Neurotransmitters And Receptors

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| By John C
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John C
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Questions: 16 | Attempts: 2,048

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Neurotransmitters And Receptors - Quiz

If you do poorly, it's probably my questions. :) Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A receptor that has a direct, mechanical response to a neurotransmitter binding to it is..

    • A.

      Ionotropic

    • B.

      Metabotropic

    Correct Answer
    A. Ionotropic
    Explanation
    Ionotropic receptors are a type of receptor that directly respond to the binding of a neurotransmitter by causing a mechanical response. This means that when a neurotransmitter binds to an ionotropic receptor, it causes the receptor to open an ion channel, allowing ions to flow into or out of the cell. This rapid and direct response is characteristic of ionotropic receptors, distinguishing them from metabotropic receptors which work through a more complex signaling pathway involving second messengers. Therefore, the correct answer is ionotropic.

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  • 2. 

    When a neurotransmitter is bound to a metabotropic receptor..

    • A.

      The receptor's channel opens, allowing ions to flow through

    • B.

      A protein is transferred to a nearby ionotropic receptor, causing that receptor's channel to open

    • C.

      Ions residing inside the cell are activated, creating new neurotransmitters

    • D.

      A G protein inside the cell is activated, opening this receptor's channel

    Correct Answer
    B. A protein is transferred to a nearby ionotropic receptor, causing that receptor's channel to open
  • 3. 

    Tryptophan is a precursor for..?

    • A.

      Dopamine

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Glutamate

    Correct Answer
    B. Serotonin
    Explanation
    Tryptophan is a precursor for serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating mood, sleep, appetite, and other important functions. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that our bodies cannot produce, so we need to obtain it from our diet. Once ingested, tryptophan is converted into serotonin through a series of chemical reactions in the brain. Therefore, tryptophan serves as a building block for the synthesis of serotonin, making it the correct answer.

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  • 4. 

    What causes vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing neurotransmitters from the cell?

    • A.

      Action Potential

    • B.

      Na

    • C.

      Ca2+

    • D.

      G Proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Ca2+
    Explanation
    Ca2+ causes vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing neurotransmitters from the cell. When an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it triggers the opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The influx of Ca2+ into the terminal causes the vesicles containing neurotransmitters to bind to the presynaptic membrane and release their contents into the synaptic cleft. This process is essential for communication between neurons and the transmission of signals across synapses.

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  • 5. 

    Drugs can affect the functionality of neurons in many ways, but not..

    • A.

      + Blocking reuptake

    • B.

      - Blocking postsynaptic receptors

    • C.

      - Stimulating autoreceptors, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters

    • D.

      + Stimulating the release of neurotransmitters

    • E.

      - Blocking postsynaptic receptors

    • F.

      - Inhibiting Ca2+ induction

    Correct Answer
    F. - Inhibiting Ca2+ induction
    Explanation
    Drugs can affect the functionality of neurons in many ways, but inhibiting Ca2+ induction is not one of them. This means that drugs do not interfere with the process of Ca2+ induction in neurons. Ca2+ induction is an important mechanism for neuronal communication and signal transmission. However, drugs may block reuptake, block postsynaptic receptors, stimulate autoreceptors to inhibit neurotransmitter release, and stimulate the release of neurotransmitters.

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  • 6. 

    One of the main mediators of neurotransmission, the ________ receptor is an ionotropic receptor and composed of five subunits

    • A.

      Muscarinic acetylcholine

    • B.

      Serotonin

    • C.

      Aspartate

    • D.

      Nicotinic acetylcholine

    Correct Answer
    D. Nicotinic acetylcholine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nicotinic acetylcholine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ionotropic receptors that are involved in neurotransmission. They are composed of five subunits and are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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  • 7. 

    Black widow venom and botulinum are examples of..

    • A.

      Presynaptic inhibitors

    • B.

      Receptor antagonists

    • C.

      Postsynaptic inhibitors

    Correct Answer
    A. Presynaptic inhibitors
    Explanation
    Presynaptic inhibitors are substances that act on the presynaptic neuron, preventing the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Black widow venom and botulinum toxin both have presynaptic inhibitory effects. Black widow venom contains a neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which causes massive neurotransmitter release and depletion. Botulinum toxin, on the other hand, prevents the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in muscle contraction. Both substances interfere with the normal functioning of the presynaptic neuron, leading to a disruption in neurotransmission.

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  • 8. 

    Dopamine receptors are ionotropic receptors

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Dopamine receptors are not ionotropic receptors. They are metabotropic receptors, which means they work through a signaling pathway involving G proteins and second messengers. Ionotropic receptors, on the other hand, directly open ion channels upon binding to their ligands.

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  • 9. 

    Of the 7 types of 5-HT receptors, only 5-HT 1 is linked to stimulatory G-proteins

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because out of the 7 types of 5-HT receptors, only 5-HT 1 is associated with stimulatory G-proteins. This means that when 5-HT (serotonin) binds to the 5-HT 1 receptor, it activates the G-protein signaling pathway, leading to various cellular responses. The other types of 5-HT receptors are linked to inhibitory G-proteins or other signaling mechanisms, resulting in different effects when serotonin binds to them.

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  • 10. 

    Why is 5-HT3 unique among the 5-HT receptors?

    • A.

      It's a serotonin receptor

    • B.

      It's the only ligand-gated ion channel

    • C.

      They have a stimulatory effect on neurotransmission

    Correct Answer
    B. It's the only ligand-gated ion channel
    Explanation
    The 5-HT3 receptor is unique among the 5-HT receptors because it is the only one that functions as a ligand-gated ion channel. This means that when a ligand, such as serotonin, binds to the receptor, it opens a channel in the cell membrane, allowing ions to flow in and out of the cell. This ion flow plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between nerve cells. The other 5-HT receptors have different mechanisms of action and do not function as ion channels.

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  • 11. 

    The NMDA receptor

    • A.

      Is a ligand-gated ion channel, activated by dopamine

    • B.

      Is activated by glutamate and glycine and belongs to the g-protein coupled family

    • C.

      Is a ligand-gated ion channel, activated by glutamate and glycine

    • D.

      Is activated by dopamine and belongs to the g-protein coupled family

    Correct Answer
    C. Is a ligand-gated ion channel, activated by glutamate and glycine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the NMDA receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, activated by glutamate and glycine. This means that the receptor is opened or activated when these specific molecules (glutamate and glycine) bind to it. This activation allows ions to flow through the channel, which is important for the transmission of signals in the brain. Activation by dopamine or belonging to the G-protein coupled family are not accurate statements about the NMDA receptor.

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  • 12. 

    Irregular activity in the noradrenergenic system is related to

    • A.

      Depression and mania

    • B.

      Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia

    • C.

      OCD and depression

    Correct Answer
    A. Depression and mania
    Explanation
    Irregular activity in the noradrenergic system is related to depression and mania. The noradrenergic system is responsible for regulating the release and reuptake of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which plays a crucial role in mood regulation. When there is irregular activity in this system, it can lead to imbalances in norepinephrine levels, which are associated with symptoms of depression and mania. Depression is characterized by low levels of norepinephrine, while mania is associated with high levels. Therefore, irregularities in the noradrenergic system can contribute to both of these mood disorders.

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  • 13. 

    The Serotonergic system is active in maintaining normal motor behavior

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The serotonergic system is not primarily involved in maintaining normal motor behavior. While serotonin does play a role in regulating various functions in the body, including mood and sleep, it is not the main system responsible for motor behavior. Motor behavior is primarily regulated by the motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Therefore, the statement that the serotonergic system is active in maintaining normal motor behavior is false.

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  • 14. 

    A common target for neuroleptic drugs to antagonize are is

    • A.

      NMDA

    • B.

      NAChR

    • C.

      Dopamine (D2)

    Correct Answer
    C. Dopamine (D2)
    Explanation
    Neuroleptic drugs are commonly used to treat psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, and one of their main mechanisms of action is to antagonize dopamine receptors, specifically the D2 receptors. By blocking these receptors, neuroleptics can help reduce the symptoms of psychosis and improve overall mental well-being. Therefore, the correct answer is Dopamine (D2).

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  • 15. 

    Glutamate is transported into vesicles by EAAT1-EAAT5

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    VGLT1 / VGLT 2 - EAAT1-5 are involved in re-uptake of Glu. I think. Haha how do you know all of this?

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  • 16. 

    _____ is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      Acetylcholine

    • C.

      Cytokines

    • D.

      5HT-3

    Correct Answer
    A. GABA
    Explanation
    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and maintaining the balance between excitation and inhibition in the brain. GABA acts by binding to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, which leads to the opening of chloride channels and hyperpolarization of the neuron, thereby inhibiting its activity. This inhibitory effect of GABA helps to prevent excessive neuronal firing and contributes to the overall stability and control of brain function.

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