AP Psych Learing Unit

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AP Psych Learing Unit - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is:

    • A.

      Thorndike

    • B.

      Deci

    • C.

      Skinner

    • D.

      Bandura

    • E.

      Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    E. Pavlov
    Explanation
    Pavlov is the correct answer because he is widely recognized as the researcher who conducted groundbreaking experiments on classical conditioning. His famous experiment involved conditioning dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by pairing the bell with the presentation of food. This demonstrated that a conditioned response could be elicited by a neutral stimulus through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov's work laid the foundation for understanding how learning and behavior can be influenced by associations between stimuli and responses.

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  • 2. 

    Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustarates the importance of __________ in operant conditioning.

    • A.

      Secondary reinforcers

    • B.

      Cognitive processes

    • C.

      Biological predispositions

    • D.

      Intrinsic motivation

    • E.

      Spontaneous recovery

    Correct Answer
    B. Cognitive processes
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because cognitive processes, such as thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving, play a crucial role in operant conditioning. When individuals anticipate that their behavior will lead to reinforcement, they are using cognitive processes to make predictions and adjust their actions accordingly. This anticipation and understanding of the relationship between behavior and reinforcement helps to maintain high response rates in operant conditioning.

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  • 3. 

    Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the vaule of:

    • A.

      Primary reinforcement

    • B.

      Classical conditioning

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Operant conditioning

    • E.

      Latent learning

    Correct Answer
    D. Operant conditioning
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes how Julio's behavior of bedwetting changed when he started receiving gold stars as a reward from his mother. This is an example of operant conditioning, where the behavior is shaped through reinforcement or punishment. In this case, the gold stars act as positive reinforcement, increasing the likelihood of Julio keeping his bed dry. Operant conditioning focuses on the consequences of behavior, and in this scenario, the reinforcement (gold stars) is used to encourage the desired behavior (keeping the bed dry).

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  • 4. 

    IN order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as:

    • A.

      Classical conditioning

    • B.

      Delayed reinforcement

    • C.

      Latent learning

    • D.

      Generalization

    • E.

      Shaping

    Correct Answer
    E. Shaping
    Explanation
    Shaping is the most likely procedure used by animal trainers to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors. Shaping involves reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior until the animal eventually performs the complete sequence. This method allows trainers to break down the complex behavior into smaller, manageable steps, making it easier for the animal to learn and achieve the desired outcome.

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  • 5. 

    Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate whe stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates:

    • A.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • B.

      Continuous reinforcement

    • C.

      Latent learning

    • D.

      Generalization

    • E.

      Habituation

    Correct Answer
    D. Generalization
    Explanation
    Generalization refers to the tendency of a conditioned response to occur in the presence of stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. In this case, the dogs have been conditioned to salivate when their thigh is stimulated. However, they also start salivating when other body parts are stimulated, indicating that the conditioned response has generalized to other body parts. This suggests that the dogs have associated the salivation response with the overall sensation of being stimulated, rather than just the specific location on the thigh.

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  • 6. 

    A Skinner box is a(n):

    • A.

      Soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise

    • B.

      Aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors

    • C.

      "slot machine" used to study the effects of partial reinforcement of human gambling practices

    • D.

      Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward

    • E.

      Television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning

    Correct Answer
    D. Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward
    Explanation
    A Skinner box is a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward. This explanation accurately describes a Skinner box, which is a controlled environment used in behavioral experiments. The animal learns to associate a specific behavior, such as pressing a lever or pecking a key, with receiving a reward, such as food or water. This type of operant conditioning is often used to study learning and behavior in animals.

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  • 7. 

    A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ______________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ____________ reinforcement.

    • A.

      Positive; negative

    • B.

      Negative; positive

    • C.

      Primary; secondary

    • D.

      Partial; continuous

    • E.

      Continuous; partial

    Correct Answer
    E. Continuous; partial
    Explanation
    Continuous reinforcement involves providing a reward every time the desired behavior is exhibited. This type of reinforcement is effective for quickly training the chicken to peck the key. However, using continuous reinforcement indefinitely can lead to the behavior becoming less resistant to extinction. To ensure that the behavior remains resistant to extinction, the trainer should then switch to partial reinforcement. Partial reinforcement involves providing the reward only some of the time the behavior is exhibited. This intermittent reinforcement schedule helps to maintain the behavior over a longer period of time.

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  • 8. 

    An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light:

    • A.

      Five seconds before the food

    • B.

      A half-second before the food

    • C.

      At precisely the same time as the food

    • D.

      A half-second after the food

    • E.

      Five seconds after the food

    Correct Answer
    B. A half-second before the food
    Explanation
    The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light a half-second before the food. This is because the light acts as a conditioned stimulus, and the food acts as an unconditioned stimulus. By presenting the light just before the food, the dog will start to associate the light with the upcoming food, leading to faster conditioning. If the light is presented too long before the food, the association may not be as strong. Similarly, presenting the light after the food may not create a strong association between the two stimuli.

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  • 9. 

    The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished conditioned response is called:

    • A.

      Generalization

    • B.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • C.

      Secondary reinforcement

    • D.

      Latent learning

    • E.

      Shaping

    Correct Answer
    B. Spontaneous recovery
    Explanation
    Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time has passed without any further conditioning. This phenomenon suggests that even though a response may have been extinguished, the learned association between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is not completely erased. Instead, it becomes temporarily suppressed and can resurface under certain conditions, such as the passage of time.

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  • 10. 

    Escape from an aversive stimulus is a __________ reinforcer.

    • A.

      Positive

    • B.

      Negative

    • C.

      Secondary

    • D.

      Partial

    • E.

      Delayed

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative
    Explanation
    Escape from an aversive stimulus is a negative reinforcer because it involves the removal or avoidance of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. This removal or avoidance serves as a reinforcement for the behavior that led to the escape, increasing the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.

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  • 11. 

    After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcoholism may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of _____________ in classical conditioning.

    • A.

      Biological predispositions

    • B.

      Generalization

    • C.

      Negative reinforcement

    • D.

      Cognitive processes

    • E.

      Spontaneous recovery

    Correct Answer
    D. Cognitive processes
    Explanation
    This explanation relates to cognitive processes in classical conditioning. The individuals with alcoholism fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they attribute their nausea to the drug rather than the alcohol itself. This suggests that their cognitive processes, such as their beliefs and attributions, play a role in their response to the conditioned stimulus (alcohol).

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  • 12. 

    Laurie's thumbsucking has become havitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:

    • A.

      Generalization

    • B.

      Extinction

    • C.

      Classical conditioning

    • D.

      Latent learning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    E. Operant conditioning
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning involves learning through consequences, where behaviors are strengthened or weakened based on the outcomes they produce. In this case, Laurie's thumbsucking behavior is reinforced because it reduces her anxiety. This positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of her engaging in thumbsucking in the future, making it a habitual behavior. Therefore, the given scenario best illustrates the process of operant conditioning.

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  • 13. 

    Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Delayed reinforcement

    • C.

      Observational learning

    • D.

      Immediate reinforcement

    • E.

      Classical conditioning

    Correct Answer
    C. Observational learning
    Explanation
    The boys' behavior can be best accounted for by observational learning. They have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television, which suggests that they have observed the character flying and have learned from it. This type of learning involves observing others and imitating their behavior, which is exactly what the boys were attempting to do by standing on the garage roof.

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  • 14. 

    The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ____________ in conditioning.

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Discrimination

    • C.

      Generalization

    • D.

      Cognitive processes

    • E.

      Intermittent reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Cognitive processes
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that the predictability of CS-US associations is more important than the frequency of these associations in classical conditioning. This implies that cognitive processes, such as attention, perception, and memory, play a crucial role in conditioning. These cognitive processes enable individuals to accurately predict and associate the conditioned stimulus (CS) with the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to effective conditioning.

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  • 15. 

    A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the _________________ of the patient's fear.

    • A.

      Generalization

    • B.

      Latent learning

    • C.

      Shaping

    • D.

      Extinction

    • E.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Extinction
    Explanation
    The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the extinction of the patient's fear. Extinction refers to the process of reducing or eliminating a conditioned response by repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. In this case, the patient's fear of elevators can be considered a conditioned response, and by forcing himself to go into elevators repeatedly, the therapist aims to expose the patient to the fear-inducing stimulus without any negative consequences, thus reducing or eliminating the fear response over time.

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  • 16. 

    An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a:

    • A.

      Negative reinforcer

    • B.

      Punishment

    • C.

      Conditioned stimulus

    • D.

      Delayed reinforcer

    • E.

      Secondary reinforcer

    Correct Answer
    B. Punishment
    Explanation
    Punishment refers to an event that decreases the behavior that precedes it. It is a consequence that is applied after the behavior and is intended to decrease the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. Punishment can involve the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus. It is used to discourage or suppress unwanted behaviors through the application of an unpleasant consequence.

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  • 17. 

    By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of:

    • A.

      Habituation

    • B.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • C.

      Classical conditioning

    • D.

      Observational learning

    • E.

      Operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    C. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Sea snails demonstrate the process of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus, resulting in a learned response. In this case, the squirt of water is the neutral stimulus, while the electric shock is the meaningful stimulus. Over time, the sea snails learn to associate the squirt of water with the electric shock, and as a result, they develop a learned response to the squirt of water alone. This process is a classic example of classical conditioning.

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  • 18. 

    Who introduced the term behaviorism?

    • A.

      Garcia

    • B.

      Skinner

    • C.

      Watson

    • D.

      Bandura

    • E.

      Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    C. Watson
    Explanation
    Watson is credited with introducing the term behaviorism. Behaviorism is a psychological approach that focuses on observable behavior and rejects the study of the mind or internal mental processes. Watson believed that behavior could be explained solely in terms of stimuli and responses, and that all behavior is learned through conditioning. His work laid the foundation for the behaviorist movement in psychology.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?

    • A.

      Latent learning

    • B.

      Partial reinforcement

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Generalization

    • E.

      Discrimination

    Correct Answer
    C. Spontaneous recovery
    Explanation
    Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest. This suggests that the conditioned response was not completely eliminated during extinction, as it can still resurface. This phenomenon supports the idea that extinction does not erase the original learning, but rather suppresses it temporarily.

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  • 20. 

    For the most rapid acuisition of a CR, the CS should be presented:

    • A.

      Shortly after the CR

    • B.

      Shortly after the US

    • C.

      Shortly before the US

    • D.

      At the same time as the US

    • E.

      Shortly before the CR

    Correct Answer
    C. Shortly before the US
    Explanation
    Presenting the CS shortly before the US allows for the most rapid acquisition of a CR. This is because the CS acts as a signal or predictor for the upcoming US, preparing the organism for the impending event. By presenting the CS shortly before the US, the association between the two stimuli is strengthened, leading to a faster acquisition of the CR.

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  • 21. 

    Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bedwetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he has the urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate:

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Generalization

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Secondary reinforcement

    • E.

      The overjustification effect

    Correct Answer
    B. Generalization
    Explanation
    Andrew's childhood bedwetting has created a conditioned response where he becomes nervous whenever he has the urge to urinate. This conditioned response has generalized to other stimuli, such as genital arousal, causing Andrew to feel unusually anxious. Generalization refers to the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. In this case, Andrew's anxiety response has generalized to other stimuli that are related to his bedwetting experience.

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  • 22. 

    Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his suprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:

    • A.

      Delayed reinforcement

    • B.

      Latent learning

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Shaping

    • E.

      Discrimination

    Correct Answer
    C. Spontaneous recovery
    Explanation
    Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a previously extinguished response after a period of time without reinforcement. In this case, Alonzo's fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared after being bitten by a stray dog, indicating extinction of the fear response. However, when he was confronted by a stray dog again, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety, indicating the reappearance of the fear response. This sudden reappearance of the anxiety after a period of time without any reinforcement is an example of spontaneous recovery.

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  • 23. 

    Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote:

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Survival

    • C.

      Extrinsic motivation

    • D.

      Prosocial behavior

    • E.

      Social interaction

    Correct Answer
    B. Survival
    Explanation
    Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote survival because their primary instinct is to ensure their own survival and reproduction. Learning behaviors and associations that increase their chances of finding food, avoiding predators, and successfully reproducing are crucial for their survival in their natural environment. This includes learning to identify and respond to specific cues, adapting to changes in their surroundings, and developing effective strategies for obtaining resources. By prioritizing survival-related associations, animals increase their chances of passing on their genes and ensuring the survival of their species.

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  • 24. 

    Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illustrates:

    • A.

      Respondent behavior

    • B.

      Operant conditioning

    • C.

      Observational learning

    • D.

      Latent learning

    • E.

      Spontaneous recovery

    Correct Answer
    B. Operant conditioning
    Explanation
    This scenario of seals in an aquarium repeating behaviors to receive a reward (a herring) is an example of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning involves learning through consequences, where behaviors that are followed by a desirable outcome are more likely to be repeated in the future. In this case, the seals are learning that their behaviors of slapping and barking lead to the reward of receiving a herring, so they continue to engage in those behaviors.

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  • 25. 

    Compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pair their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer electricity usage is influenced by:

    • A.

      Operant conditioning

    • B.

      Classical conditioning

    • C.

      Observational learning

    • D.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • E.

      Latent learning

    Correct Answer
    A. Operant conditioning
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because operant conditioning involves learning through consequences, such as rewards and punishments. In this scenario, apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills experience the consequence of having to pay for the electricity they use, which serves as a punishment. As a result, they are more likely to use less electricity compared to those whose landlords pay for it. This demonstrates how consumer electricity usage is influenced by operant conditioning.

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  • 26. 

    After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle, but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates:

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Conditioned reinforcement

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Discrimination

    • E.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Discrimination
    Explanation
    Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates discrimination. Discrimination refers to the ability to differentiate between two similar stimuli and respond differently to them. In this case, Gina is able to differentiate between a motorcycle and a bicycle, as she is afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. This shows that she has learned to respond differently to these two similar stimuli based on her previous experience with the motorcycle accident.

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  • 27. 

    In classical conditioning, the  _____________ signals the impending occurrence of the ____________.

    • A.

      US; CS

    • B.

      UR; CR

    • C.

      CS; US

    • D.

      CR; UR

    • E.

      US; CR

    Correct Answer
    C. CS; US
    Explanation
    In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) signals the impending occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). This means that the CS, which is a previously neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the US through repeated pairings. As a result, the CS alone can elicit a response similar to the response produced by the US.

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  • 28. 

    The tendency for a CR to be evoked by a stimuli similar to the CS is called:

    • A.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • B.

      Conditioned reinforcement

    • C.

      Latent learning

    • D.

      Generalization

    • E.

      Shaping

    Correct Answer
    D. Generalization
    Explanation
    Generalization refers to the tendency for a conditioned response (CR) to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus (CS). In other words, when an organism has been conditioned to respond to a specific stimulus, it may also respond to similar stimuli that share certain characteristics with the original stimulus. This is because the organism generalizes its learned response to other similar stimuli, extending the conditioned response beyond the original CS.

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  • 29. 

    The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of:

    • A.

      Respondent behavior

    • B.

      Immediate reinforcement

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Primary reinforcers

    • E.

      Observational learning

    Correct Answer
    E. Observational learning
    Explanation
    Observational learning refers to the process of acquiring new behaviors or information by observing and imitating others. The transmission of cultural fads and fashions involves individuals observing and imitating the behaviors, styles, and trends of others within their culture. This process is a clear example of observational learning, as individuals learn and adopt new behaviors based on the actions and choices they observe in others.

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  • 30. 

    A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly:

    • A.

      After an appropriate UR

    • B.

      After an appropriate US

    • C.

      Before an appropriate UR

    • D.

      Before an appropriate US

    • E.

      After an appropriate CS

    Correct Answer
    D. Before an appropriate US
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that a geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing when presented shortly before an appropriate unconditioned stimulus (US). This implies that the presentation of the geometric figure serves as a conditioned stimulus (CS) that elicits a sexual response when followed by the appropriate US.

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  • 31. 

    Bandura's experiments indicate that ____________ is important in the process of learning

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Generalization

    • C.

      Modeling

    • D.

      Respondent behavior

    • E.

      Secondary reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    C. Modeling
    Explanation
    Bandura's experiments indicate that modeling is important in the process of learning. Modeling refers to the process of observing and imitating the behavior of others. Bandura's social learning theory suggests that individuals learn by observing the actions, attitudes, and outcomes of others, and then imitating those behaviors. Through modeling, individuals acquire new skills, knowledge, and behaviors, as they observe and imitate the actions of others who serve as role models. Bandura's experiments, such as the Bobo doll experiment, provided evidence for the power of modeling in learning.

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  • 32. 

    Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

    • A.

      Intrinsic motivation

    • B.

      Respondent behavior

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D.

      Operant conditioning

    • E.

      Latent learning

    Correct Answer
    D. Operant conditioning
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because operant conditioning refers to the process of learning through consequences. In this scenario, the child learns that pushing the vending machine button leads to the delivery of a candy bar. This association between the behavior (pushing the button) and the outcome (getting a candy bar) is a classic example of operant conditioning.

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  • 33. 

    The removal of electric shock is to the reciept of good grades as ____________ is to ____________.

    • A.

      Delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

    • B.

      Primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

    • C.

      Discrimination; generalization

    • D.

      Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

    • E.

      Operant conditioning; classical conditioning

    Correct Answer
    B. Primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
    Explanation
    The analogy being made in this question is between the removal of electric shock and the receipt of good grades. The removal of electric shock is a positive outcome that serves as a motivator to avoid certain behaviors, just like receiving good grades is a positive outcome that serves as a motivator to perform well academically. The analogy suggests that just as the removal of electric shock is a primary reinforcer (an innately rewarding stimulus), receiving good grades is also a primary reinforcer. Similarly, just as the avoidance of electric shock can be conditioned to other stimuli through association, good grades can also be conditioned to other rewards or reinforcers, making them conditioned reinforcers.

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  • 34. 

    Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit:

    • A.

      Respondent behavior

    • B.

      Continuous reinforcement

    • C.

      Latent learning

    • D.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • E.

      Intrinsic motivation

    Correct Answer
    E. Intrinsic motivation
    Explanation
    Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal drive and enjoyment that individuals experience when engaging in an activity for its own sake, without any external rewards or incentives. When external rewards are introduced, such as bribes, it can undermine the individual's intrinsic motivation, as they may start to focus more on the rewards rather than the enjoyment of the activity itself. This can lead to a decrease in their overall interest and engagement in the activity.

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  • 35. 

    If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reqards is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Latent learning

    • C.

      Delayed reinforcement

    • D.

      Spontaneous recovery

    • E.

      Modeling

    Correct Answer
    B. Latent learning
    Explanation
    Latent learning refers to learning that occurs without any obvious reinforcement or reward. In this scenario, the rats were allowed to wander through a complicated maze without any food reward initially. However, when the food reward was placed at the end of the maze, the rats were able to run the maze with few errors. This suggests that the rats had learned the layout of the maze through latent learning, as their good performance indicates that they had acquired knowledge of the maze even without any reinforcement or reward during the initial exploration.

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  • 36. 

    Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?

    • A.

      Drug therapy

    • B.

      Client-centered therapy

    • C.

      Systematic desensitization

    • D.

      Cognitive therapy

    • E.

      Light exposure therapy

    Correct Answer
    D. Cognitive therapy
    Explanation
    Cognitive therapy emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events. This therapeutic approach focuses on identifying and challenging negative thoughts and beliefs that contribute to emotional distress. By changing these negative interpretations, individuals can develop more positive and adaptive ways of thinking, leading to improved emotional well-being. Cognitive therapy aims to help individuals gain insight into their thought patterns and develop more realistic and helpful perspectives on events and situations.

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  • Feb 13, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Dec 12, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Lillsar95
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