Biology Exam 2 Engaging Quiz

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Biology Exam 2 Engaging Quiz - Quiz


Welcome one, welcome all to the second rendition of our engaging biology exam series! In this quiz we’ll test your knowledge on a wide range of topics within the broad scientific topic of biology, including plants, gases, cells, reproductions and much more. How many questions can you get right?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    __________ is a parasitic plant.

    • A.

      Pitcher plant

    • B.

      Sundew

    • C.

      Venus' Flytrap

    • D.

      Dodder

    Correct Answer
    D. Dodder
    Explanation
    Dodder is a parasitic plant that belongs to the family Cuscutaceae. It lacks chlorophyll and therefore cannot produce its own food through photosynthesis. Instead, it attaches itself to the host plants and extracts nutrients and water from them. Dodder has thin, yellow or orange stems that twine around the host plant and small, scale-like leaves. It has specialized structures called haustoria that penetrate the host plant's tissues to obtain nutrients. Dodder is known for its ability to parasitize a wide range of plant species and can cause significant damage to crops and other plants.

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  • 2. 

    Ethlene is a gaseous hormone produced by plants, often in response to stress.  What is another way to produce ethylene?

    • A.

      Through the fermentation of soybenas

    • B.

      As a natural by-product of animal respiration

    • C.

      Through extraction of cell walls of algae

    • D.

      Through the combustion of kerosene

    • E.

      Through the evaporation of alcohol

    Correct Answer
    D. Through the combustion of kerosene
    Explanation
    Ethylene can be produced through the combustion of kerosene. When kerosene is burned, it releases carbon dioxide and water vapor, which can react to produce ethylene. This process is commonly used in industrial settings to produce ethylene gas.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following plant responses is affected by photoperiod?

    • A.

      Onset of dormancy

    • B.

      Apical dominace

    • C.

      Cell division

    • D.

      Gravitropism

    • E.

      Fertilization of eggs

    Correct Answer
    A. Onset of dormancy
    Explanation
    The onset of dormancy in plants is affected by photoperiod. Photoperiod refers to the duration of light and darkness in a 24-hour period. Plants use photoperiod as a signal to regulate their growth and development. When the days become shorter and nights longer, it indicates the approach of winter, and many plants respond by entering a period of dormancy to conserve energy and protect themselves from harsh environmental conditions. This response is crucial for the survival of plants in seasonal climates.

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  • 4. 

    Where do plants get most of their mass?

    • A.

      From chemical elements in the soil

    • B.

      From water, as van Helmont predicted

    • C.

      From nitrogen in the atmosphere

    • D.

      From organic molecules taken up from the soil

    • E.

      From carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

    Correct Answer
    E. From carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    Explanation
    Plants get most of their mass from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose, which is then converted into other organic molecules, such as cellulose, that make up the plant's structure. While plants do require other nutrients like water and minerals from the soil, the majority of their mass is derived from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following would be a good way to riben a green tomato?

    • A.

      Putting it in a darenend area such as a drawer or box

    • B.

      Placing it in a sealed plastic bag with an overripe banana

    • C.

      Wrapping in foil and putting it in the refridgerator

    • D.

      Placing it in a microwave, on low power, for 5 mintues

    • E.

      Placing it under a bright light for 24 hours

    Correct Answer
    B. Placing it in a sealed plastic bag with an overripe banana
    Explanation
    Placing a green tomato in a sealed plastic bag with an overripe banana would be a good way to ripen it. This is because bananas release a gas called ethylene, which speeds up the ripening process of fruits. By trapping the ethylene gas in the sealed bag, it creates a controlled environment that promotes ripening. The green tomato will be exposed to the ethylene gas released by the overripe banana, causing it to ripen faster.

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  • 6. 

    In many grocery stores, fresh fruits are sold prebagged in plastic bags dotted with holes so that they will not overripen.  The main function of the holes is to

    • A.

      Permit the fruit to drain after being washed.

    • B.

      Pervet the buildup of CO2

    • C.

      Prevent anaerobic conditions withing the bag

    • D.

      Facilitate diffusion of ethylene away from the fruit

    • E.

      Facilitate diffusion of O2 to the fruit

    Correct Answer
    D. Facilitate diffusion of ethylene away from the fruit
    Explanation
    The holes in the plastic bags allow for the diffusion of ethylene away from the fruit. Ethylene is a gas that is naturally produced by fruits as they ripen. If ethylene builds up around the fruit, it can accelerate the ripening process and cause the fruit to overripen quickly. By allowing ethylene to diffuse out of the bag, the holes help to slow down the ripening process and keep the fruit fresh for longer.

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  • 7. 

    Gardeners pinch off the stem tip to make a plant bushier.  This works against which of the following

    • A.

      Apical dominance

    • B.

      Lateral dominance

    • C.

      Double fertization

    • D.

      Pollination

    Correct Answer
    A. Apical dominance
    Explanation
    When gardeners pinch off the stem tip of a plant, it disrupts the apical dominance, which is the control exerted by the terminal bud on the growth of lateral buds. The terminal bud produces hormones that inhibit the growth of lateral buds, causing the plant to grow taller rather than bushier. By removing the terminal bud, gardeners promote the growth of lateral buds and encourage the plant to become bushier. Therefore, pinching off the stem tip works against apical dominance.

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  • 8. 

    A female mulberry plant growing several miles away from male individuals of its nearest population can produce seeds without fertilization by

    • A.

      Parthenogensis

    • B.

      Tissue culture

    • C.

      Epigeal germination

    • D.

      Hypogeal germination

    Correct Answer
    A. Parthenogensis
    Explanation
    Parthenogenesis is a form of reproduction in which an egg develops into an individual without being fertilized by sperm. In the given scenario, the female mulberry plant is able to produce seeds without the need for fertilization by male individuals from its nearest population. This suggests that the plant is capable of undergoing parthenogenesis, allowing it to reproduce and produce offspring without the involvement of males.

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  • 9. 

    A woody plant lives through five years of drought, followed by five years of good growing conditions.  The xylem cells formed during the five good years will

    • A.

      Form heartwood, as compared to the sapwood formed during the drought years

    • B.

      Conduct a higher ratio of sugar to water than those formed during the drought years

    • C.

      Form smaller growth rings than those formed during the drought years

    • D.

      Be larger in diameter than those formed during the drought years

    • E.

      Be living, whereas those formed during the drought years will be dead

    Correct Answer
    D. Be larger in diameter than those formed during the drought years
    Explanation
    During the five years of good growing conditions, the woody plant will have access to ample resources such as water and nutrients, allowing it to grow and develop more vigorously. This abundance of resources will result in the formation of larger xylem cells, which make up the sapwood of the plant. In contrast, during the drought years, the plant will experience limited resources, leading to the formation of smaller xylem cells. Therefore, the xylem cells formed during the good growing conditions will be larger in diameter compared to those formed during the drought years.

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  • 10. 

    The genetically identical organisms that result from asexual reproduction are called

    • A.

      Seeds

    • B.

      Seedlings

    • C.

      Rootlets

    • D.

      Gametophytes

    • E.

      Clones

    Correct Answer
    E. Clones
    Explanation
    In asexual reproduction, genetically identical organisms are produced, which are called clones. This means that the offspring have the same genetic information as the parent organism, as there is no recombination of genetic material through sexual reproduction. Cloning can occur naturally in some organisms, such as bacteria and plants, or can be artificially induced in animals. Cloning has important applications in scientific research, agriculture, and medicine.

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  • 11. 

    Salicylic acid, the main component of aspirin, may be an example of a

    • A.

      Substance encoded by Avr genes

    • B.

      Phytochrome

    • C.

      Amino acid that, when consumed by an insect, will kill that insect

    • D.

      Substance that attracts wasps to plant being eaten by caterpillars

    • E.

      Alarm hormone

    Correct Answer
    E. Alarm hormone
    Explanation
    Salicylic acid, the main component of aspirin, can act as an alarm hormone. Alarm hormones are chemicals that are released by plants in response to stress or injury, signaling to nearby plants that they should activate defense mechanisms. Salicylic acid is known to be involved in plant defense responses against pathogens and pests. When a plant is attacked by insects, salicylic acid can be released to alert nearby plants of the threat, triggering their defense mechanisms. Therefore, salicylic acid can be considered an example of an alarm hormone.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following options correctly lsits the seqence of structures through which water passes into a root?

    • A.

      Epidermis, endodermis, guard cell, xylem

    • B.

      Epidermis, cortex, endodermis, xylem

    • C.

      Root hair, xylem, endodermis, phloem

    • D.

      Guard cell, endodermis, cortex, xylem

    • E.

      Root hair, cortex, xylem, endodermis

    Correct Answer
    B. Epidermis, cortex, endodermis, xylem
  • 13. 

    When a nursery worker pinches off the terminal buds on a young chrysanthemum plant to make it grow bushy, which of the following plant hormones is mainly repsonsible for growth of side branches?

    • A.

      A cytokinin

    • B.

      An auxin

    • C.

      Abscisic acid

    • D.

      A gibberllin

    • E.

      Ethylene

    Correct Answer
    A. A cytokinin
    Explanation
    When a nursery worker pinches off the terminal buds on a young chrysanthemum plant, it stimulates the growth of side branches. This is mainly due to the plant hormone called cytokinin. Cytokinins promote cell division and growth in plants, particularly in the lateral buds. By removing the terminal buds, the concentration of cytokinins increases in the lateral buds, leading to their activation and subsequent growth of side branches.

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  • 14. 

    New growth that increases stem length on a plant arsies mainly from

    • A.

      Apical meristems

    • B.

      The base of the stem

    • C.

      The tip of leaves

    • D.

      Cotyledons

    • E.

      The vascular cambium

    Correct Answer
    A. Apical meristems
    Explanation
    Apical meristems are responsible for the growth in length of plant stems. These meristems are located at the tips of the stems and roots and are responsible for producing new cells that differentiate into various tissues and organs. As the apical meristems divide and produce new cells, the stem length increases. This growth allows the plant to reach for sunlight and maximize its exposure to light for photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is apical meristems.

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  • 15. 

    Which class of hormones produced in the roots of platns promotes cell division and growth, and retards the aging of flowers and leaves?

    • A.

      Phytochromes

    • B.

      Abscisic acid

    • C.

      Ethylene

    • D.

      Gibberellins

    • E.

      Cytokinins

    Correct Answer
    E. Cytokinins
    Explanation
    Cytokinins are a class of hormones produced in the roots of plants that promote cell division and growth. They also help in retarding the aging of flowers and leaves.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of eudicots?

    • A.

      Lack of secondary growth

    • B.

      A flower with six petals

    • C.

      Vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem

    • D.

      Parallel leaf venation

    • E.

      A taproot system

    Correct Answer
    E. A taproot system
    Explanation
    A taproot system is a characteristic of eudicots. Eudicots are a type of flowering plant that have a primary root called a taproot, which grows vertically downward and gives rise to lateral roots. This taproot system allows eudicots to anchor themselves firmly in the ground and absorb water and nutrients efficiently. In contrast, plants with fibrous root systems, such as monocots, do not have a dominant taproot. Therefore, the presence of a taproot system is a distinguishing characteristic of eudicots.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following produces the greatest amount of transpiration-cohesion-tension force?

    • A.

      The osmotic pull of solutes on water from the soil

    • B.

      Pumping by xylem cells

    • C.

      The push of water from the soil

    • D.

      The pull on water from dry air

    • E.

      The cohesive force of water

    Correct Answer
    E. The cohesive force of water
    Explanation
    The cohesive force of water produces the greatest amount of transpiration-cohesion-tension force. Cohesion refers to the attraction between water molecules, and this cohesive force allows water to move upwards through the xylem vessels in plants. As water evaporates from the leaves during transpiration, it creates a negative pressure or tension that pulls water up from the roots. This tension is possible because of the cohesive force of water, which allows water molecules to stick together and form a continuous column in the xylem. Therefore, the cohesive force of water is responsible for the greatest amount of transpiration-cohesion-tension force.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following substances induces "bolting" the rapid elongation of a stem in cabbage?

    • A.

      A gibberellin

    • B.

      Phytochrome

    • C.

      Ethylene

    • D.

      Abscisic acid

    • E.

      A cytokinin

    Correct Answer
    A. A gibberellin
    Explanation
    Gibberellin is a plant hormone that promotes stem elongation. In the case of cabbage, the application of gibberellin induces "bolting," which is the rapid elongation of the stem. This hormone stimulates cell division and elongation in the stem, leading to the rapid growth observed in bolting. Therefore, the presence of gibberellin in cabbage induces this specific response.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following options lists the events leading to leaf fall in deciduous trees in the correct order?

    • A.

      Shortening days, formation of abscission layer, decrease in ethylene levels

    • B.

      Decrease in ehtylene leves, shortening days, formation of abscission layer

    • C.

      Formation of abscission layer, increase in ehtylene levels, decrease in auxin levels

    • D.

      Shortening days, decrease in ehtlene levels, formaiton of the abscission layer

    • E.

      Cooler temperatures, increase in ehtylene production, formaiton of abscission layer

    Correct Answer
    E. Cooler temperatures, increase in ehtylene production, formaiton of abscission layer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cooler temperatures, increase in ethylene production, formation of abscission layer. Cooler temperatures trigger the process of leaf fall in deciduous trees. This leads to an increase in ethylene production, which further promotes the formation of the abscission layer. The abscission layer is responsible for the detachment of the leaf from the tree.

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  • 20. 

    A vascular cambium cell divides to produce an inner and out daugher cell.  Which of the following represents the probale fate of these cells?

    • A.

      The inner cell will differentiate into phloem and the other cell will differentiate into cork

    • B.

      The inner cell will differentiate into xylem and the other cell will divide again.

    • C.

      Both cells continue to divide to produce wood

    • D.

      The inner cell will differentiate into phloem and the outer cell will differentiate into xylem

    • E.

      Both cells will continue to divide without differentiating into specialized cells

    Correct Answer
    B. The inner cell will differentiate into xylem and the other cell will divide again.
    Explanation
    The vascular cambium is responsible for secondary growth in plants, producing new xylem and phloem cells. When a vascular cambium cell divides, it produces an inner and outer daughter cell. In this case, the inner cell will differentiate into xylem, which is responsible for water and mineral transport in plants. The other cell will divide again, allowing for further growth and expansion of the vascular cambium. This process ensures the continuous production of xylem cells and contributes to the plant's ability to grow and develop.

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  • 21. 

    What is phytoremediation?

    • A.

      Treatment of soils and groundwater with chemicals to prevent plant death.

    • B.

      The sue of native plants to restore habitat for wildlife after disadters such as Hurricane katrina

    • C.

      The use of plants to improve the appearnce of devastated areas atfer diasters

    • D.

      The use of plants to remove carbon dioxide from the atomosphere

    • E.

      The use of platns to clean up polluted soil and groundwater

    Correct Answer
    E. The use of platns to clean up polluted soil and groundwater
    Explanation
    Phytoremediation refers to the use of plants to clean up polluted soil and groundwater. This process involves using certain plant species that have the ability to absorb, break down, or metabolize contaminants in the soil and water, thereby reducing their concentration and making the environment cleaner. By harnessing the natural abilities of plants, phytoremediation offers a sustainable and cost-effective method for remediation of polluted areas.

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  • 22. 

    A seed develps from a(n)

    • A.

      Pollen grain

    • B.

      Fruit

    • C.

      Ovary

    • D.

      Sporophyte

    • E.

      Ovule

    Correct Answer
    E. Ovule
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ovule. An ovule is a structure found in the ovary of a flower that contains the female reproductive cells. It is the part of the flower that develops into a seed after fertilization. The other options, such as pollen grain, fruit, ovary, and sporophyte, are not directly involved in the development of a seed.

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  • 23. 

    The tallest plant on Earth is

    • A.

      A giant seed fern in southern Peru

    • B.

      379 ft. redwood tree in California

    • C.

      A 500 ft kelp living off the coast of california

    • D.

      A 740 ft white oak tree in Illinois

    • E.

      A three mile sq sheet of red algae growing along the coastline of Alaska

    Correct Answer
    B. 379 ft. redwood tree in California
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the 379 ft. redwood tree in California. Redwood trees are known to be the tallest trees on Earth, with some reaching heights of over 300 feet. They are native to the coastal regions of California and Oregon and are able to grow to such great heights due to their unique ability to absorb large amounts of water from the foggy coastal air. The redwood tree mentioned in the answer is an example of the impressive height that these trees can reach.

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  • 24. 

    White is a physical barrier in the root that regulates the flow of water to xylem via cell walls?

    • A.

      Phloem

    • B.

      Cortex

    • C.

      Epidermis

    • D.

      Plasmodesmata

    • E.

      Casparian strip

    Correct Answer
    E. Casparian strip
    Explanation
    The Casparian strip is a physical barrier in the root that regulates the flow of water to xylem via cell walls. It is a specialized structure found in the endodermis of plant roots. The Casparian strip is made up of suberin, a waxy substance that prevents water and solutes from freely crossing the cell walls of the endodermal cells. Instead, water and nutrients must pass through the selectively permeable plasma membranes of the endodermal cells, allowing for better control over the movement of substances into the xylem.

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  • 25. 

    The plant growth response to tough is known as

    • A.

      Phototropism

    • B.

      Bolting

    • C.

      Geotropism

    • D.

      Gravitropism

    • E.

      Thigmotropism

    Correct Answer
    E. Thigmotropism
    Explanation
    Thigmotropism is the plant growth response to touch or mechanical stimulation. This response allows plants to respond to physical contact by growing or bending in a particular direction. Unlike phototropism (growth response to light), bolting (rapid growth and elongation of the stem), geotropism (growth response to gravity), and gravitropism (growth response to gravity), thigmotropism specifically refers to the plant's response to touch.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following hormones might induce seeds treaterd with it to break dormancy?

    • A.

      Ethylene

    • B.

      A gibberellin

    • C.

      Abscisic acid

    • D.

      An auxin

    • E.

      A cytokinin

    Correct Answer
    B. A gibberellin
    Explanation
    Gibberellin is a hormone that can induce seeds to break dormancy. It promotes seed germination by stimulating the production of enzymes that break down stored nutrients in the seed, allowing it to grow and develop into a new plant. Ethylene, abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin are not directly involved in breaking seed dormancy. Ethylene is involved in fruit ripening, abscisic acid promotes seed dormancy, auxin is involved in plant growth and development, and cytokinin promotes cell division and growth.

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  • 27. 

    What is the difference between the heartwood and sapwood of a tree?

    • A.

      Heartwood contains old phloem that no longer functions and sapwood contains functioning phloem

    • B.

      Heartwood no longer transports water and minerals, while sapwood still conducts xylem sap

    • C.

      Heartwood conatins xylem and sapwood contains phloem

    • D.

      Sapwood contains xylem and heartwood contains phloem

    • E.

      Sapwood no longer tansports water and minerals, while heartwood still conducts xylem sap.

    Correct Answer
    B. Heartwood no longer transports water and minerals, while sapwood still conducts xylem sap
    Explanation
    Heartwood is the inner, older part of a tree trunk that no longer transports water and minerals. It is composed of non-living cells and provides structural support to the tree. On the other hand, sapwood is the outer, younger part of the tree trunk that still conducts xylem sap, which is responsible for transporting water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the tree. Therefore, the correct answer is that heartwood no longer transports water and minerals, while sapwood still conducts xylem sap.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following essential macronutrient for plants is obtained directly from the air?

    • A.

      Magnesium

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Manganese

    • D.

      Carbon

    • E.

      Nitrogen

    Correct Answer
    E. Nitrogen
    Explanation
    Nitrogen is the correct answer because plants obtain this essential macronutrient directly from the air. Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere, and certain bacteria have the ability to convert this atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use, such as ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-). Plants then assimilate these forms of nitrogen into their tissues to support growth and development. Magnesium, hydrogen, manganese, and carbon are important macronutrients for plants as well, but they are not obtained directly from the air.

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  • 29. 

    There is concern over the use of dioxin, a synthetic plant hormone as a weed killer because

    • A.

      It weakens the shell of the eggs of predatory birds, resulting in death of their offspring

    • B.

      It causes massive fish kills when it gets into lakes and streams

    • C.

      It can cause irreversible mutataions in crop plants

    • D.

      It can casue birth defects and leukemia in humans

    • E.

      It kills jsut as many crop plants as weeds

    Correct Answer
    D. It can casue birth defects and leukemia in humans
    Explanation
    Dioxin, a synthetic plant hormone used as a weed killer, can cause birth defects and leukemia in humans. This is a significant concern because exposure to dioxin can lead to serious health issues in humans, affecting both the development of unborn children and increasing the risk of leukemia. It is important to avoid the use of dioxin as a weed killer to prevent these harmful effects on human health.

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  • 30. 

    In a flowering plant , sperm are produced by meiosis in the

    • A.

      Anthers

    • B.

      Stigma

    • C.

      Sepals

    • D.

      Petals

    • E.

      Ovaries

    Correct Answer
    A. Anthers
    Explanation
    In a flowering plant, sperm are produced by meiosis in the anthers. The anthers are the male reproductive organs of a flower and they contain pollen sacs where meiosis occurs to produce haploid pollen grains. These pollen grains contain the sperm cells that are necessary for fertilization to occur. Therefore, the anthers are responsible for producing the sperm in a flowering plant.

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  • 31. 

    Plants grow toward light through the action of

    • A.

      Solar energy

    • B.

      Nerves

    • C.

      Hormones

    • D.

      Enyzmes

    • E.

      Chloroplasts

    Correct Answer
    C. Hormones
    Explanation
    Plants grow toward light through the action of hormones. Hormones in plants, such as auxins, help regulate growth and development. When a plant is exposed to light, auxins move towards the shaded side of the plant, causing the cells on that side to elongate. This differential growth causes the plant to bend towards the light source. Therefore, hormones play a crucial role in enabling plants to grow towards light.

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  • 32. 

    Removing the terminal bud of a plant that shows apical dominance will cause

    • A.

      Increased growth of axillary buds

    • B.

      An increase in the size of the leaves

    • C.

      Increased grwoth of ther terminal bud

    • D.

      An immediate flowering of the plant

    • E.

      An increase in the growth of the root systerm

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased growth of axillary buds
    Explanation
    Removing the terminal bud of a plant that shows apical dominance will cause increased growth of axillary buds. This is because the terminal bud suppresses the growth of axillary buds by producing a hormone called auxin. When the terminal bud is removed, the auxin concentration decreases, allowing the axillary buds to grow and develop into new branches. This leads to increased branching and overall growth of the plant.

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  • 33. 

    Legumes such as beans or peas

    • A.

      Form mycoohizal associations to increase nitrogen fixation in the soil

    • B.

      Form parasitic relationships with other photosynthetic plants

    • C.

      Fix N2 from the atmosphere in theri leaves

    • D.

      Are poor sources of nitrogen because they are unable to fix N2 on their own

    • E.

      Form mutualistic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Correct Answer
    E. Form mutualistic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    Explanation
    Legumes such as beans or peas form mutualistic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. This means that both the legume plant and the bacteria benefit from their relationship. The legume provides the bacteria with carbohydrates and a suitable environment, while the bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into a form that the legume can use for growth and development. In return, the legume provides the bacteria with a source of energy and protection. This mutualistic association allows legumes to increase nitrogen fixation in the soil, which is essential for their growth and the overall health of the ecosystem.

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  • 34. 

    The increase in grith associated with production of wood and bark in trees occurs as a consequence of

    • A.

      Indeterminate growth

    • B.

      Sexual reproduction

    • C.

      Secondary growth

    • D.

      Primary growth

    • E.

      Growth in apical meristems

    Correct Answer
    C. Secondary growth
    Explanation
    Secondary growth is the correct answer because it is the process responsible for the increase in girth in trees. Secondary growth occurs in the lateral meristems, specifically the vascular cambium and cork cambium, which are responsible for producing secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem (bark). This process allows the tree to increase in diameter over time, resulting in the growth of wood and bark. Primary growth, on the other hand, is responsible for the increase in length of the plant, while the other options are not directly related to the increase in girth.

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  • 35. 

    Generally speaking, fluids in plants are

    • A.

      Pushed through both xylem and phloem

    • B.

      Actively pumped throughout the plant

    • C.

      Pushed throught phloem and pulled through xylem

    • D.

      Pushed through xylem and pulled through phloem

    • E.

      Pulled through both xylem and phloem

    Correct Answer
    C. Pushed throught phloem and pulled through xylem
    Explanation
    Fluids in plants are pushed through the phloem, which is responsible for transporting sugars and other organic molecules from the leaves to other parts of the plant. On the other hand, fluids are pulled through the xylem, which is responsible for transporting water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. This combination of pushing through the phloem and pulling through the xylem allows for the efficient movement of fluids throughout the plant.

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  • 36. 

    Why might mutualistic relationships between plants and other oganism be expected to evolve

    • A.

      Because they benefit both organisms and increase their fitness

    • B.

      Because they tend to decrease mutution rate

    • C.

      Because they decrease competition in plant populations

    • D.

      Because the pltants and organisms have existed for millions of years

    • E.

      Because the plants and organisms occupy the same environment

    Correct Answer
    A. Because they benefit both organisms and increase their fitness
    Explanation
    Mutualistic relationships between plants and other organisms are expected to evolve because they benefit both organisms and increase their fitness. This type of relationship allows both parties to obtain resources or services that they wouldn't be able to acquire on their own, leading to improved survival and reproductive success. This mutual dependence promotes the evolution and maintenance of these relationships over time.

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  • 37. 

    In a showy flower such as a magnolia or rose, the flower parts that ply the main role in attracting the notice of animal pollinators are the

    • A.

      Furits

    • B.

      Petals

    • C.

      Stamens

    • D.

      Sepals

    • E.

      Stigmas

    Correct Answer
    B. Petals
    Explanation
    The petals of a flower play the main role in attracting the notice of animal pollinators. They are often brightly colored and have attractive patterns or markings that help to attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies, or birds. The petals also often have a pleasant scent that can further attract pollinators. By being visually appealing and enticing, the petals help to ensure that the flower is noticed and visited by pollinators, increasing the chances of successful pollination and reproduction for the plant.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following types of plant cells help regulate the movement of carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf

    • A.

      Xylem

    • B.

      Root hairs

    • C.

      Sieve tubes

    • D.

      Companion cells

    • E.

      Guard cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Guard cells
    Explanation
    Guard cells are specialized cells found in the epidermis of plant leaves that surround and regulate the stomata, which are small openings on the leaf surface. The main function of guard cells is to control the opening and closing of stomata, which allows for the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen. When guard cells are turgid, the stomata open, allowing carbon dioxide to enter the leaf for photosynthesis. Conversely, when guard cells become flaccid, the stomata close, preventing excessive water loss through transpiration. Therefore, guard cells play a crucial role in regulating the movement of carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is a way that plants use animals as a defense against herbivores?

    • A.

      Production of an amino acid that harms herbivores

    • B.

      Coevolution between plants and predators

    • C.

      Production of hormones to induce acquired resistnace to herbivores

    • D.

      Release of microb-killing chemicals in response to infection

    • E.

      Attraction of wasps that kill herbivorous catepilliars

    Correct Answer
    E. Attraction of wasps that kill herbivorous catepilliars
    Explanation
    Plants use the attraction of wasps that kill herbivorous caterpillars as a defense against herbivores. By releasing chemicals or emitting specific scents, plants can attract wasps that are natural predators of herbivorous caterpillars. These wasps then prey on the caterpillars, reducing their population and protecting the plants from damage. This is an example of a biological control mechanism where plants utilize other organisms to defend against herbivores.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is one adptive advantage for didous plants that lose thier leaves during the winter?

    • A.

      It prevents water loss from leaves when soil water is unavilable due to freezing

    • B.

      It improves reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants

    • C.

      If leaves are damaged by frost, the tree will die

    • D.

      A layer of leaves on the ground helpts keep plants roots warm

    • E.

      Production of new leaves each spring is more effieicent than supporting old leaves all winter

    Correct Answer
    A. It prevents water loss from leaves when soil water is unavilable due to freezing
    Explanation
    One adaptive advantage for deciduous plants that lose their leaves during the winter is that it prevents water loss from leaves when soil water is unavailable due to freezing. By shedding their leaves, these plants reduce the surface area through which water can evaporate, conserving water during the winter months when the soil is frozen and water is scarce. This adaptation helps the plants survive in cold and dry conditions by minimizing water loss and ensuring their survival until the soil thaws and water becomes available again.

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  • 41. 

    ________ increase the surface area of roots

    • A.

      Root hairs

    • B.

      Mycorrhizae

    • C.

      Plasmodesmata

    • D.

      Cell walls and endoplasmic reticulum

    • E.

      Root hiars ane mycorrhizae

    Correct Answer
    E. Root hiars ane mycorrhizae
    Explanation
    Root hairs and mycorrhizae are both structures that increase the surface area of roots. Root hairs are tiny extensions of root epidermal cells that greatly increase the surface area available for water and nutrient absorption. Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between plant roots and fungi, where the fungal hyphae extend the root system and enhance nutrient uptake. Both root hairs and mycorrhizae play a crucial role in increasing the surface area of roots, allowing for more efficient absorption of water and nutrients from the soil.

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  • 42. 

    Legumes are frequently grown in rotation with primary field crops.  What is the benefit oin this?

    • A.

      A greater amount of the primary crop can be harvested each year

    • B.

      Nitrogen is added to the soild by nitrogen fixing bacteria

    • C.

      Soil erosing is reduced by frequent plowing

    • D.

      Leguems decrease the amount of organic material in the soil

    • E.

      Aeration of the soil is decreased

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitrogen is added to the soild by nitrogen fixing bacteria
    Explanation
    Growing legumes in rotation with primary field crops benefits the soil by adding nitrogen through the process of nitrogen fixation. Legumes have a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form that plants can use. This helps to enrich the soil with nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for plant growth. By rotating legumes with primary crops, farmers can reduce the need for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and improve soil fertility.

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  • 43. 

    Most trees and shrubs continue to grow year after year. Such plants are known as

    • A.

      Perennials

    • B.

      Transannuals

    • C.

      Annuals

    • D.

      Biennials

    • E.

      Superannuals

    Correct Answer
    A. Perennials
    Explanation
    Perennials are plants that continue to grow year after year. Unlike annuals or biennials, which complete their life cycle in one or two years respectively, perennials live for multiple years. They have the ability to survive harsh winters and regrow from their roots or base each spring. This allows them to continue growing and flowering for several years, making them a popular choice for landscaping and gardening.

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  • 44. 

    The relationship beween a plant and mycohizal fungi is best described as

    • A.

      Parasitic

    • B.

      Competitive

    • C.

      Neutral

    • D.

      Commensal

    • E.

      Mutualistic

    Correct Answer
    E. Mutualistic
    Explanation
    The relationship between a plant and mycorrhizal fungi is mutualistic. Mycorrhizal fungi form a symbiotic association with plant roots, where they provide the plant with essential nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, in exchange for carbohydrates produced by the plant through photosynthesis. This mutually beneficial relationship enhances the plant's nutrient uptake and overall growth, while the fungi receive a source of energy. Therefore, both the plant and the mycorrhizal fungi benefit from this interaction, making it a mutualistic relationship.

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  • 45. 

    Monocot floral parts usually occur in multiples of

    • A.

      Two

    • B.

      Seven

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Four

    • E.

      Five

    Correct Answer
    C. Three
    Explanation
    Monocot floral parts usually occur in multiples of three. This is because monocots typically have flower parts, such as petals, sepals, and stamens, arranged in threes or multiples of three. This characteristic is one of the distinguishing features of monocots, which are a type of flowering plant. By contrast, dicots, another type of flowering plant, typically have floral parts arranged in multiples of four or five.

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  • 46. 

    What is the node of a plant stem?

    • A.

      The area between the shoots and the roots

    • B.

      Small pore where gases are exhanged

    • C.

      The point of leaf attachment

    • D.

      The point of apical dominance

    • E.

      The main photosynthetic organ of the stem

    Correct Answer
    C. The point of leaf attachment
    Explanation
    The node of a plant stem refers to the point of leaf attachment. This is where leaves, branches, or other structures grow from the stem. Nodes play a crucial role in determining the overall structure and growth pattern of the plant. They serve as the sites for leaf development and are important in the transportation of water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant.

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  • 47. 

    What is the role of the fungus in a mycorrhizal association?

    • A.

      Release of water

    • B.

      Production of sugars

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    • D.

      Secreation of growth factors

    • E.

      Absorption of phosphate

    Correct Answer
    E. Absorption of phosphate
    Explanation
    In a mycorrhizal association, the role of the fungus is to absorb phosphate. Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots, where the fungi form a network of hyphae that extend into the soil and enhance the plant's ability to absorb nutrients, particularly phosphate. The hyphae of the fungus have a larger surface area compared to the plant roots, allowing for increased absorption of phosphate from the soil. This nutrient is then transferred to the plant, benefiting its growth and development.

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  • 48. 

    Photosynthesis occurs in which type of plant tissue?

    • A.

      Epidermal tissue

    • B.

      Parenchyma

    • C.

      Vascular cambium

    • D.

      Collenchyma

    • E.

      Sclerenchyma

    Correct Answer
    B. Parenchyma
    Explanation
    Parenchyma is the correct answer because photosynthesis primarily occurs in the mesophyll cells of plant leaves, which are composed of parenchyma tissue. Parenchyma cells have abundant chloroplasts, which are responsible for capturing sunlight and converting it into energy through the process of photosynthesis. These cells also have a large surface area and are loosely packed, allowing for efficient gas exchange and the diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Therefore, parenchyma tissue is the main site of photosynthesis in plants.

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  • 49. 

    What sprodcution of axuxinstimulates germination of desert plant seeds after a hard rain?

    • A.

      Production of auxins

    • B.

      Removal of ethylene

    • C.

      Cooler temperatures

    • D.

      Removal of abscisic acid

    • E.

      Activation of cytokinis

    Correct Answer
    D. Removal of abscisic acid
    Explanation
    Abscisic acid is a plant hormone that inhibits seed germination and growth. In desert plants, the production of this hormone is high during dry conditions to prevent premature germination. However, after a hard rain, the removal of abscisic acid allows the seeds to overcome this inhibition and stimulates germination. Therefore, the removal of abscisic acid is the correct answer as it directly influences the germination of desert plant seeds after a hard rain.

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  • 50. 

    The male organ of a flower is the

    • A.

      Stigma

    • B.

      Carpel

    • C.

      Sepal

    • D.

      Stamen

    • E.

      Style

    Correct Answer
    D. Stamen
    Explanation
    The male organ of a flower is called the stamen. It consists of two main parts, the anther and the filament. The anther produces and holds the pollen, which contains the male gametes. The filament supports the anther and positions it for pollination. The stamen is responsible for the reproductive function of the flower by producing and releasing pollen to fertilize the female reproductive organs of other flowers.

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