PSYC 342 Quiz 3

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| By DrKatieD
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DrKatieD
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Quizzes Created: 9 | Total Attempts: 3,757
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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

10 Multiple choice questions. Choose the best answer.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A rat is given 20 exposures to a red light cue. Then, the red light is presented paired with food delivery. Compared to a rat that did not receive the initial 20 exposures, this rat took a long time to develop a CR to the red light. The slower learning is due to

    • A.

      The US-preexposure effect.

    • B.

      The latent-inhibition effect.

    • C.

      The latent-excitation effect.

    • D.

      The latent-excitation effect.

    Correct Answer
    B. The latent-inhibition effect.
    Explanation
    The rat's slower learning to develop a CR to the red light is due to the latent-inhibition effect. This effect occurs when prior exposure to the CS (red light) without the US (food delivery) inhibits the formation of an association between the CS and the US. In this case, the rat's initial 20 exposures to the red light cue without food delivery may have led to a reduced ability to form an association between the red light and the food, resulting in slower learning.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is a function of preexposure to the CS or the US?

    • A.

      Has little effect on later associative learning

    • B.

      Facilitates later associative learning

    • C.

      Retards later associative learning

    • D.

      CS-preexposure facilitates later associative learning; US preexposure retards later learning.

    Correct Answer
    C. Retards later associative learning
    Explanation
    Preexposure to the CS or the US refers to the exposure of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or the unconditioned stimulus (US) before the actual associative learning takes place. In this case, the correct answer states that preexposure retards later associative learning. This means that when the CS or the US is presented before the actual learning occurs, it hinders or slows down the process of forming associations between the CS and the US. Therefore, preexposure to the CS or the US has a negative impact on later associative learning.

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  • 3. 

    Higher-order conditioning demonstrates which of the following?

    • A.

      After training, a CS can function as a US.

    • B.

      After training, a US can function as a CS.

    • C.

      CSs cannot function as USs.

    • D.

      USs cannot function as CSs.

    Correct Answer
    A. After training, a CS can function as a US.
    Explanation
    Higher-order conditioning demonstrates that after training, a conditioned stimulus (CS) can function as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In higher-order conditioning, a neutral stimulus is paired with an already established CS, which creates a new association. As a result, the previously neutral stimulus becomes a CS and can elicit a conditioned response (CR) on its own. This shows that a CS can acquire the ability to elicit a response similar to a US through conditioning.

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  • 4. 

    According to the stimulus-substitution model, with training which of the following happens?

    • A.

      The CS comes to activate the UR directly.

    • B.

      The CR comes to activate the UR directly.

    • C.

      The CS activates the UR via excitation of US centers.

    • D.

      The CR activates the US via excitation of the UR centers.

    Correct Answer
    C. The CS activates the UR via excitation of US centers.
  • 5. 

    Research into the role of the US in determining the nature of the CR suggests which of the following is true? (Hint: see page 113 in the Domjan text.)

    • A.

      The US is important to the form of the CR only if different CSs are used.

    • B.

      The US only determines if the CR is an approach or avoidance response.

    • C.

      The US only determines if the CR is vigorous or weak.

    • D.

      The US determines many aspects of the CR, including very specific aspects of mouth and tongue movements.

    Correct Answer
    D. The US determines many aspects of the CR, including very specific aspects of mouth and tongue movements.
    Explanation
    According to the information provided on page 113 in the Domjan text, the research suggests that the US plays a significant role in determining various aspects of the conditioned response (CR), including specific movements of the mouth and tongue. This implies that the US is not only responsible for determining whether the CR is an approach or avoidance response, or whether it is vigorous or weak, but also has an influence on other specific aspects of the CR.

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  • 6. 

    In a study with cocaine-using human subjects in the text, which of the following was found to be true?

    • A.

      Cues associated with heroin use elicited heart-rate increases and positive changes in mood; cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate decreases and positive changes in mood.

    • B.

      Cues associated with heroin use elicited heart-rate decreases and positive changes in mood; cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and negative changes in mood.

    • C.

      Cues associated with heroin use had little effect; cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and positive changes in mood.

    • D.

      Cues associated with heroin use had little effect; cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and negative changes in mood.

    Correct Answer
    D. Cues associated with heroin use had little effect; cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and negative changes in mood.
    Explanation
    The study found that cues associated with heroin use had little effect, meaning they did not significantly impact heart rate or mood. On the other hand, cues associated with cocaine use elicited heart rate increases and negative changes in mood. This suggests that individuals who use cocaine may experience physiological and emotional arousal when exposed to cues related to their drug use.

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  • 7. 

    Studies that have used live rats as the CS paired with a food-US on trials presented to other rats demonstrate which of the following?

    • A.

      The shape of the CR can be determined by the UR.

    • B.

      The shape of the CR can be determined by the US.

    • C.

      The shape of the CR can be determined by the CS.

    • D.

      The shape of the CR can be independent of other stimuli.

    Correct Answer
    C. The shape of the CR can be determined by the CS.
    Explanation
    In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) is a neutral stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus (US) through repeated pairings. In this case, live rats are used as the CS and paired with a food-US. The correct answer states that the shape of the conditioned response (CR) can be determined by the CS. This means that the rats being conditioned will exhibit a specific response (CR) based on the presence or characteristics of the live rats (CS). The other options are incorrect because they suggest that the shape of the CR can be determined by the UR (unconditioned response), the US (unconditioned stimulus), or can be independent of other stimuli, which is not supported by the given information.

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  • 8. 

    The blocking effect demonstrates which of the following?

    • A.

      That temporal contiguity is sufficient for associative learning

    • B.

      That CS-US pairings are sufficient for associative learning

    • C.

      That contiguity and CS-US pairings, when they occur together, are sufficient for associative learning

    • D.

      That CS-US pairings are insufficient for associative learning

    Correct Answer
    D. That CS-US pairings are insufficient for associative learning
    Explanation
    The blocking effect refers to a phenomenon in associative learning where the presence of an already established conditioned stimulus (CS) blocks the acquisition of a new association between a different CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US). This suggests that CS-US pairings alone are insufficient for associative learning, as the presence of a previously learned association can prevent the formation of a new one.

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  • 9. 

    Each of two stimuli fully predicts the presentation of a food pellet when presented alone. When the two stimuli are presented together followed by a food pellet, the associative value

    • A.

      Of both stimuli increases.

    • B.

      Of both stimuli decreases.

    • C.

      Of both stimuli remains the same.

    • D.

      Of one stimulus decreases while the other decreases.

    Correct Answer
    B. Of both stimuli decreases.
    Explanation
    When two stimuli that individually predict the presentation of a food pellet are presented together and followed by a food pellet, the associative value of both stimuli decreases. This suggests that the presence of both stimuli together reduces their individual predictive power for the food pellet.

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  • 10. 

    According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, extinction is which of the following? (Hint: see page 131 of the Domjan text).

    • A.

      Learning a new association

    • B.

      Imposing an inhibitory stimulus on an excitatory stimulus

    • C.

      Undoing a conditioned association

    • D.

      A process of habituation

    Correct Answer
    C. Undoing a conditioned association
    Explanation
    According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, extinction is the process of undoing a conditioned association. In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to a decrease or elimination of the conditioned response (CR). This process is believed to involve new learning that inhibits the original association between the CS and the US. Therefore, the correct answer is "undoing a conditioned association."

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