Psychology: Chapter 2- The Biological Perspective

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Psychology: Chapter 2- The Biological Perspective - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In the structure of the neuron, the ______ sends information to other cells.

    • A.

      Axon

    • B.

      Dendrite

    • C.

      Soma

    • D.

      Myelin

    Correct Answer
    A. Axon
    Explanation
    The axon is a long, slender projection of a neuron that carries electrical impulses away from the cell body and transmits them to other neurons, muscles, or glands. It is responsible for sending information to other cells, making it the correct answer in this context. Dendrites, on the other hand, receive information from other neurons, the soma (cell body) contains the nucleus and other cellular components, and myelin is a fatty substance that insulates and speeds up the transmission of electrical impulses along the axon.

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  • 2. 

    Which type of cell makes up 10 percent of the brain?

    • A.

      Glial cells

    • B.

      Neurons

    • C.

      Stem cells

    • D.

      Afferent cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurons
    Explanation
    Neurons are the correct answer because they are the main type of cell that make up the brain. They are responsible for transmitting information and electrical signals throughout the brain and nervous system. Glial cells, stem cells, and afferent cells are also present in the brain, but they do not make up as much as 10 percent of the brain.

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  • 3. 

    Damaged nerve fibers in the body can repair themselves because they are coated with _______, which forms a protective tunnel around the nerve fibers.

    • A.

      Glial

    • B.

      Soma

    • C.

      Myelin

    • D.

      Neurilemma

    Correct Answer
    D. Neurilemma
    Explanation
    The damaged nerve fibers in the body can repair themselves because they are coated with neurilemma, which forms a protective tunnel around the nerve fibers. The neurilemma is a sheath that surrounds peripheral nerve fibers and plays a crucial role in the regeneration of damaged nerves. It provides a pathway for the regrowth of nerve fibers and aids in the repair process, allowing damaged nerves to restore their function.

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  • 4. 

    When a neuron is in the resting potention state, where are the sodium ions?

    • A.

      Inside the cell

    • B.

      Outside the cell

    • C.

      Inside the soma

    • D.

      In the synapse

    Correct Answer
    B. Outside the cell
    Explanation
    In the resting potential state of a neuron, the sodium ions are located outside the cell. During this state, the neuron maintains a negative charge inside the cell compared to the outside. This is achieved by the sodium-potassium pump, which actively transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell. This creates an electrochemical gradient, with more sodium ions outside the cell than inside. This gradient is essential for the generation of action potentials and the transmission of signals in the nervous system.

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  • 5. 

    How does one neuron communicate with another neuron?

    • A.

      An electrical spark jumps over the gap between cells

    • B.

      Charged particles leap from one cell to the next

    • C.

      Chemicals in the end of one neuron float across the gap to fit into holes on the next neuron

    • D.

      The end of one neuron extends to touch the other neuron

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemicals in the end of one neuron float across the gap to fit into holes on the next neuron
    Explanation
    Neurons communicate with each other through a process called synaptic transmission. This involves the release of chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, from the end of one neuron into the synapse, or the gap between neurons. These neurotransmitters then bind to specific receptor sites on the next neuron, fitting into the holes or receptors. This binding triggers a series of events that allow the electrical signal to be transmitted from one neuron to another, enabling communication between neurons in the nervous system.

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  • 6. 

    Which neurotransmitter is associated with the control of the pain response?

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      GABA

    • C.

      Serotonin

    • D.

      Endorphin

    Correct Answer
    D. Endorphin
    Explanation
    The neurotransmitter associated with the control of the pain response is endorphin. Endorphins are known as the body's natural pain relievers because they activate opioid receptors in the brain, helping to minimize discomfort and pain.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is the correct path of a reflex arc?

    • A.

      Efferent neuron to interneuron to afferent neuron

    • B.

      Efferent neuron to afferent neuron to interneuron

    • C.

      Afferent neuron to interneuron to efferent neuron

    • D.

      Afferent neuron to efferent neuron to the brain

    Correct Answer
    C. Afferent neuron to interneuron to efferent neuron
    Explanation
    The correct path of a reflex arc is from the afferent neuron to the interneuron to the efferent neuron. In a reflex arc, sensory information is detected by the afferent neuron and transmitted to the interneuron, which then processes the information. The interneuron then sends signals to the efferent neuron, which carries out the appropriate response or action. This sequence allows for a rapid and automatic response to a stimulus without the involvement of the brain.

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  • 8. 

    Voluntary muscles are controlled by the ______ nervous system.

    • A.

      Somatic

    • B.

      Autonomic

    • C.

      Sympathetic

    • D.

      Parasympathetic

    Correct Answer
    A. Somatic
    Explanation
    Voluntary muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system. This system is responsible for controlling the skeletal muscles that are under conscious control. It allows us to perform voluntary movements such as walking, talking, and writing. The autonomic nervous system, on the other hand, controls involuntary actions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are two branches of the autonomic nervous system that work together to maintain homeostasis in the body.

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  • 9. 

    Your heart races. You begin to breathe faster. Your pupils enlarge and your appetite is gone. Your _____ division has just been activated.

    • A.

      Sympathetic

    • B.

      Parasympathetic

    • C.

      Autonomic

    • D.

      Somatic

    Correct Answer
    A. Sympathetic
    Explanation
    When your heart races, your breathing speeds up, your pupils dilate, and your appetite disappears, it indicates that your sympathetic division has been activated. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for intense physical activity or dealing with a threat. It increases heart rate, dilates pupils, and suppresses appetite, among other things. Therefore, the activation of the sympathetic division explains the physiological changes described in the question.

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  • 10. 

    The ______ division controls ordinary, day-to-day bodily functions.

    • A.

      Sympathetic

    • B.

      Parasympathetic

    • C.

      Central

    • D.

      Somatic

    Correct Answer
    B. Parasympathetic
    Explanation
    The parasympathetic division controls ordinary, day-to-day bodily functions. This division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for activities such as digestion, rest, and relaxation. It works in opposition to the sympathetic division, which is responsible for the fight-or-flight response. The parasympathetic division helps to conserve energy and maintain homeostasis in the body.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following techniques for imaging the brain would NOT be advisable for a person with a metal plate in his or her head?

    • A.

      EEG

    • B.

      CT

    • C.

      MRI

    • D.

      PET

    Correct Answer
    C. MRI
    Explanation
    An MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to generate detailed images of the brain. However, it is not advisable for a person with a metal plate in their head because the magnetic field can cause the metal to move or heat up, potentially causing harm to the individual. Therefore, an MRI would not be a suitable imaging technique for someone with a metal plate in their head.

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  • 12. 

    Which technique of studying the brain actually damages neurons?

    • A.

      EEG

    • B.

      Deep lesioning

    • C.

      ESB

    • D.

      MRI

    Correct Answer
    B. Deep lesioning
    Explanation
    Deep lesioning is a technique of studying the brain that involves intentionally damaging neurons in specific areas. This is done by surgically removing or destroying a small portion of brain tissue. By creating lesions, researchers can observe the effects on behavior and cognitive function, allowing them to understand the role of different brain regions. However, it is important to note that deep lesioning is an invasive procedure that permanently damages neurons, making it a potentially harmful technique.

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  • 13. 

    Maria suffered a stroke that damaged a part of her brain. She fell into a sleeplike coma and could not be awakened. If we know that the area of damage is somewhere in the brain stem, which structure is most likely damaged?

    • A.

      Medulla

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Reticular formation

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    C. Reticular formation
    Explanation
    The reticular formation is a structure located in the brain stem that plays a crucial role in regulating arousal and consciousness. Damage to this area can result in a coma-like state, where the individual is unable to be awakened. Therefore, if Maria fell into a sleeplike coma after suffering a stroke in the brain stem, it is most likely that the reticular formation is damaged.

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  • 14. 

    Alex, who is two months old, is having his picture taken. The photographer tries to sit him up, but Alex keeps sinking down. Alex cannot sit upright yet because the _____ in his brain stem is not yet fully developed.

    • A.

      Medulla

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Reticular formation

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    D. Cerebellum
    Explanation
    At two months old, Alex is still in the early stages of development, and his brain is not fully developed yet. The cerebellum, which is responsible for balance and coordination, is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in sitting upright. Since Alex cannot sit upright, it suggests that his cerebellum is not yet fully developed. The other options, such as the medulla, pons, and reticular formation, are not directly involved in the control of balance and coordination, making them less likely to be the correct answer.

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  • 15. 

    Which sense is NOT sent to the cortex by the thalamus?

    • A.

      Hearing

    • B.

      Smell

    • C.

      Taste

    • D.

      Vision

    Correct Answer
    B. Smell
    Explanation
    The thalamus is responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex, except for the sense of smell. Unlike the other senses, the olfactory information bypasses the thalamus and directly reaches the olfactory cortex. This unique pathway allows for a quicker and more direct processing of smell stimuli.

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  • 16. 

    Which part of the brain is the link between the brain and the glandular system?

    • A.

      Hippocampus

    • B.

      Thalamus

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Amygdala

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that acts as a link between the brain and the glandular system. It regulates various functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep. It also controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the activity of other glands in the body. Therefore, the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and coordinating the body's response to different stimuli.

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  • 17. 

    Jeff is undergoing brain surgery to remove a tumor. The surgeon applies electrical simulation to various areas around the tumor, causing Jeff to report tingling sensations in various areas of his skin. The tumor is most likely in which lobe of Jeff's brain?

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Temporal

    • C.

      Occipital

    • D.

      Parietal

    Correct Answer
    D. Parietal
    Explanation
    During the brain surgery, the surgeon applies electrical stimulation to different areas around the tumor. This stimulation causes Jeff to experience tingling sensations in various areas of his skin. The parietal lobe of the brain is primarily responsible for processing sensory information, including touch and sensation. Therefore, the tumor is most likely located in Jeff's parietal lobe, as the electrical stimulation is causing tingling sensations in his skin.

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  • 18. 

    George has a small stroke that results in a partial paralysis of his left side. The damaged area is most likely in his _____ lobe.

    • A.

      Right frontal

    • B.

      Left frontal

    • C.

      Right parietal

    • D.

      Left temporal

    Correct Answer
    A. Right frontal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is right frontal. This is because the frontal lobe is responsible for controlling voluntary movements, and damage to the right frontal lobe can result in paralysis on the opposite side of the body. In this case, George's left side is partially paralyzed, indicating damage to the right frontal lobe.

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  • 19. 

    Linda is recovering from damage to her brain. Her main symptom is a speech problem; instead of saying "I am going to P.T. (physical therapy) at nine o'clock" she says, "I go . . . P.T. . . . non o'cot." Linda's problem is _______.

    • A.

      Spatial neglect

    • B.

      Visual agnosia

    • C.

      Broca's aphasia

    • D.

      Wernicke's aphasia

    Correct Answer
    C. Broca's aphasia
    Explanation
    Linda's main symptom of a speech problem, where she struggles with the production of speech and has difficulty forming complete sentences, indicates that she is experiencing Broca's aphasia. This condition is typically caused by damage to the frontal lobe of the brain, specifically the region known as Broca's area, which is responsible for speech production and language processing.

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  • 20. 

    Recognizing the face of someone you run into at the mall is a function of the _____ hemisphere; being able to retrieve that person's name from memory is a function of the ______ hemishpere.

    • A.

      Left; right

    • B.

      Right; left

    • C.

      Right; right

    • D.

      Left; left

    Correct Answer
    B. Right; left
    Explanation
    Recognizing the face of someone you run into at the mall is a function of the right hemisphere because the right hemisphere is primarily responsible for processing visual information and recognizing familiar faces. On the other hand, being able to retrieve that person's name from memory is a function of the left hemisphere because the left hemisphere is typically dominant for language and memory retrieval tasks.

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  • 21. 

    Heather is beautifully proportioned, but at 18 years of age she is still no taller than the average 10-year-old. heather most likely had a problem with her _____ gland(s) while she was growing up.

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Adrenal

    • C.

      Thyroid

    • D.

      Pineal

    Correct Answer
    A. Pituitary
    Explanation
    Heather's stunted growth despite being proportioned suggests that her pituitary gland may have had a problem. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing growth hormones, and if it is not functioning properly, it can lead to growth issues.

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  • 22. 

    The action of hormones in the bloodstream is most similar to which of the following?

    • A.

      The action of sodium ions in the action potential

    • B.

      The action of myelin surrounding the axons

    • C.

      The action of glia cells in the brain

    • D.

      The action of neurotransmitters in the synapse

    Correct Answer
    D. The action of neurotransmitters in the synapse
    Explanation
    The action of hormones in the bloodstream is most similar to the action of neurotransmitters in the synapse. Both hormones and neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals between cells. Hormones are released into the bloodstream and travel throughout the body to target cells, where they bind to specific receptors and initiate a response. Similarly, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, the small gap between nerve cells, and bind to receptors on the receiving cell, transmitting signals between neurons. Both hormones and neurotransmitters play crucial roles in communication and regulation within the body.

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  • 23. 

    Melatonin is secreted by the _____ gland(s).

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Adrenal

    • C.

      Thyroid

    • D.

      Pineal

    Correct Answer
    D. Pineal
    Explanation
    Melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep and wakefulness. It is primarily secreted by the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located in the brain. The pineal gland receives signals from the retina in response to changes in light and darkness, and it releases melatonin during periods of darkness to promote sleep. Therefore, the correct answer is pineal.

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  • Apr 09, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 18, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    GraffitiSunshine
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