AP Psychology: Chapter 7 Exam

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AP Psychology: Chapter 7 Exam - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Thinking is a synonym for...

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Learning

    • C.

      Cognition

    • D.

      Sensation

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognition
    Explanation
    Cognition is the mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thinking, experiencing, and sensing. It involves various mental activities such as perception, learning, reasoning, and problem-solving. Therefore, cognition is an appropriate synonym for thinking as it encompasses the overall mental processes involved in understanding and processing information.

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  • 2. 

    The three most important building blocks of thoughts are...

    • A.

      Language, images, and concepts

    • B.

      Cognitions, feelings, and language

    • C.

      Concepts, algorithms, and heuristics

    • D.

      Sematics, phonemes, and morphemes

    Correct Answer
    A. Language, images, and concepts
    Explanation
    Language, images, and concepts are the three most important building blocks of thoughts. Language allows us to communicate and express our thoughts and ideas. Images, whether mental or visual, help us visualize and understand concepts. Concepts are the mental representations of categories or ideas that help us organize and make sense of the world around us. Together, these three building blocks form the foundation for our thoughts and cognitive processes.

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  • 3. 

    Spoken language is based on units of sound called...

    • A.

      Morphemes

    • B.

      Registers

    • C.

      Phonemes

    • D.

      Semantics

    Correct Answer
    C. Phonemes
    Explanation
    Spoken language is based on units of sound called phonemes. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in a language that can distinguish meaning. They are the building blocks of spoken language and are combined to form words. Different languages have different sets of phonemes, and the way phonemes are combined and pronounced can vary between languages. Understanding phonemes is essential for effective communication and language comprehension.

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  • 4. 

    Ralph cannot generate an accurate list of critical differences between mice and rats, but he can still use the concepts of mice and rats in his thinking. This is because he...

    • A.

      Confused the concepts of mice and rats

    • B.

      Developed phonemes for mice and rats

    • C.

      Developed prototypes for mice and rats

    • D.

      Developed morphemes for mice and rats

    Correct Answer
    C. Developed prototypes for mice and rats
    Explanation
    Ralph's inability to generate an accurate list of critical differences between mice and rats suggests that he has developed prototypes for them. Prototypes are mental representations or typical examples that individuals use to understand and categorize objects or concepts. Despite not having a detailed understanding of the specific differences between mice and rats, Ralph can still use the general concepts of mice and rats in his thinking because he has formed prototypes for both. These prototypes allow him to have a basic understanding and make generalizations about mice and rats, even without precise knowledge of their differences.

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  • 5. 

    A mental representation of a sensory experience is known as a(n)...

    • A.

      Cognition

    • B.

      Concept

    • C.

      Heuristic

    • D.

      Image

    Correct Answer
    D. Image
    Explanation
    An image is a mental representation of a sensory experience, such as a visual or auditory perception. It is a mental picture that we create in our minds based on our past experiences or imagination. Images can be vivid and detailed, allowing us to recall or imagine specific sensory details. They play a crucial role in memory, imagination, and problem-solving. Therefore, an image is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 6. 

    The first step in solving a probklem is to...

    • A.

      Decide on using either an algorithm or heuristic strategy

    • B.

      Eliminate functional fixedness

    • C.

      Create a representation of the problem

    • D.

      Conduct a means-end analysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Create a representation of the problem
    Explanation
    To solve a problem, the first step is to create a representation of the problem. This involves understanding and defining the problem, identifying its key elements, and organizing the information in a way that allows for analysis and solution generation. By creating a representation of the problem, individuals can gain a clearer understanding of the problem space and potential solution paths, which can then guide their problem-solving process. This step is crucial as it sets the foundation for the subsequent problem-solving strategies and techniques that will be employed.

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  • 7. 

    The type of thinking required to solve problems requiring a creative, flexible or inventive solution is known as what type of thinking?

    • A.

      Divergent

    • B.

      Functional

    • C.

      Circular

    • D.

      Convergent

    Correct Answer
    A. Divergent
    Explanation
    Divergent thinking is the type of thinking required to solve problems that demand a creative, flexible, or inventive solution. It involves generating multiple possible solutions and exploring different perspectives and possibilities. This type of thinking encourages the exploration of various ideas and allows for unconventional approaches to problem-solving.

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  • 8. 

    Trial and error works best when...

    • A.

      There are many ambiguous choices

    • B.

      There are many unambiguous choices

    • C.

      There are only a limited number of choices

    • D.

      Is never the best way to solve problems

    Correct Answer
    C. There are only a limited number of choices
    Explanation
    Trial and error works best when there are only a limited number of choices because it involves systematically trying different options until the correct one is found. When there are a limited number of choices, it is easier to go through each one and test them until the desired outcome is achieved. This method is less effective when there are many ambiguous or unambiguous choices as it can become time-consuming and inefficient to test each option.

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  • 9. 

    Ken knows that the radius of a circle is 5 feet, but he needs to calculate the diameter. The most effective solution strategy he can use involves a(n)...

    • A.

      Heuristc

    • B.

      Algorithm

    • C.

      Noncompensatory model

    • D.

      Means-end analysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Algorithm
    Explanation
    Ken can use an algorithm to calculate the diameter of the circle. An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure or set of rules that guarantees a solution to a problem. In this case, Ken can use the formula for the diameter of a circle, which states that the diameter is equal to twice the radius. By applying this formula, Ken can easily calculate the diameter of the circle.

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  • 10. 

    The tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways is called...

    • A.

      Noncompensatory modeling

    • B.

      Mental set

    • C.

      Prototypical idealization

    • D.

      Means-end analysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Mental set
    Explanation
    Mental set refers to the tendency of individuals to approach and solve problems based on previous experiences and preconceived notions. It involves utilizing familiar strategies and problem-solving techniques that have been successful in the past, even if they may not be the most effective or efficient methods for the current problem at hand. This cognitive bias can sometimes hinder creativity and innovation in problem-solving, as individuals may be resistant to trying new approaches or thinking outside of their established mental frameworks.

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  • 11. 

    Becoming accustomed to thinking of only a limited number of uses for something is known as...

    • A.

      Prototypical idealization

    • B.

      Functional fixedness

    • C.

      Hill-climbing

    • D.

      Noncompensatory modeling

    Correct Answer
    B. Functional fixedness
    Explanation
    Functional fixedness refers to the cognitive bias that limits a person's ability to see alternative uses or functions for an object, beyond its typical or intended use. It is the tendency to only consider the familiar or conventional uses of an object, rather than thinking creatively and exploring other possibilities. This can hinder problem-solving and innovative thinking, as individuals may overlook unconventional solutions or fail to see the full potential of an object.

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  • 12. 

    A problem-solving strategy in which an individual or group produces numerous ideas and evaluates them only after all ideas have been colected is called...

    • A.

      Critiquing

    • B.

      Brainstorming

    • C.

      Functional analysis

    • D.

      Convergent thinking

    Correct Answer
    B. Brainstorming
    Explanation
    Brainstorming is a problem-solving strategy where individuals or groups generate a large number of ideas without evaluating them initially. The purpose is to encourage creativity and free thinking, allowing for a wide range of ideas to be considered. Once all ideas have been collected, they can be evaluated and analyzed for their feasibility and effectiveness. This approach encourages open-mindedness and collaboration, fostering a more innovative and diverse solution to the problem at hand.

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  • 13. 

    Problem-solving in which we already know all the possible solutions or choices is...

    • A.

      Divergent thinking

    • B.

      Convergent thinking

    • C.

      Functional thinking

    • D.

      Decision making

    Correct Answer
    D. Decision making
    Explanation
    Decision making refers to the process of selecting the best possible option among various alternatives. In this process, we already have a set of solutions or choices to choose from, and we analyze and evaluate each option to make a decision. Therefore, decision making is the correct answer as it aligns with the given explanation.

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  • 14. 

    Rating different choices on each of several criteria in decision making is known as...

    • A.

      Nonbinding modeling

    • B.

      Functional elasticity

    • C.

      Means-end analysis

    • D.

      Compensatory modeling

    Correct Answer
    D. Compensatory modeling
    Explanation
    Compensatory modeling refers to the process of rating different choices on multiple criteria in decision making. This approach allows for trade-offs between the criteria, meaning that a high rating in one criterion can compensate for a lower rating in another criterion. This method is commonly used when decision makers need to consider multiple factors and prioritize them based on their importance.

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  • 15. 

    The tendency to view outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we already know the outcome is known as...

    • A.

      Hindsight bias

    • B.

      Framing

    • C.

      Counterfactual thinking

    • D.

      The confirmation bias

    Correct Answer
    A. Hindsight bias
    Explanation
    Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to perceive past events as being more predictable than they actually were. After knowing the outcome, people often believe that they could have predicted it all along, leading to an overestimation of their own foresight. This bias can affect our judgments and decision-making processes, as we may become overconfident in our ability to predict future events based on past knowledge.

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  • 16. 

    The tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief is called the...

    • A.

      Representative heuristic

    • B.

      Idealized cognitive model

    • C.

      Confirmation bias

    • D.

      Availability heuristic

    Correct Answer
    C. Confirmation bias
    Explanation
    Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to seek out information or evidence that supports one's existing beliefs or hypotheses while ignoring or dismissing information that contradicts them. This bias can lead to a distorted perception of reality and hinder critical thinking. It is a common cognitive bias that affects decision-making processes and can contribute to the formation and perpetuation of false beliefs.

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  • 17. 

    Thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened is known as...

    • A.

      Framing

    • B.

      Hindsight

    • C.

      The confirmation bias

    • D.

      Counterfactual thinking

    Correct Answer
    D. Counterfactual thinking
    Explanation
    Counterfactual thinking refers to the process of imagining alternative outcomes or events that did not actually happen. It involves considering "what if" scenarios and exploring different possibilities. This type of thinking allows individuals to reflect on past events, evaluate their own actions, and consider different courses of action that could have led to different outcomes. Counterfactual thinking can be used to learn from past experiences, make better decisions in the future, and understand the potential consequences of different actions.

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  • 18. 

    A general term referring to the ability or abilities involved in learning and adaptive behavior is...

    • A.

      Apperception

    • B.

      Insight

    • C.

      Affect

    • D.

      Intelligence

    Correct Answer
    D. Intelligence
    Explanation
    Intelligence is the correct answer because it is a general term that encompasses the ability or abilities involved in learning and adaptive behavior. It refers to the capacity to acquire knowledge, solve problems, reason, and adapt to new situations. Intelligence involves various cognitive processes such as memory, attention, perception, and problem-solving skills. It is a broad concept that encompasses different aspects of mental abilities and is essential for learning and adaptive behavior.

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  • 19. 

    According to Sternberg, the ability to adjust to new tasks and situations, to gain insights, and to adapt, requires what kind of intelligence?

    • A.

      Analytical

    • B.

      Creative

    • C.

      Practical

    • D.

      Exponential

    Correct Answer
    B. Creative
    Explanation
    According to Sternberg, the ability to adjust to new tasks and situations, to gain insights, and to adapt requires creative intelligence. This type of intelligence involves thinking outside the box, generating new ideas, and finding innovative solutions to problems. It involves the ability to see connections and patterns that others may not see, and to approach situations with a fresh perspective. Creative intelligence is essential for adapting to new challenges and finding unique and effective ways to navigate unfamiliar tasks and situations.

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  • 20. 

    Barbara does not do very well on IQ tests or in school. Yet she picks up new skills quite quickly and carries out her assigned tasks effectively and efficiently. Her intellectual strengths appear to be...

    • A.

      Practical

    • B.

      Creative

    • C.

      Analytical

    • D.

      Exponential

    Correct Answer
    A. Practical
    Explanation
    Barbara's capacity to quickly learn new skills and effectively perform tasks suggests she has a high degree of practical intelligence. Practical intelligence refers to the ability to handle everyday tasks and real-world challenges efficiently, even if traditional measures of intelligence, like IQ tests and academic performance, do not reflect this ability. This type of intelligence is more about applying knowledge effectively in practical situations rather than theoretical or analytical reasoning.

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  • 21. 

    The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by...

    • A.

      Gardner

    • B.

      Sternberg

    • C.

      Freud

    • D.

      Spearmen

    Correct Answer
    A. Gardner
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gardner. Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligences, which suggests that intelligence is not a single, fixed trait but rather a combination of different types of intelligences. He identified eight different intelligences, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligences. This theory challenges the traditional view of intelligence and emphasizes the importance of recognizing and valuing diverse forms of intelligence.

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  • 22. 

    According to the theory of multiple intelligences, which intelligence is the ability to manipulate one's body in space?

    • A.

      Spatial

    • B.

      Intrapersonal

    • C.

      Bodily-kinesthetic

    • D.

      Naturalistc

    Correct Answer
    C. Bodily-kinesthetic
    Explanation
    According to the theory of multiple intelligences, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence refers to the ability to manipulate one's body in space. This intelligence involves the coordination, control, and awareness of one's body movements, as well as the ability to use fine and gross motor skills effectively. People with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence excel in activities that require physical dexterity, such as sports, dance, and performing arts. They have a heightened sense of body awareness and are skilled at using their bodies to solve problems and express themselves creatively.

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  • 23. 

    People who are talented in understanding and communicating with others have what a higher type of which intelligence?

    • A.

      Interpersonal

    • B.

      Intrapersonal

    • C.

      Linguistic

    • D.

      Naturalistic

    Correct Answer
    A. Interpersonal
    Explanation
    People who are talented in understanding and communicating with others have a higher type of intelligence called interpersonal intelligence. This type of intelligence involves the ability to empathize, understand, and effectively interact with others. Individuals with interpersonal intelligence are skilled in reading body language, interpreting emotions, and building strong relationships. They excel in social settings and are often natural leaders or mediators.

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  • 24. 

    The phrase, "know thyself" most accurately reflects which type of intelligence?

    • A.

      Naturalistic

    • B.

      Interpersonal

    • C.

      Linguistic

    • D.

      Intrapersonal

    Correct Answer
    D. Intrapersonal
    Explanation
    The phrase "know thyself" suggests a focus on self-awareness and understanding one's own emotions, strengths, weaknesses, and values. This aligns with the concept of intrapersonal intelligence, which refers to the ability to understand oneself and have insight into one's own thoughts and feelings. Intrapersonal intelligence involves introspection, self-reflection, and self-motivation, making it the most accurate reflection of the given phrase.

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  • 25. 

    A numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores of an intelligence test based on a score of 100 for average intelligence is...

    • A.

      Aptitude

    • B.

      IQ

    • C.

      Mental age

    • D.

      Basal ability

    Correct Answer
    B. IQ
    Explanation
    IQ stands for Intelligence Quotient. It is a numerical value given to measure a person's intelligence based on their performance in an intelligence test. The average IQ score is set at 100, with scores above 100 indicating above-average intelligence and scores below 100 indicating below-average intelligence. IQ is widely used to assess cognitive abilities and predict academic and professional success. It provides a standardized way to compare individuals' intelligence levels and is a commonly accepted measure of intelligence in psychology and education.

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  • Apr 26, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Feb 18, 2012
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    Greggsussman
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