Anatomy & Physiology: Chemistry

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Quizzes Created: 5 | Total Attempts: 13,342
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Anatomy & Physiology: Chemistry - Quiz

A quiz testing the knowledge of basic chemistry review.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ability of one substance to dissolve another is __________________.

    Explanation
    Solubility refers to the ability of one substance to dissolve in another. It is a measure of how well a solute can dissolve in a solvent. The solubility of a substance is determined by factors such as temperature, pressure, and the nature of the solute and solvent. A high solubility means that a substance can dissolve easily, while a low solubility means that it does not dissolve easily. Solubility is an important concept in chemistry and is used to understand and predict the behavior of different substances when they are mixed together.

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  • 2. 

    What substances readily dissolve in water? Check all that apply. [hint: water is polar]

    • A.

      Charged particles (i.e. ions, Na+)

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Polar molecules

    • D.

      Hydrophobic particles

    • E.

      Hydrophilic particles

    • F.

      Steroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Charged particles (i.e. ions, Na+)
    C. Polar molecules
    E. Hydrophilic particles
    Explanation
    Substances that readily dissolve in water are typically polar or charged. Water is a polar molecule, meaning it has a slightly positive and negative end. Charged particles, such as ions like Na+, are attracted to the opposite charge on water molecules and dissolve easily. Polar molecules also have positive and negative ends, allowing them to interact with water molecules and dissolve. Hydrophilic particles, which are attracted to water, also dissolve easily in water. Lipids, hydrophobic particles, and steroids do not readily dissolve in water because they are nonpolar and do not have charges that can interact with water molecules.

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  • 3. 

    Explain what electrolytes are and give some examples. Also, explain how they relate to solubility.

  • 4. 

    Energy is the capacity to do work.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Energy is the capacity to do work, meaning that it is the ability or potential to exert force and cause a displacement or change in an object or system. In physics, work is defined as the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied to an object and it moves in the direction of the force. Therefore, energy is necessary for work to be done, making the statement "Energy is the capacity to do work" true.

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  • 5. 

    Energy comes in different forms. What choice is not a form of energy? [once you have identified which are forms of energy - try to give an example of each and identify whether it is an example of potential or kinetic energy]

    • A.

      Mechanical

    • B.

      Reactant

    • C.

      Electrical

    • D.

      Chemical

    Correct Answer
    B. Reactant
    Explanation
    The choice "reactant" is not a form of energy. Reactant refers to a substance that undergoes a chemical reaction, and it is not a form of energy itself. Mechanical energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion or position, such as a moving car (kinetic energy) or a stretched spring (potential energy). Electrical energy is the energy associated with the movement of electric charges, like the energy in a battery or a lightning bolt. Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds, such as the energy in food or fuel.

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  • 6. 

    All forms of energy can be converted to _________.

    Correct Answer
    HEAT
    heat
    Explanation
    Energy can be converted from one form to another through various processes. Heat is a form of energy that can be converted from any other form of energy, such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy. This conversion occurs due to the movement of particles or molecules, which results in the transfer of thermal energy. Heat can also be converted back into other forms of energy, making it a versatile and fundamental form of energy that can be utilized in various applications.

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  • 7. 

    Chemical reactions can either _________ or _________ bonds.[separate answer with a comma]

    Correct Answer
    make, break
    break, make
    Explanation
    Chemical reactions can either make or break bonds. In a chemical reaction, certain substances react with each other, resulting in the formation of new compounds and the breaking of existing chemical bonds. This process involves the rearrangement of atoms and the formation of new chemical bonds, as well as the breaking of old bonds. Therefore, both making and breaking of bonds occur during chemical reactions.

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  • 8. 

    Substances that ENTER the reaction are called _________.

    • A.

      Products

    • B.

      Bonds

    • C.

      Reactants

    • D.

      Kinetic

    Correct Answer
    C. Reactants
    Explanation
    Reactants are the substances that enter a chemical reaction and undergo a chemical change. They are the starting materials or the initial components of a reaction. In a chemical equation, reactants are always written on the left side of the arrow, indicating that they are being transformed into products through the reaction. Reactants are consumed during the reaction and their chemical properties determine the nature and outcome of the reaction.

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  • 9. 

    This diagram is a great example of how almost all reactions in the body are reversible. Explain what is happening with energy when ATP is converted to ADP or vice-versa. When is energy needed? When is it released? When is their more potential energy? When is there less?

  • 10. 

    Molecules must have sufficient _______ to overcome normal repulsion of their _______ ________.[separate answers with a comma]

    Correct Answer
    energy, electron clouds
    energy, electron clouds.
    ENERGY, ELECTRON CLOUDS
    Explanation
    Molecules must have sufficient energy to overcome the normal repulsion of their electron clouds. This is because the electron clouds of molecules, which consist of negatively charged electrons, naturally repel each other due to their like charges. Therefore, molecules require energy to overcome this repulsion and come together to form stable chemical bonds. The repetition of the answer in different formats is unnecessary and does not add any additional information to the explanation.

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  • 11. 

    What is the minimum energy that reactants must have to start a chemical reactions?

    • A.

      Kinetic energy

    • B.

      Activation energy

    • C.

      Catalyst energy

    • D.

      Concentration energy

    Correct Answer
    B. Activation energy
    Explanation
    Activation energy is the minimum energy that reactants must have in order to start a chemical reaction. It is the energy barrier that must be overcome for the reaction to occur. Reactants need to possess enough kinetic energy to collide with sufficient force and proper orientation to break the existing bonds and form new ones. Activation energy is specific to each reaction and can be influenced by factors such as temperature, concentration, and the presence of a catalyst.

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  • 12. 

    What is not a way that the body gets enough activation energy for all its chemical reactions?

    • A.

      Catalysts

    • B.

      Polarity

    • C.

      Heat

    • D.

      Concentration

    Correct Answer
    B. Polarity
    Explanation
    Polarity is not a way that the body gets enough activation energy for all its chemical reactions. Polarity refers to the separation of charges in a molecule, which affects the molecule's interactions with other molecules, but it does not directly provide activation energy. Activation energy is typically provided through catalysts, heat, or concentration, which facilitate chemical reactions by lowering the energy barrier required for the reaction to occur.

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  • 13. 

    Read the question. Then choose the answer that fills in the blanks in the appropriate order. Water is often involved in reactions. When water is made in a reaction it is a _____________ reaction, which is a type of _________ reaction, also known as an anabolic reaction which means it is endergonic or that it___________ energy. When water is split in a reaction it is a ___________ reaction, which is a type of ___________ reaction, also known as a catabolic reaction which means it is exergonic or that it ___________  energy.

    • A.

      Dehydration, synthesis, requires, hydrolysis, decomposition, releases

    • B.

      Requires, hydrolysis, dehydration, synthesis, releases, decomposition

    • C.

      Synthesis, hydrolysis, decomposition, requires, dehydration, releases

    • D.

      Hydrolysis, decomposition, releases, dehydration, synthesis, requires

    Correct Answer
    A. Dehydration, synthesis, requires, hydrolysis, decomposition, releases
    Explanation
    Water is often involved in reactions. When water is made in a reaction it is a dehydration reaction, which is a type of synthesis reaction, also known as an anabolic reaction which means it requires energy. When water is split in a reaction it is a hydrolysis reaction, which is a type of decomposition reaction, also known as a catabolic reaction which means it releases energy.

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  • 14. 

    If something is exergonic that means that energy is released.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If something is exergonic, it means that energy is released. This is because exergonic reactions involve the conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy, resulting in a net release of energy. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    According to the Law of Mass Action, the direction of the reaction depends on ...

    • A.

      The amount of ATP in the reactants

    • B.

      The temperature of the reactive enviroment

    • C.

      The relative concentration of the reactions and products

    • D.

      The polarity of the reactants and the products

    Correct Answer
    C. The relative concentration of the reactions and products
    Explanation
    The Law of Mass Action states that the direction of a chemical reaction is determined by the relative concentrations of the reactants and products. If the concentration of the reactants is higher than the products, the reaction will proceed in the forward direction. Conversely, if the concentration of the products is higher, the reaction will proceed in the reverse direction. Therefore, the relative concentration of the reactions and products is the determining factor for the direction of the reaction, according to the Law of Mass Action.

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  • 16. 

    This common chemical reaction is seen throughout the body. Fill in the blanks. [separate answers with a comma] CO2+ ________ --> H2CO3 --> _____ + HCO3-

    Correct Answer
    H2O, H+
    Explanation
    This chemical reaction involves the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into carbonic acid (H2CO3), which then dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). This reaction is commonly seen in various processes within the body.

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  • 17. 

    The function of most enzymes depends on the concentrations of _____ and _____. [separate answers with a comma]

    • A.

      H+ and OH+

    • B.

      H- and OH+

    • C.

      H+ and OH-

    • D.

      Acids and bases

    Correct Answer
    C. H+ and OH-
    Explanation
    The function of most enzymes depends on the concentrations of H+ and OH-. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in the body. They work by binding to specific molecules and facilitating their conversion into products. The concentrations of H+ and OH- ions in a solution can affect the pH, which in turn can influence the shape and activity of enzymes. Changes in pH can disrupt the ionic interactions and hydrogen bonding within the enzyme, altering its structure and function. Therefore, maintaining the appropriate concentrations of H+ and OH- ions is crucial for optimal enzyme activity.

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  • 18. 

    The pH scale is based on a log scale.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The pH scale is based on a log scale because it measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 0 being highly acidic, 7 being neutral, and 14 being highly alkaline. Each unit on the scale represents a tenfold difference in acidity or alkalinity. This logarithmic nature allows for a more precise and convenient way to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

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  • 19. 

    Check all the apply. Which of the following solutions are generally acidic?

    • A.

      Enviroment of the stomach

    • B.

      Urine

    • C.

      [H+] = 10^(-12)

    • D.

      [H+] = 10^(-3)

    • E.

      Blood

    • F.

      Saliva

    • G.

      PH = 4.8

    • H.

      PH = 8.3

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Enviroment of the stomach
    B. Urine
    D. [H+] = 10^(-3)
    F. Saliva
    G. PH = 4.8
    Explanation
    The stomach environment is generally acidic due to the presence of hydrochloric acid. Urine can also be acidic depending on factors such as diet and certain medical conditions. A concentration of [H+] = 10^(-3) indicates an acidic solution. Saliva can be slightly acidic with a pH of 4.8. These factors suggest that the environment of the stomach, urine, [H+] = 10^(-3), and saliva are generally acidic.

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  • 20. 

    What is the normal pH for blood?[hint: the set point?]

    • A.

      6.5-6.8

    • B.

      9.6-10.2

    • C.

      3.4-3.6

    • D.

      7.35-7.45

    Correct Answer
    D. 7.35-7.45
    Explanation
    The normal pH for blood is 7.35-7.45. This range is slightly alkaline, indicating that blood is slightly basic rather than acidic. It is important for the pH of blood to remain within this narrow range as any significant deviation can disrupt normal bodily functions. The set point for blood pH is maintained by the body's acid-base regulatory systems, including the bicarbonate buffer system, respiratory system, and renal system. These systems work together to ensure that the pH of blood remains within the normal range to support optimal physiological processes.

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  • 21. 

    Respiratory acidosis is induced by:

    • A.

      Hypoventalation

    • B.

      Lack of electrolytes

    • C.

      Hyperventalation

    • D.

      Excessive vomiting

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypoventalation
    Explanation
    Respiratory acidosis is induced by hypoventilation, which refers to inadequate ventilation or breathing at a slower rate than necessary. This leads to an accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. Hypoventilation can occur due to various factors such as lung diseases, respiratory muscle weakness, or even sedative medications. Lack of electrolytes, hyperventilation, and excessive vomiting are not directly related to respiratory acidosis.

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  • 22. 

    Keeping in mind the process of a Positive Feedback loop and the Law of Mass Action, explain why it is dangerous for a person to breathe too much into a paper bag when experiencing respiratory alkalosis.

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  • Current Version
  • Sep 12, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 15, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Carlyh
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