Overextending the word
Underextending the word
Overgeneralizing a grammatical rule
The relationship between a word and the thing that it refers to is arbitrary - there is no particular reason why we call babies "babies"
It is fluid and changes over time
It can be used to discuss new ideas
Language allows us to talk beyond the here and now
An innate mechanism that predisposes adults to speak slowly, simply, and with broad gestures when talking to young children
A set of inborn aids that permit children to understand the elements of grammar common to all languages and to acquire the rules specific to their own
an innate mechanism that permits children to understand how to use language operantly, in order to gain rewards
A set of inborn aids that cue a child to attend to those who speak their language while disregarding other speakers
Categorical perception, generativity and displacement
Syntax, generativity and pragmatics
Generativity, syntax and displacement
Semanticity, generativity and displacement
It demonstrates that our perception does not accurately reflect what is physically present in the sound
It is innate
It is unique to speech
It simply means that, given a choice between two phoneme categories, we can figure out which is the better match for any speech sound
Use fewer areas of their brains when solving complex problems
Have lower levels of activation in areas of the brain used to perform a task
Conserve energy (lower glucose metabolism) as problems become increasingly more complex
All of the above
The heuristic will result in only one possible solution
A heuristic is more likely to result in a correct response
A heuristic will present more clearly defined solution
A heuristic is often more efficient
Was valid for all age ranges
Used a deviation (age-normed) instead or a ratio (mental age/chronological age) IQ
Added nonverbal (performance) subscales to represent different forms of intelligence
All of the above
The positive intercorrelations for tests of different intellectual skills
The fact that different tests tap different specific abilities
The tendency for people to score well on either verbal or mathematical tests, but not on both
High reliability coefficients for the results of individual tests
Myelination of the frontal lobe
Changes in the brain in response to use
Changes in the brain due to synaptic pruning
Changes in the brain due to cell death
Changes in the brain due to expectation of use
It's genetic make-up
The location in which it ends up
Whether it comes from the mother or the father
In all species
In human adults only
In humans only from approximately age 2 onwards
In humans, and some other species
Intersubjectivity, sense of self, Theory of Mind, moral development
Sense of self, Theory of Mind, moral development, intersubjectivity
Sense of self, moral development, Theory of Mind, intersubjectivity
Joint attention, sense of self, moral development, Theory of Mind
Is only evident among humans
Is often lacking in those individuals with autism
Cannot be easily tested
Occurs in typically developing children around age 5
That the infant's development of affection is based on warmth.
Monkeys differ from humans in their choices.
That the results were inconclusive.
That the infant's development of affection for the mother was based on contact comfort.
Girls show stronger spatial abilities.
Girls are influenced by social norms and as a result are less good at math.
Both biological and environmental conditions contribute to some gender differences.
Boys show earlier verbal development.
Their mother's licking changed the expression of their genes.
They inherited 'relaxed' genes from their mother.
They developed secure attachment.
Their mother modelled warm responsive parenting.
Are quite high but not statistically significant.
Could reflect the influence of the child's behavioral style on the parent's disciplinary style.
Explain that disciplinary styles are heritable.
Prove that the parents' disciplinary style causes the child's behavioral style.
Sense of self
The diathesis-stress model
Locus of control
The three-term contingency
Our personalities tend to fluctuate across the lifespan
Personality tests are subjective and poorly validated
Children sharing an environment are more likely to be different than similar
Family environment has a significant influence on our personality