Pavlov, Watson, And Skinner

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Classical Conditioning Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz is a review on the theories of Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and the experiments of Pavolv's Dogs and Little Albert.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The unconditioned stimulus:

    • A.

      Means that behavior always gets rewarded

    • B.

      Is an interval amount of time that passes before the behavior is rewarded.

    • C.

      Assumes that behavior is observable and can be correlated with other observable events.

    • D.

      Naturally occurs and causes a natural unconditioned response.

    Correct Answer
    D. Naturally occurs and causes a natural unconditioned response.
    Explanation
    The unconditioned stimulus refers to a stimulus that naturally occurs and causes a natural unconditioned response. This means that the stimulus is not learned or conditioned, but instead elicits an automatic response. It is not related to the concept of behavior always getting rewarded, the amount of time that passes before a behavior is rewarded, or the correlation between observable events. The focus here is on the natural occurrence of the stimulus and the resulting unconditioned response.

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  • 2. 

    A desired behavior is rewarded every time it occurs. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Shaping

    • B.

      Continuous reinforcement

    • C.

      Partial reinforcement

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    Correct Answer
    B. Continuous reinforcement
    Explanation
    Continuous reinforcement refers to a type of learning in which a desired behavior is consistently rewarded every time it occurs. In this scenario, the individual is being reinforced for their behavior on a continuous basis, without any gaps or variations in the reinforcement schedule. This type of reinforcement is effective in establishing and maintaining the desired behavior, as the individual learns that their actions will always result in a reward.

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  • 3. 

    Ivan Pavlov believed in:

    • A.

      Behaviorism

    • B.

      Classical conditioning

    • C.

      Operant conditioning

    • D.

      Continuous reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    B. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    Ivan Pavlov believed in classical conditioning, which is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Pavlov's famous experiment with dogs demonstrated that animals can learn to associate a neutral stimulus (such as a bell) with a biologically significant stimulus (such as food), causing the neutral stimulus to elicit a response similar to the biologically significant stimulus. This form of conditioning has been influential in the field of psychology and has contributed to our understanding of how behaviors can be learned and modified.

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  • 4. 

    Shaping or successive approximation is:

    • A.

      Behavior is learned through partial reinforcement

    • B.

      Conditioned behavior based on consequences

    • C.

      The association between behavior and response

    • D.

      Small steps are rewarded until the end behavior is achieved

    Correct Answer
    D. Small steps are rewarded until the end behavior is achieved
    Explanation
    Shaping or successive approximation is a technique used in behavior modification where small steps towards a desired behavior are reinforced until the final behavior is achieved. This means that instead of expecting the individual to immediately perform the desired behavior, they are rewarded for gradually getting closer to it. By reinforcing each small step, the individual is motivated to continue progressing until the desired behavior is fully established. This method is effective in teaching complex behaviors that may be difficult to achieve all at once.

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  • 5. 

    The term "Ratio" is defined as:

    • A.

      The amount of time that must pass before the behavior is rewarded.

    • B.

      The scientific term for learning.

    • C.

      The number of times that a person must do the behavior before it is rewarded.

    • D.

      Continuous reinforcement.

    Correct Answer
    C. The number of times that a person must do the behavior before it is rewarded.
    Explanation
    The term "Ratio" refers to the number of times that a person must perform a behavior before they are rewarded. This means that the reinforcement is based on the frequency or quantity of the behavior, rather than the amount of time that passes or the scientific term for learning. Continuous reinforcement, on the other hand, is a different concept where every instance of the behavior is rewarded. Therefore, the correct answer is that the ratio refers to the number of times the behavior must be done before it is rewarded.

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  • 6. 

    When a behavior is rewarded after an unpredictable number of times, which type of reinforcement schedule is it?

    • A.

      Variable ratio schedule

    • B.

      Fixed interval schedule

    • C.

      Fixed ratio schedule

    • D.

      Variable interval schedule

    Correct Answer
    A. Variable ratio schedule
    Explanation
    When a behavior is rewarded after an unpredictable number of times, it is known as a variable ratio schedule. In this type of reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement is given after an average number of responses, but the exact number of responses required for reinforcement varies. This schedule tends to produce high and steady rates of responding because individuals are motivated to continue engaging in the behavior in the hopes of receiving a reward, even though they are uncertain about when it will be given.

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  • 7. 

    You stop doing a behavior because you are no longer getting rewarded for it. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Extinction

    • D.

      Punishment

    Correct Answer
    C. Extinction
    Explanation
    Extinction refers to the process of stopping a behavior because it is no longer being rewarded. In this scenario, the individual stops engaging in the behavior because there is no longer any reinforcement or reward associated with it. This lack of reinforcement causes the behavior to gradually decrease and eventually become extinct.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following are examples of positive reinforcement?

    • A.

      A behavior is rewarded

    • B.

      A behavior is punished

    • C.

      A behavior is lessened through extinction

    • D.

      B and c

    Correct Answer
    A. A behavior is rewarded
    Explanation
    Positive reinforcement refers to the process of increasing the likelihood of a behavior occurring again by rewarding it. In this case, the correct answer states that positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior is rewarded. This means that when a behavior is followed by a desirable consequence or reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated in the future. The other options, punishment and extinction, do not involve rewarding the behavior and therefore do not fall under the category of positive reinforcement.

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  • 9. 

    The 4 ways to alter behavior through operant conditioning are:

    Correct Answer
    1. positive reinforcement 2. negative reinforcement 3. punishment 4. extinction
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it accurately lists the four ways to alter behavior through operant conditioning. Positive reinforcement involves providing a reward or positive consequence to increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Negative reinforcement involves removing an aversive stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment involves providing an aversive consequence to decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Extinction involves withholding reinforcement to decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.

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  • 10. 

    What is the formula for classical conditioning?

    Correct Answer
    UCS - UCR NS+UCS - UCR CS - CR
    Explanation
    The formula for classical conditioning is UCS - UCR. This formula represents the pairing of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with an unconditioned response (UCR), which leads to the formation of a conditioned response (CR). The UCS is a stimulus that naturally elicits a response, while the UCR is the innate response to the UCS. Through repeated pairing of the UCS with a neutral stimulus (NS), the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that elicits the same response as the UCS, known as the CR.

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  • 11. 

    What are the 4 types of reinforcement schedules in operant conditioning?

    Correct Answer
    1. fixed-ratio schedule 2. variable-ratio schedule 3. fixed-interval schedule 4. variable-interval schedule
    Explanation
    The 4 types of reinforcement schedules in operant conditioning are fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval schedules. In a fixed-ratio schedule, reinforcement is delivered after a fixed number of responses. In a variable-ratio schedule, reinforcement is delivered after a variable number of responses. In a fixed-interval schedule, reinforcement is delivered after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. In a variable-interval schedule, reinforcement is delivered after a variable amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement.

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  • 12. 

    The infant used in John B. Watson's famous fear experiment was named:

    Correct Answer
    Albert
    Explanation
    John B. Watson's famous fear experiment involved an infant named Albert. The experiment aimed to demonstrate the concept of classical conditioning by conditioning Albert to fear a white rat. Watson paired the presentation of the rat with a loud noise, which eventually led to Albert associating the rat with fear and exhibiting a fear response even in the absence of the noise. This experiment is significant in the field of psychology as it provided evidence for the role of conditioning in the development of phobias and fears.

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  • 13. 

    How did Pavlov stumble onto his theory of classical conditioning?

    Correct Answer
    1. while researching the gastric/digestive function of dogs through measuring saliva amounts, he noticed that the dogs would drool whenever they saw the lab assistants that fed them. 2. he noticed that the dogs would drool when they saw the lab assistant whether they had food or not.
    Explanation
    Pavlov stumbled onto his theory of classical conditioning while researching the gastric/digestive function of dogs through measuring saliva amounts. He noticed that the dogs would drool whenever they saw the lab assistants that fed them. This observation led him to realize that the dogs had associated the presence of the lab assistants with the delivery of food, causing them to salivate even without the presence of actual food. This discovery formed the basis of classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus (the lab assistant) becomes associated with a reflex response (salivation) through repeated pairing with a natural stimulus (food).

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  • 14. 

    Define Skinner's extinction.

    Correct Answer
    when a behavior is no longer rewarded it stops.
    Explanation
    Skinner's extinction refers to the process in which a behavior that was previously reinforced is no longer rewarded, leading to a decrease or cessation of that behavior. This occurs because the individual learns that the behavior no longer produces the desired outcome, and therefore, it becomes less likely to be repeated in the future. Extinction is an important concept in operant conditioning and is often used in behavior modification techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors.

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  • 15. 

    What did we learn from Watson's Little Albert Experiment?

    Correct Answer
    We learned that fears/phobias can be learned and, therefore, unlearned.
    Explanation
    The Little Albert Experiment conducted by Watson demonstrated that fears and phobias can be learned through classical conditioning. In the experiment, a young boy named Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat by pairing its presence with a loud noise that scared him. This showed that fears can be acquired through association and conditioning. The experiment also suggested that fears can potentially be unlearned or extinguished through a process called systematic desensitization.

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  • 16. 

    Why did Watson believe that human behavior is the only true psychology?

    Correct Answer
    1. it can be observed 2. it can be measured 3. it can be manipulated
    Explanation
    Watson believed that human behavior is the only true psychology because it can be observed, measured, and manipulated. Unlike thoughts and emotions, which are subjective and cannot be directly observed or measured, behavior can be objectively studied and analyzed. By observing and measuring behavior, psychologists can gather empirical evidence and make objective conclusions about human psychology. Additionally, the ability to manipulate behavior allows psychologists to test hypotheses and theories, further supporting the idea that behavior is the key to understanding human psychology.

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  • 17. 

    The unconditioned response is a response that occurs naturally to the unconditioned stimulus.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The statement is true because an unconditioned response is an automatic and involuntary response that is naturally elicited by the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus. It is not learned or conditioned, but rather a reflexive reaction. This is a fundamental concept in classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to eventually elicit a conditioned response.

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  • 18. 

    The formula for classical conditioning is: UCS - UCR NS+UCS - UCR CS - CR

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The given answer is true because the formula for classical conditioning is CS - CR. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus (NS) is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to create a conditioned stimulus (CS) that elicits a conditioned response (CR) similar to the unconditioned response (UCR). Therefore, the correct formula is CS - CR.

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  • 19. 

    Negative reinforcement occurs when something bad happens following a behavior.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Negative reinforcement actually occurs when something unpleasant or aversive is removed or avoided following a behavior. It is a type of operant conditioning where the behavior is strengthened by the removal or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. This is different from punishment, where something unpleasant is added to decrease the likelihood of a behavior. Therefore, the given statement is false as it misrepresents the concept of negative reinforcement.

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  • 20. 

    Negative reinforcement occurs when something unpleasant is removed following a behavior.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Negative reinforcement occurs when something unpleasant is removed following a behavior. This means that a behavior is strengthened or encouraged by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus or consequence. For example, if a child cleans their room to avoid getting scolded by their parents, the removal of the scolding serves as negative reinforcement. It is important to note that negative reinforcement is different from punishment, as punishment involves the addition of an unpleasant stimulus to decrease a behavior, while negative reinforcement involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase a behavior.

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  • 21. 

    B.F. Skinner's theory was called Classical Conditioning.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Skinner's theory was not called Classical Conditioning. Skinner's theory was called Operant Conditioning, which is a different theory that focuses on the consequences of behavior rather than the association between stimuli and responses. Classical Conditioning, on the other hand, was developed by Ivan Pavlov. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 22. 

    The neutral stimulus must be associated with the unconditioned stimulus in order to produce a condtioned response.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is initially unrelated to the unconditioned stimulus and does not elicit a response. However, when the neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus, it becomes associated with it. As a result, the neutral stimulus starts to elicit a conditioned response similar to the unconditioned response. Therefore, for a conditioned response to occur, the neutral stimulus must be associated with the unconditioned stimulus. Hence, the given statement is true.

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  • 23. 

    Skinner believed that there are 5 types of operant conditioning used to alter behavior.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Skinner did not believe that there are 5 types of operant conditioning used to alter behavior. He actually proposed the concept of operant conditioning and identified the principles behind it, but he did not categorize it into specific types. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 24. 

    Skinner was interested in Watson and Pavlov and expanded the classical conditioning theory to form operant conditioning theory.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Skinner, a prominent psychologist, was indeed interested in the works of Watson and Pavlov, who were pioneers in classical conditioning. However, Skinner went on to develop and expand upon their theories, ultimately formulating the operant conditioning theory. This theory emphasizes the role of consequences in shaping behavior, suggesting that behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow it. Therefore, the statement that Skinner expanded the classical conditioning theory to form operant conditioning theory is true.

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  • 25. 

    Variable interval schedules are those where the behavior is rewarded after a specified amount of time has elapsed.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Variable interval schedules are actually those where the behavior is rewarded after a variable and unpredictable amount of time has elapsed. This means that the timing of the reward is not fixed and can vary from one instance to another.

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  • 26. 

    Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner believed that a person's emotions, experiences, and beliefs had nothing to do with learning.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner were behaviorists who believed in the concept of behaviorism, which focuses solely on observable behaviors and disregards internal mental processes such as emotions, experiences, and beliefs. According to behaviorism, learning is solely influenced by external stimuli and reinforcement, and these psychologists did not consider emotions, experiences, and beliefs as factors in the learning process. Therefore, the statement that they believed these factors had nothing to do with learning is true.

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