Block 5 Neuro Embryo And Transmitters MCQ's

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Block 5 Neuro Embryo And Transmitters MCQ

Each neurotransmitter can directly or indirectly influence neurons in a specific portion of the brain, thereby affecting behavior. Neurotransmitters such as monoamines appear in the embryo before the neurons are differentiated. Take up these 8 questions from block five where 8 involve the embryo and 9 are on Neuro transmitters to learn more.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The myelin sheaths surrounding cranial and spinal nerves are formed by which of the following cells?
    • A. 

      Astrocytes

    • B. 

      Schwann cells

    • C. 

      Microglial cells

    • D. 

      Neuroglial cells

    • E. 

      Oligodendrocytes

  • 2. 
    The pons and cerebellum are derived from the walls of which structure?
    • A. 

      Metencephalon

    • B. 

      Telencephalon

    • C. 

      Diencephalon

    • D. 

      Mesencephalon

    • E. 

      Myelencephalon

  • 3. 
    The nucleus of the fourth cranial nerve, an exclusively motor nerve, which exits from the dorsum of the brainstem and innervates a muscle that moves the eyeball, is derived from which embryonic location?
    • A. 

      Alar plate of the metencephalon

    • B. 

      Alar plate of the myelencephalon

    • C. 

      Basal plate of the mesencephalon

    • D. 

      Basal plate of the diencephalon

    • E. 

      Intermediolateral position near the sulcus limitans of the rhombencephalon

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is a derivative of the epaxial musculature?
    • A. 

      Rectus femoris

    • B. 

      Biceps brachii

    • C. 

      Trapezius

    • D. 

      Innermost intercostal

    • E. 

      Rectus capitis posterior minor

  • 5. 
    Nerve tracts running through the caudal medulla develop ventral to the sulcus limitans and eventually form the pyramids. Based on the position of their embryological development, what is the functional association of the pyramids?
    • A. 

      Somatic sensory

    • B. 

      Visceral sensory

    • C. 

      Special sensory

    • D. 

      Motor

    • E. 

      Sympathetic

  • 6. 
    DiGeorge Syndrome is a suite of congenital craniofacial malformations associated with immunological defects due to failure of the thymus gland to differentiate and calcium metabolic defects related to failed parathyroid gland development. What is the primary embryological cause of this syndrome?
    • A. 

      Failure of development of Rathke's pouch

    • B. 

      Lack of migration of ectoderm through the primitive streak

    • C. 

      Lack of normal development and migration of neural crest cells

    • D. 

      Failure of descent of the thyroid gland primordium

    • E. 

      Lack of normal closure of the cervical sinus

  • 7. 
    Failure of closure of the cranial neuropore causes which serious congenital malformation?
    • A. 

      Meroanencephaly

    • B. 

      Rachischisis

    • C. 

      Myelocele

    • D. 

      Spina bifida occulta

    • E. 

      Spina bifida cystica

  • 8. 
    A young child is diagnosed with a communicating or non obstructive hydrocephalus. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this condition?
    • A. 

      Blockage of the foramen of Monroe

    • B. 

      Blockage of the aqueduct of sylvius

    • C. 

      Blockage of the foramen of Megendie in 4th ventricle

    • D. 

      Blockage of the arachnoid villi

  • 9. 
    During the process of chemical neurotransmission, by what mechanism do most non-peptide neurotransmitters previously released into the synaptic cleft leave the Synaptic cleft?
    • A. 

      Endocytosis into the postsynaptic neuron

    • B. 

      Endocytosis into the presynaptic neuron

    • C. 

      Secondary active transport into the presynaptic neuron

    • D. 

      Secondary active transport into the postsynaptic neuron

    • E. 

      Diffusion out of the side of the synaptic cleft

  • 10. 
    Two cells synapse onto the cell body of an axon in the central nervous system. One cell releases glutamate that binds to NMDA-R and the other release GABA that binds to GABA„-R. They both receive action potentials at their presynaptic axon terminals at the same time. Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      NMDA-R is a metabotropic postsynaptic receptor

    • B. 

      Postsynaptic responses through the NMDA-R and the GABAA-R will summate and always reach threshold causing an action potential to fire,

    • C. 

      GABA will also bind to and activate glycine receptors (GlyR).

    • D. 

      Cl- ions influxing through the GABAA-R will cause an IPSP that reduces the amplitude of the EPSP depolarizing graded potentials in the postsynaptic cell.

    • E. 

      Na+ ions influxing through the NMDA-R will cause hyperpolarizing graded potentials in the postsynaptic cell.

  • 11. 
    Seizures are fundamentally the result of too much excitatory neuronal activity in the brain. Imagine that you wanted to design a new drug to reduce the severity of seizures. Which of the following approaches would make the most sense?
    • A. 

      Potentiate the effect of glutamate at glutamatergic receptors

    • B. 

      Block GABA receptors

    • C. 

      Open calcium channels

    • D. 

      Block the glial based uptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft

    • E. 

      Open chloride channels

  • 12. 
    G-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA suppresses anxiety, and a deficiency of GABA causes anxiety. You work for a secret service that wants to develop an anxiety-inducing drug for interrogations. The best strategy to accomplish this aim would be a drug that
    • A. 

      Inhibits GABA decarboxylase

    • B. 

      Keeps the GABA-operated chloride channel open

    • C. 

      Inhibits glutamate decarboxylase

    • D. 

      Inhibits GABA transaminase

    • E. 

      Inhibits COMT

  • 13. 
    The synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine can be prevented by a drug that inhibits:
    • A. 

      Choline-acetyl transferase

    • B. 

      Tyrosinase

    • C. 

      Monoamine oxidase

    • D. 

      Catechol-O-methyl transferase

    • E. 

      Tyrosine hydroxylase

  • 14. 
    Increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine at synapses in the mesolimbic dopamine system is known to cause euphoria. To get a good euphoriant effect, you should therefore design drugs that
    • A. 

      Inhibit the sodium cotransporter for dopamine in the nerve terminal

    • B. 

      Inhibit the transporter that pumps dopamine into synaptic vesicles

    • C. 

      Inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase

    • D. 

      Induce enhanced expression of catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT)

    • E. 

      Block voltage-gated calcium channels in the nerve terminals

  • 15. 
    All traders at the New York Stock Exchange suddenly get sick with vomiting, excessive salivation, diarrhea, and severe bradycardia. 500 of them die within 2 hours. It turns out that this incident had been caused by a disgruntled former employee who poured 5 gallons of the organophosphorus compound sarin into the air conditioning system of the building. The stock traders died because of
    • A. 

      Too much acetylcholine in their synaptic clefts

    • B. 

      A shortage of acetylcholine at central and peripheral synapses

    • C. 

      Excessive sensitivity of receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA

    • D. 

      Inability to synthesize the neurotransmitter GABA

    • E. 

      Inability to degrade dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    • F. 

      Karma is punishing them for their greed

  • 16. 
    A 46 year old male hunter accidentally stuck himself while preparing his arrows for hunting. History revealed that curare (d-tubocurarine) was present in his arrows. A significant finding on examination was paralysis in the arm that he stuck himself. Which of the following best explains the mechanism of the paralysis seen?
    • A. 

      Increased anti-acetylcholinesterase activity

    • B. 

      Blockage of Na+ channels and subsequent repolarization

    • C. 

      Blockage of K++ gated channels and subsequent depolarization

    • D. 

      Competitive inhibition of binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors

    • E. 

      Competitive inhibition of binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors

  • 17. 
    Which of the following, if used as a neurotransmitter at a chemical synapse, is most likely to have a delayed onset and end of action in the postsynaptic neuron?
    • A. 

      Acetylcholine

    • B. 

      Norepinephrine

    • C. 

      Epinephrine

    • D. 

      Vasoactive intestinal peptide

  • 18. 
    At the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle, which of the following proteins is neither present on nor attached to the motor end plate?
    • A. 

      Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    • B. 

      Voltage-gated sodium channel

    • C. 

      Acetylcholine esterase

    • D. 

      Sodium-potassium pump

    • E. 

      Ligand-gated sodium-potassium cotransporter

  • 19. 
    Catecholamine biosynthesis involves dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (Norepi) and L-DOPA (DOPA). In what sequence are these products formed?
    • A. 

      Epi --> Norepi --> DOPA --> DA

    • B. 

      DOPA --> Epi --> Norepi --> DA

    • C. 

      DOPA --> DA --> Norepi --> Epi

    • D. 

      DA --> DOPA --> Epi -->Norepi

    • E. 

      Epi --> Norepi --> DA --> DOPA

  • 20. 
    A patient with Parkinson's disease tells you that he learned from an Internet patient blog that cocaine can relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. You can tell him that this might well be true because cocaine
    • A. 

      Acts as a growth factor that prevents apoptosis of dopamine neurons

    • B. 

      Is a muscarinic agonist that stimulates acetylcholine receptors in the brain, therefore compensating for the shortage of dopamine

    • C. 

      Inhibits the uptake of dopamine into nerve terminals

    • D. 

      Enhances dopamine action by inhibiting MAO-A

    • E. 

      Is a dopamine agonist that stimulates dopamine receptors directly

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