic duct

    • D.

      Portal vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Main pancreatic duct
    Explanation
    The pancreas is inferior to the superior portion of the duodenum, and the main pancreatic duct is found deep within the pancreas. It is not likely that this structure would be damaged by the duodenal ulcer. The portal vein, gastroduodenal artery, and the common bile duct all pass immediately deep to the first part of the duodenum. (The portal vein and common bile duct are associated with the proper hepatic artery, forming the portal triad.) These structures would all be at risk from the ulcer. See Netter Plate 279 for a picture illustrating this relationship.

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    A 58-year-old patient was diagnosed with a severe case of portal hypertension due to alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. It was determined that a bypass between the vessels of the portal and caval systems was necessary. The plan most likely to be successful is:

    • A.

      Coronary vein to right gastro-omental vein

    • B.

      Left colic vein to sigmoidal vein

    • C.

      Inferior mesenteric vein to splenic vein

    • D.

      Splenic vein to left renal vein

    • E.

      Superior rectal vein to inferior rectal vein

    Correct Answer
    D. Splenic vein to left renal vein
    Explanation
    The splenic vein is a major vein of the portal system, while the left renal vein is a major vein of the caval system. These veins are large, so a bypass between them could be useful for relieving the portal hypertension. The coronary vein, right gastro-omental vein, left colic vein, sigmoidal vein, inferior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein are all part of the portal system. Any bypasses among these veins will not relieve the portal hypertension. The superior and inferior rectal veins already form a portal-caval anastomosis; surgery would not be needed to connect these two venous channels. However, if too much blood tries to flow through this anastomosis, hemorrhoids will develop. These veins are not large enough to help relieve severe portal hypertension.

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    A radiological examination of a patient revealed a large tumor in the quadrate lobe of the liver. During the surgical removal of the tumor, one of the vessels that needs to be clamped to effectively control bleeding is the:

    • A.

      Left hepatic artery

    • B.

      Right hepatic artery

    Correct Answer
    A. Left hepatic artery
    Explanation
    The left and right hepatic arteries help support the parenchyma and stroma of the liver. The left hepatic artery supplies the left & quadrate lobes of liver, and part of the caudate lobe. The right hepatic artery supplies the right lobe and part of the caudate lobe. So, the left hepatic artery must be clamped to perform surgery on the quadrate lobe.

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    A patient was admitted with symptoms of an upper bowel obstruction. Upon CT examination, it was found that the third (transverse) portion of the duodenum was compressed by a large vessel causing the obstruction. The vessel involved is most likely to be the:

    • A.

      Inferior mesenteric artery

    • B.

      Superior mesenteric artery

    • C.

      Inferior mesenteric vein

    • D.

      Portal vein

    • E.

      Splenic vein

    Correct Answer
    B. Superior mesenteric artery
    Explanation
    The superior mesenteric artery crosses over the third part of the duodenum, and the aorta is posterior to the third part of the duodenum. If something causes these vessels to become enlarged, they can crush the duodenum, and food won't be able to pass through the duodenum. This is often called the "nutcracker effect," and it is only seen in the third part of the duodenum. Take a look at Netter Plate 292 for an illustration of the third part of the duodenum lying between these important vessels. You should know what structures are involved in the "nutcracker effect" and how they are causing an upper bowel obstruction!

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    An ulcer near the pyloroduodenal junction perforated and eroded a large artery immediately posterior to the duodenum. The ligation of the eroded vessel at its origin would LEAST affect the arterial supply to the:

    • A.

      First part of the duodenum

    • B.

      Second part of the duodenum

    • C.

      Greater curvature of the stomach

    • D.

      Head of the pancreas

    • E.

      Tail of the pancreas

    Correct Answer
    E. Tail of the pancreas
    Explanation
    The gastroduodenal artery is the artery that has ruptured. This artery gives off the anterior and posterior superior pancreatoduodenal arteries, which supply the first and second parts of the duodenum, as well as the head of the pancreas. The gastroduodenal artery also gives off the right gastroomental artery, which supplies the right half of the greater curvature of the stomach. In contrast, the tail of the pancreas is supplied by the caudal pancreatic artery, which is a branch of the splenic artery. It would not be affected by damage to the gastroduodenal artery.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    A patient was diagnosed with pancreatitis due to a reflux of bile into the pancreatic duct caused by a gallstone. The stone is likely to be lodged at the:

    • A.

      Common bile duct

    • B.

      Common hepatic duct

    • C.

      Cystic duct

    • D.

      Hepatopancreatic ampulla

    Correct Answer
    D. Hepatopancreatic ampulla
    Explanation
    The hepatopancreatic ampulla is the very short segment of duct which represents the joining of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct. Once these two ducts form the hepatopancreatic ampulla in the wall of the duodenum, the bile and pancreatic enzymes are emptied into the second portion of the duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla. If a gallstone was stuck in the hepatopancreatic ampulla, bile could back up and flow backwards into the main pancreatic duct. If a stone was lodged in the cystic duct, common hepatic duct, or common bile duct, bile would never even reach the pancreas. See Netter Plate 276 for an illustration.

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    The blockage of a main bile duct in the quadrate lobe will likely cause reduced flow of bile secretion in the:

    • A.

      Left hepatic duct

    • B.

      Right hepatic duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Left hepatic duct
    Explanation
    Like the left hepatic vein, the left hepatic duct drains bile from the left lobe, quadrate lobe, and part of the caudate lobe of the liver. So, an obstruction in the quadrate lobe would reduce bile secretion in the left hepatic duct. The right hepatic duct and hepatic vein drain the right lobe and part of the caudate lobe.

    Rate this question:

  • 18. 

    Regarding the 2nd portion of the duodenum, all are correct EXCEPT:

    • A.

      It is crossed by the transverse colon.

    • B.

      It is thin walled and circular folds are absent in its interior.

    • C.

      It has the opening for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct on its posteromedial wall.

    • D.

      It is secondarily retroperitoneal.

    • E.

      It is supplied by both the gastroduodenal and superior mesenteric arteries

    Correct Answer
    B. It is thin walled and circular folds are absent in its interior.
    Explanation
    The first part of the duodenum features thin walls and no circular folds. It is called the ampulla of the duodenum. Once the duodenum turns and becomes the second part, the walls become thicker, and circular folds develop. The second part of the duodenum has the hepatopancreatic ampulla in its medial wall, which is the duct formed as the common bile duct and pancreatic duct join to empty their secretions into the duodenum. The transverse colon overlies the second part of the duodenum, and the second part of the duodenum is a secondarily retroperitoneal organ. Also, remember that the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries are branches of the gastroduodenal artery, which receives blood from the celiac trunk. The anterior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries receive blood from the superior mesenteric artery.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    A Kocher manuever dissects in the avascular plane behind which organ that becomes retroperitoneal during rotation of the gut?

    • A.

      Duodenum

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Spleen

    • D.

      Suprarenal gland

    • E.

      Transverse colon

    Correct Answer
    A. Duodenum
    Explanation
    A Kocher maneuver involves reflecting the duodenum and pancreas medially by cutting through the fusion fascia along the right side of the descending part of the duodenum. This technique is used to gain access behind the pancreas. However, even if you didn't know the exact definition of a Kocher maneuver, you could still answer this question. The question is asking you to pick which organ is secondarily retroperitoneal, and the only secondarily retroperitoneal organ listed is the duodenum. The kidney and suprarenal gland were retroperitoneal during the entire developmental process, and the transverse colon and spleen are peritonealized. So, duodenum is the only answer that makes sense here.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    The inferior mesenteric vein usually joins which vein?

    • A.

      Inferior vena cava

    • B.

      Left renal

    • C.

      Portal

    • D.

      Splenic

    • E.

      Superior mesenteric

    Correct Answer
    D. Splenic
    Explanation
    The inferior mesenteric vein usually empties into the splenic vein. The splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein then unite to form the portal vein. Look at Netter Plate 290 for a picture of this. Remember--the inferior vena cava and left renal vein are caval veins--they are not involved in draining the gut.

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    A surgeon needs to construct a bypass between the veins of the portal and caval systems to circumvent insufficient drainage through the natural portacaval anastomoses. Which plan is likely to be successful?

    • A.

      Coronary vein to right gastroepiploic vein

    • B.

      Inferior mesenteric vein to splenic vein

    • C.

      Left colic vein to middle colic vein

    • D.

      Splenic vein to left renal vein

    • E.

      Superior mesenteric vein to splenic vein

    Correct Answer
    D. Splenic vein to left renal vein
    Explanation
    The splenic vein is a major vein of the portal system, while the left renal vein is a major vein of the caval system. These veins are large, so a bypass between them could be useful for relieving the portal hypertension. The coronary vein, right gastroepiploic vein, inferior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, left colic vein, middle colic vein, and superior mesenteric vein are all part of the portal system. Any bypasses among these veins will not relieve the portal hypertension.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    A patient with jaundice was diagnosed with cancer of the head of the pancreas. Which structure was compressed by the tumor?

    • A.

      Common bile duct

    • B.

      Common hepatic duct

    • C.

      Cystic duct

    • D.

      Left hepatic duct

    • E.

      Right hepatic duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Common bile duct
    Explanation
    Tumors in the head of the pancreas often obstruct the common bile duct, blocking the normal bile recycling circuit. This blockade prevents excretion of bilirubin, a yellow-colored pigment that is a red blood cell breakdown product. The accumulation of bilirubin in various tissues, including the skin, causes jaundice. A tumor in the head of the pancreas would not block the other ducts--look at Netter 276 to see how all the ducts are related.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    The structure that traverses the space between the aorta and first part of the superior mesenteric artery and is vulnerable to the nutcracker-like compression by these two vessels is the:

    • A.

      Duodenum

    • B.

      Jejunum

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Splenic vein

    • E.

      Transverse colon

    Correct Answer
    A. Duodenum
    Explanation
    The superior mesenteric artery crosses over the third part of the duodenum, and the aorta is posterior to the third part of the duodenum. If something causes these vessels to become enlarged, they can crush the duodenum, and the passage of food will be obstructed. This is often called the "nutcracker effect," and it is only seen in the third part of the duodenum. Take a look at Netter Plate 292 for an illustration of the third part of the duodenum lying between these important vessels.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    A 60-year-old patient who has had a chronic ulcer of the duodenum for many years was admitted to the hospital with signs of a severe internal hemorrhage. The ulcer perforated the posterior wall of the first portion of the duodenum and eroded an artery in that position. The damaged artery was:

    • A.

      Cystic

    • B.

      Gastroduodenal

    • C.

      Hepatic

    • D.

      Left gastric

    Correct Answer
    B. Gastroduodenal
    Explanation
    The gastroduodenal artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery--it passes immediately posterior to the first portion of the duodenum, and it can be damaged if there is an ulcer in this part ot the duodenum. The cystic artery supplies the gall bladder--it can be located in the triangle of Calot. The proper hepatic artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery--it travels superior to the first portion of the duodenum. The left gastric artery is a branch of the celiac trunk--it supplies the left side of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

    Rate this question:

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 21, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement
×

Wait!
Here's an interesting quiz for you.

We have other quizzes matching your interest.