PSYC 342 Quiz 4

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| By DrKatieD
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Quizzes Created: 9 | Total Attempts: 3,810
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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is true of an operant response?

    • A.

      Response speed determines outcome.

    • B.

      Pushing a lever with a paw and pushing a lever with the snout are equivalent.

    • C.

      Licking a water spout and pushing a response lever are equivalent.

    • D.

      Licking a water spout and chewing a food pellet are equivalent.

    Correct Answer
    B. Pushing a lever with a paw and pushing a lever with the snout are equivalent.
    Explanation
    Pushing a lever with a paw and pushing a lever with the snout are considered equivalent in terms of an operant response. This means that both actions will result in the same outcome or consequence. The question is highlighting the principle of response equivalence in operant conditioning, where different behaviors can have the same functional outcome.

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  • 2. 

    Magazine training involves which of the following?

    • A.

      Reinforcement of successive approximations

    • B.

      Non-reinforcement of earlier response forms

    • C.

      Classical conditioning

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Magazine training involves classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus, resulting in a learned response. In magazine training, an animal is trained to associate a specific stimulus, such as a sound or a light, with a reward or reinforcement. Over time, the animal learns to anticipate the reward when the stimulus is presented, and this association is strengthened through repeated pairings. Therefore, classical conditioning is an essential component of magazine training.

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  • 3. 

    When shaping the behavior of an organism, you must

    • A.

      Reinforce all responses.

    • B.

      Set each criterion so that at least some of the existing responses are reinforced

    • C.

      Set each criterion so that only the response forms that exceed existing responses are reinforced.

    • D.

      Set each criterion so that most of the existing responses are reinforced

    Correct Answer
    B. Set each criterion so that at least some of the existing responses are reinforced
    Explanation
    When shaping the behavior of an organism, it is important to set each criterion so that at least some of the existing responses are reinforced. This means that not all responses need to be reinforced, but rather some of them should be reinforced in order to encourage the desired behavior. By reinforcing at least some of the existing responses, the organism will be more likely to engage in the desired behavior and continue to improve over time. This approach allows for gradual progress and avoids overwhelming the organism with too many new expectations all at once.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?

    • A.

      Receiving a time-out instead of a spanking

    • B.

      Turning off the radio when the DJ plays a song you dislike

    • C.

      Going out to dinner after winning an award

    • D.

      Faking illness to avoid school in the morning

    Correct Answer
    C. Going out to dinner after winning an award
    Explanation
    Going out to dinner after winning an award is an example of positive reinforcement because it involves receiving a reward (going out to dinner) after exhibiting a desired behavior (winning an award). Positive reinforcement aims to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring again in the future by providing a pleasant consequence. In this case, the award serves as a reinforcement for the behavior of winning, making it more likely that the individual will continue to strive for success in the future.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is an example of punishment?

    • A.

      Dora is sent to her room without dessert because of her poor manners.

    • B.

      Steve has his mouth washed out with soap for swearing.

    • C.

      Bobby is not allowed to buy cigarettes because he is too young.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Steve has his mouth washed out with soap for swearing.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Steve has his mouth washed out with soap for swearing. This is an example of punishment because Steve is being subjected to an unpleasant consequence (having his mouth washed out with soap) as a result of his behavior (swearing).

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

    • A.

      Stella changes the oil in her car to avoid engine seizure.

    • B.

      Mark hits his little brother because the brother broke Mark’s bike.

    • C.

      Suzie cries after losing the card game.

    • D.

      Ed gets a gold star because he didn’t act out.

    Correct Answer
    A. Stella changes the oil in her car to avoid engine seizure.
    Explanation
    Stella changing the oil in her car to avoid engine seizure is an example of negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement involves removing or avoiding a negative stimulus to increase the likelihood of a desired behavior. In this case, Stella is engaging in the behavior of changing the oil in her car to avoid the negative consequence of engine seizure. By doing so, she is reinforcing the behavior of regularly maintaining her car to prevent a negative outcome.

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  • 7. 

    The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that

    • A.

      Punishment increases the target response, while negative reinforcement decreases the target response.

    • B.

      Punishment decreases the target response, while negative reinforcement increases the target response.

    • C.

      In punishment, the target response terminates the aversive stimulus.

    • D.

      In negative reinforcement, the response increases the likelihood of the aversive stimulus.

    Correct Answer
    B. Punishment decreases the target response, while negative reinforcement increases the target response.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that punishment decreases the target response, while negative reinforcement increases the target response. Punishment refers to the application of an aversive stimulus to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring again. Negative reinforcement, on the other hand, involves the removal of an aversive stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring again. Therefore, punishment and negative reinforcement have opposite effects on the target response.

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  • 8. 

    The competition between natural responses and the responses required by the experimenter sometimes leads to the development of behaviors that interfere with an animal making an instrumental response. The development of these behaviors is called

    • A.

      Stereotypy.

    • B.

      Differential variability.

    • C.

      Instinctive drift.

    • D.

      Behavioral systems.

    Correct Answer
    C. Instinctive drift.
    Explanation
    Instinctive drift refers to the phenomenon where an animal's natural instincts or innate behaviors interfere with their ability to perform a learned instrumental response. In other words, instead of carrying out the desired behavior required by the experimenter, the animal reverts back to its instinctive or natural behaviors. This can occur when there is a conflict between the natural responses of the animal and the responses that are being trained or conditioned. Stereotypy, differential variability, and behavioral systems do not specifically refer to this conflict between natural and learned behaviors.

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  • 9. 

    According to behavioral systems theory, instinctive drift is a product of

    • A.

      Stereotypy.

    • B.

      The components of the system activated by the conditioning procedure.

    • C.

      Negative reinforcement components.

    • D.

      Differential reinforcement of other behaviors.

    Correct Answer
    B. The components of the system activated by the conditioning procedure.
    Explanation
    According to behavioral systems theory, instinctive drift occurs when the components of the system that are activated by the conditioning procedure interfere with the learned behavior. This means that the innate behaviors or instincts of the organism may override or disrupt the conditioned response. Therefore, the correct answer is "the components of the system activated by the conditioning procedure."

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  • 10. 

    Two groups of rats were trained to navigate a runway for food. One group earned a single food pellet, the other received three pellets. What will happen when they are both shifted to a situation in which they earn the alternative reward?

    • A.

      Rats that initially received the small reward will run faster for the larger reward than the rats that initially received the large reward did.

    • B.

      Rats that initially received the large reward will run faster for the small reward than the rats that initially received the small reward did.

    • C.

      Rats that initially received the small reward will run more slowly for the large reward than the rats that initially received the large reward did.

    • D.

      The two groups will now run at approximately the same speed.

    Correct Answer
    A. Rats that initially received the small reward will run faster for the larger reward than the rats that initially received the large reward did.
    Explanation
    When the two groups of rats are shifted to a situation where they earn the alternative reward, the rats that initially received the small reward will run faster for the larger reward than the rats that initially received the large reward did. This is because the rats that received the smaller reward will perceive the larger reward as more valuable and will be more motivated to obtain it. On the other hand, the rats that initially received the larger reward may not be as motivated to work for the smaller reward since they are used to receiving a higher quantity of food.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 13, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    DrKatieD
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