Biology: Compounds Of The Cell Review

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Cell Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Water is chemically unstable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Water is not chemically unstable. It is a stable compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. This molecular structure gives water its unique properties and stability. It is a vital substance for life and plays a crucial role in various biological and chemical processes. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 2. 

    Substances dissolve better in water when they are smaller.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because smaller substances have a larger surface area compared to their volume, which allows more contact between the substance and the water molecules. This increased contact leads to a greater interaction between the substance and water, resulting in better dissolution. Additionally, smaller particles can easily fit into the spaces between water molecules, facilitating the dissolving process.

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  • 3. 

    Water is the site of _____ ______ in the cell.

    Correct Answer
    chemical reactions
    Explanation
    Water is known as the "universal solvent" and plays a crucial role in facilitating chemical reactions within cells. It acts as a medium in which various molecules can interact and react with each other. Additionally, water can also participate directly in chemical reactions by ionizing into hydrogen and hydroxide ions, which can then react with other molecules. Therefore, water serves as the site where numerous essential biochemical reactions occur, enabling the cell to carry out its functions effectively.

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  • 4. 

    All acids taste ________.

    Correct Answer
    Sour
    Explanation
    Acids taste sour because they release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. These hydrogen ions react with taste buds on the tongue, triggering a sour taste sensation. This is why substances like lemon juice and vinegar, which contain acidic compounds, taste sour.

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  • 5. 

    All bases taste _________.

    Correct Answer
    Bitter
    Explanation
    Bitter is a taste that is commonly associated with bases. Bases are substances that have a pH level greater than 7 and can often leave a bitter taste in the mouth. This taste is a result of the alkaline nature of bases, which can be detected by our taste buds. Therefore, it can be concluded that all bases taste bitter.

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  • 6. 

    Strong acids release _____ concentrations of hydrogen cations.

    Correct Answer
    high
    Explanation
    Strong acids release high concentrations of hydrogen cations because they completely dissociate in water, resulting in a large number of hydrogen ions being released into the solution. This high concentration of hydrogen cations makes the solution highly acidic and capable of reacting strongly with other substances.

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  • 7. 

    An acid neutralizes a base by producing ______ and water.

    Correct Answer
    Salts
    Salt
    Explanation
    When an acid reacts with a base, it undergoes a neutralization reaction. During this reaction, the acid donates a proton (H+) to the base, forming water (H2O) as a byproduct. Additionally, the remaining components of the acid and base combine to form a salt. Therefore, the correct answer is "salts" or "salt" as both are formed in the neutralization reaction between an acid and a base.

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  • 8. 

    The chemical formula for all monosaccharides is...

    • A.

      C6H12O6

    • B.

      C8H3O8

    • C.

      N12OH2

    Correct Answer
    A. C6H12O6
    Explanation
    The chemical formula for all monosaccharides is C6H12O6. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. The formula C6H12O6 represents the ratio of these atoms in monosaccharides, with six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. This formula is consistent for all monosaccharides, including glucose, fructose, and galactose.

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  • 9. 

    The five-sided monosaccharide is...

    • A.

      Fructose

    • B.

      Galactose

    • C.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. Fructose
    Explanation
    Fructose is a five-sided monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and are composed of a single sugar molecule. Fructose is commonly found in fruits and is sweeter than glucose. It has a five-sided ring structure, making it the correct answer for the given question. Galactose and glucose, on the other hand, have six-sided ring structures and are not five-sided monosaccharides.

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  • 10. 

    The plant polysaccharide is _______.

    Correct Answer
    Starch
    Explanation
    Starch is a plant polysaccharide that serves as a major energy storage molecule in plants. It is composed of glucose units linked together in a linear chain, with occasional branching. Starch is synthesized in the chloroplasts of plant cells and can be found in various plant organs, such as seeds, tubers, and fruits. It is a complex carbohydrate that can be broken down by enzymes in the body to release glucose, which can then be used as a source of energy.

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  • 11. 

    The biggest polysaccharide (found in wood and cotton) is...

    Correct Answer
    Cellulose
    Explanation
    Cellulose is the correct answer because it is the largest polysaccharide found in wood and cotton. It is a complex carbohydrate made up of glucose molecules linked together, forming long chains. Cellulose provides structural support to plants and is a major component of their cell walls. It is also a valuable material used in various industries, such as paper and textile manufacturing.

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  • 12. 

    The animal polysaccharide is _________.

    Correct Answer
    Glycogen
    Explanation
    Glycogen is the correct answer for the animal polysaccharide. Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide that serves as the main storage form of glucose in animals. It is primarily found in the liver and muscles and is used as a quick source of energy when needed. Glycogen is composed of many glucose molecules linked together in a branched structure, making it an ideal storage molecule for glucose in animals.

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  • 13. 

    The 3 roles of ________:1. Building blocks of all living things.2. Assembles and breakdown molecules in living organisms and some are carriers of other molecules.3. Can be broken down as fuel.

    • A.

      Acids

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are the correct answer because they fulfill all three roles mentioned in the question. Firstly, proteins are indeed the building blocks of all living things, as they are involved in the structure and function of cells and tissues. Secondly, proteins have various functions in living organisms, including catalyzing chemical reactions (assembling and breaking down molecules) and acting as carriers for other molecules. Lastly, proteins can be broken down as fuel to provide energy for the body.

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  • 14. 

    The ______ is the smallest unit of a protein.

    • A.

      Fatty acid

    • B.

      Amino acid

    • C.

      Element

    Correct Answer
    B. Amino acid
    Explanation
    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and they are considered the smallest unit of a protein. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. Each amino acid has a unique side chain that determines its specific properties and functions within a protein. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acid.

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  • 15. 

    Types of proteins are determined by the number of __________ in a polypeptide and the sequence of ____________ in a polypeptide. (Only one answer)

    Correct Answer
    Amino acids
    Explanation
    The types of proteins are determined by the number of amino acids in a polypeptide and the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids, and the specific arrangement and number of amino acids in a protein determine its structure and function. Different combinations and sequences of amino acids result in the formation of different types of proteins with unique properties and roles in the body.

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  • 16. 

    All lipids are made up of long carbon and hydrogen chains called amino acids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect because lipids are not made up of amino acids. Lipids are a diverse group of molecules that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, but they do not contain amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, not lipids. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 17. 

    The long chains that make up lipids are attached to one ______ molecule.

    Correct Answer
    Glycerol
    Explanation
    The long chains that make up lipids are attached to one glycerol molecule. Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol that serves as the backbone for the formation of triglycerides, which are the most common type of lipid. The fatty acid chains are attached to the glycerol molecule through ester linkages, forming a triglyceride molecule. This arrangement allows lipids to store energy efficiently and also provides insulation and protection for organs.

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  • 18. 

    Oils are unsaturated plant lipids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Oils are indeed unsaturated plant lipids. Unsaturated lipids contain one or more double bonds in their fatty acid chains, which gives them a liquid consistency at room temperature. Oils are commonly derived from plants, such as olive oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil, and they are known for their health benefits due to their high content of unsaturated fats. Therefore, the statement "Oils are unsaturated plant lipids" is true.

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  • 19. 

    A triglyceride is the largest fat molecule.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A triglyceride is a type of fat molecule that consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. It is considered the largest fat molecule because it contains multiple fatty acid chains, which can vary in length. These fatty acids provide energy storage and insulation in the body. Triglycerides are commonly found in foods and are a major component of body fat.

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  • 20. 

    Fats are unsaturated animal lipids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Fats are saturated animal lipids.

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  • 21. 

    Matter is...

    • A.

      Anything that had mass.

    • B.

      Anything that occupies space in the universe.

    • C.

      Both answers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Both answers.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is both answers because matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupies space in the universe. Both statements accurately describe the characteristics of matter.

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  • 22. 

    The smallest unit of matter is...

    • A.

      Atom

    • B.

      Element

    • C.

      Quark

    Correct Answer
    B. Element
    Explanation
    An element is the smallest unit of matter that retains its unique properties and cannot be broken down further by chemical means. Atoms, on the other hand, are the basic building blocks of elements, consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Quarks are subatomic particles that make up protons and neutrons, which in turn make up atoms. Therefore, while atoms and quarks are smaller components, an element is considered the smallest unit of matter as it represents a pure substance with distinct characteristics.

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  • 23. 

    A compound that lacks carbon is an organic compound.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because organic compounds are defined as compounds that contain carbon. Therefore, a compound that lacks carbon cannot be classified as an organic compound.

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  • 24. 

    A _________ bond is a bond that links two atoms together by electrons in their outermost energy levels.

    Correct Answer
    Chemical
    Explanation
    A chemical bond is a bond that links two atoms together by electrons in their outermost energy levels. This bond is formed through the sharing, transferring, or overlapping of electrons between the atoms. Chemical bonds are crucial for the formation of molecules and compounds, as they determine the stability and reactivity of the substances involved.

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  • 25. 

    A _______ bond is a bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons.

    Correct Answer
    Covalent
    Explanation
    A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. This type of bond occurs between nonmetal atoms, allowing them to achieve a stable electron configuration by sharing electrons. In a covalent bond, the shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms, creating a strong bond. This sharing of electrons allows atoms to fill their valence shells and achieve greater stability. Covalent bonds are typically found in molecules and compounds composed of nonmetals.

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  • 26. 

    A atom that has gained or lost electrons is a...

    • A.

      Isomer

    • B.

      Isotope

    • C.

      Ion

    Correct Answer
    B. Isotope
    Explanation
    An atom that has gained or lost electrons is called an ion. Isotopes, on the other hand, are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus. Therefore, the correct answer is ion, as it accurately describes an atom that has gained or lost electrons.

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  • 27. 

    The result of one atom giving an electron to another atom is...

    • A.

      Ionic bond

    • B.

      Compound

    • C.

      Covalent bond

    Correct Answer
    A. Ionic bond
    Explanation
    When one atom gives an electron to another atom, it creates an ionic bond. This type of bond occurs between a metal and a non-metal. The metal atom loses an electron and becomes positively charged, while the non-metal atom gains an electron and becomes negatively charged. The attraction between the opposite charges holds the atoms together, forming an ionic bond. This bond results in the formation of compounds, where the positive and negative ions are attracted to each other and form a stable structure.

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  • 28. 

    A _____ dissolves in a _________ to form a _________.answer should be:_____, _______, ______ 

    Correct Answer
    Solute, Solvent, Solution
    Explanation
    When a solute is added to a solvent, it dissolves and forms a solution. A solute is a substance that can be dissolved, while a solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute. The resulting mixture is called a solution. In this case, the answer is "solute, solvent, solution".

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  • 29. 

    Anything that releases H+ is a...

    • A.

      Alkali

    • B.

      Base

    • C.

      Acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Acid
    Explanation
    Anything that releases H+ ions is considered an acid. Acids are substances that have a pH value less than 7 and can donate protons or accept electron pairs in chemical reactions. When an acid dissolves in water, it releases H+ ions, which increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. This increase in H+ ion concentration leads to the solution becoming more acidic. Therefore, the correct answer is acid.

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  • 30. 

    __________ are the most abundant of the compounds in living cells.

    Correct Answer
    Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are the most abundant compounds in living cells. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as cell structure, signaling, and enzyme activity. Proteins are made up of amino acids and are involved in almost every aspect of cellular function. They are responsible for carrying out the majority of the work in cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of tissues and organs. Therefore, proteins are considered the most abundant compounds in living cells.

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  • 31. 

    The unit of structure and function f the proteins is the ___________.

    Correct Answer
    Amino acid
    Explanation
    Proteins are composed of long chains of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are responsible for their structure and function. Each protein has a unique sequence of amino acids, which determines its specific shape and function. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acid.

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  • 32. 

    _____ amino acids are know.

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      20

    • C.

      30

    • D.

      40

    • E.

      50

    • F.

      60

    • G.

      70

    • H.

      80

    • I.

      90

    • J.

      100

    Correct Answer
    G. 70
  • 33. 

    How many of the known amino acids occur naturally?

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      20

    • C.

      30

    • D.

      40

    • E.

      50

    Correct Answer
    B. 20
    Explanation
    There are 20 known amino acids that occur naturally. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are essential for various biological processes. These 20 amino acids have different chemical structures and properties, allowing them to contribute to the diversity and functionality of proteins in living organisms.

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  • 34. 

    Each amino acid is made up of ___ parts.

    Correct Answer
    4
    Four
    Explanation
    Each amino acid is made up of four parts.

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  • 35. 

    _________ names usually en in "-ine".

    Correct Answer
    Amino acid
    Explanation
    Amino acids are organic compounds that contain both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). These compounds are the building blocks of proteins and play a crucial role in various biological processes. The statement in the question suggests that amino acids usually end in "-ine," which is true. Examples of amino acids that follow this pattern include histidine, lysine, and arginine.

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  • 36. 

    A __________ is two amino acids linked together.

    Correct Answer
    Dipeptide
    Explanation
    A dipeptide is a molecule formed by the linkage of two amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and when two amino acids come together, they form a dipeptide through a peptide bond. This bond is formed by a condensation reaction, where the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another amino acid, resulting in the formation of a peptide bond and the release of a water molecule. Therefore, a dipeptide consists of two amino acids joined together by a peptide bond.

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  • 37. 

    Linkage of amino acids is by _______________.

    Correct Answer
    Dehydration Synthesis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Dehydration Synthesis. Dehydration synthesis is the process by which two amino acids are linked together to form a peptide bond. This reaction involves the removal of a water molecule, resulting in the formation of a covalent bond between the amino acids. Dehydration synthesis is a fundamental process in protein synthesis, as it allows for the formation of long chains of amino acids, ultimately leading to the creation of proteins.

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  • 38. 

    The bond that links two amino acids together is called a ______ bond.

    Correct Answer
    Peptide
    Explanation
    The bond that links two amino acids together is called a peptide bond. This bond forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid, resulting in the formation of a peptide. Peptide bonds are formed through a condensation reaction, where a water molecule is eliminated. These bonds are crucial for the formation of proteins, as they join amino acids in a specific sequence to create the primary structure of a protein.

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  • 39. 

    Three or more amino acids linked together is called a ________. ________ s (same word as before) are called proteins.

    Correct Answer
    Polypeptide
    Explanation
    When three or more amino acids are linked together, it forms a polypeptide. Polypeptides are the building blocks of proteins. They are formed through a process called peptide bond formation, where the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another amino acid. The resulting chain of amino acids, known as a polypeptide, can then fold and interact with other polypeptides to form a functional protein. Therefore, the correct answer is polypeptide.

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  • 40. 

    Proteins are digested by _________.

    Correct Answer
    Hydrolysis
    Explanation
    Proteins are large molecules made up of amino acids. In order to be absorbed and utilized by the body, they need to be broken down into smaller peptides and amino acids. This process is called digestion. Hydrolysis is the chemical reaction that breaks down proteins by adding water molecules, which helps to break the bonds between the amino acids. Therefore, hydrolysis is the correct answer as it accurately describes the process by which proteins are digested.

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  • 41. 

    The _______ and ________ of amino acids determine the type of protein.

    Correct Answer
    Number, Sequence
    Explanation
    The number and sequence of amino acids determine the type of protein because the number of amino acids in a protein determines its length and size, while the specific sequence of amino acids determines its unique structure and function. Different combinations and arrangements of amino acids result in different types of proteins with distinct properties and roles in biological processes.

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  • 42. 

    Proteins make up ____ % of the dry weight of animals.

    Correct Answer
    50
    Explanation
    Proteins make up 50% of the dry weight of animals. This means that half of the weight of an animal, when all the water is removed, is composed of proteins. Proteins are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as muscle development, enzyme activity, and immune response. Therefore, it is significant that proteins constitute a significant portion of an animal's dry weight.

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  • 43. 

    The _______ of proteins are important to their functions.

    Correct Answer
    Shape
    Explanation
    The shape of proteins is crucial for their functions. Proteins are three-dimensional molecules that fold into specific shapes, and this shape determines how they interact with other molecules in the body. The shape of a protein determines its ability to bind to specific molecules, carry out chemical reactions, and perform its specific function in the body. Any alteration in the shape of a protein can lead to a loss of function or even dysfunction, highlighting the importance of protein shape in their overall functionality.

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  • 44. 

    The 3 Roles of Proteins:1. Structural Role -Proteins are the _____ _______ of all living things.2. Functional Role- Proteins called _____ can assemble or breakdown ______ in ______ organisms.- Some proteins are _______ of other ______.3. Nutritional RoleProteins can be broken down as "_____". Especially during _________.

    Correct Answer
    Building Blocks, Enzymes, Molecules, Living, Carriers, Molecules, Fuels, Starvation
    Explanation
    Proteins play three important roles in living organisms. First, they have a structural role and serve as the building blocks of all living things. Second, they have a functional role as enzymes, which can assemble or breakdown molecules in living organisms. Additionally, some proteins act as carriers of other molecules. Finally, proteins also have a nutritional role as they can be broken down as fuels, especially during starvation.

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  • 45. 

    ______ is the best known solvent.

    Correct Answer
    Water
    Explanation
    Water is considered the best known solvent because of its unique properties. It is a polar molecule, which means it has a slight positive charge on one end and a slight negative charge on the other. This polarity allows water molecules to attract and dissolve many different substances, making it an excellent solvent for a wide range of solutes. Additionally, water's high boiling point, high heat capacity, and ability to form hydrogen bonds further contribute to its effectiveness as a solvent. These characteristics make water essential for many biological processes and contribute to its importance in various industries and everyday life.

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  • 46. 

    Water ionizes infrequently; only one is _____ million molecules.

    Correct Answer
    500
    Five hundred
    5 hundred
    Explanation
    Water ionizes infrequently; only one is 500 million molecules. The correct answer is 500, Five hundred, 5 hundred.

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  • 47. 

    _____ _____ are released by acids in a solution.

    Correct Answer
    Hydrogen cations
    Hydrogen ions
    Explanation
    Acids release hydrogen ions (H+) when they dissolve in a solution. These hydrogen ions are also known as hydrogen cations. Therefore, both "Hydrogen cations" and "Hydrogen ions" are correct answers because they refer to the same thing.

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  • 48. 

    _____ and  ______ are the two six-sided monosaccharides.

    Correct Answer
    Glucose, Galactose
    Galactose, Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose and Galactose are the two six-sided monosaccharides. This means that both glucose and galactose have six carbon atoms in their structure. They are both simple sugars and are classified as monosaccharides because they cannot be broken down into simpler sugars. Glucose is the most common monosaccharide and is an important source of energy in living organisms. Galactose is less common but is also a crucial component in various biological processes, including the production of lactose, a sugar found in milk.

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  • 49. 

    The ___ _____ is the relative position atoms occupy in space.

    Correct Answer
    Steric Configuration
    Explanation
    Steric configuration refers to the relative position that atoms occupy in space. It describes the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups around a central atom in a molecule, considering factors such as bond angles, bond lengths, and spatial hindrance between atoms. This concept is important in understanding the three-dimensional shape and properties of molecules.

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  • 50. 

    Two or more chemically combined atoms are a ________.

    Correct Answer
    Compound
    Explanation
    When two or more atoms chemically combine, they form a compound. A compound is a substance composed of different elements that are bonded together in specific ratios. These atoms can be from the same or different elements. The bonding between atoms in a compound can be either ionic or covalent, depending on the nature of the elements involved. Compounds have unique properties that are different from the properties of the individual elements that make them up.

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