Anatomic Pathology General Anatomy Post Test

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| By Drrsbekti01
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Drrsbekti01
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 1,002
Questions: 21 | Attempts: 245

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Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

This is formative test to evaluate understanding of the student about Cell Adaptation and Inflammation


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Sebutkan gambaran mikroskopis appendicits kronis (2)

  • 2. 

    Sebutkan gambaran makroskopis Limfadenitis TB (2)

  • 3. 

    Sebutkan Gambaran makroskopis hyperplasia endometrium

  • 4. 

    Sebutkan gambaran mikroskopis abcess ovarii (2)

  • 5. 

    Sebutkan gambaran mikroskopis appendicitis akuta (2)

  • 6. 

    Agen yang menyebabkan timbulnya injury (jejas) pada jaringan atau sel dalam kontek ilmu Patologi disebut:

    • A.

      Etiology

    • B.

      Pathogenesis

    • C.

      Perubahan morfologi

    • D.

      Clinical Manifestation

    Correct Answer
    A. Etiology
    Explanation
    In the context of pathology, the term "etiology" refers to the cause or origin of a disease or injury. It specifically addresses the agents or factors that lead to the development of tissue or cellular damage. This could include various factors such as infections, trauma, genetic abnormalities, or environmental exposures. Understanding the etiology of a disease or injury is crucial in diagnosing and treating the condition effectively.

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  • 7. 

    Setelah mengalami jejas kontinyu berupa paparan asap kendaraan bermotor, karyawan bengkel sepeda motor mengalami batuk kronis yang disebabkan karena perubahan bentuk  sel epitel bronkus sebagai bentuk adaptasi sel. Bentuk adaptasi yang terjadi pada bronkus yang dimaksud adalah

    • A.

      Hyperplasia

    • B.

      Hypertrophy

    • C.

      Atrophy

    • D.

      Metaplasia

    Correct Answer
    D. Metaplasia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is metaplasia. Metaplasia refers to the reversible change in which one mature cell type is replaced by another mature cell type. In this case, the continuous exposure to motor vehicle smoke has caused the epithelial cells in the bronchus to change their form and adapt to the new environment. This change in cell type is known as metaplasia.

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  • 8. 

    Wanita 48 tahun menderita kanker payudara. Pasien menjalani kemoterapi dengan hasil mengecilnya ukuran tumor melalui fragmentasi nukleus dan sitoplasma sel-sel tumor secara individual.Proses yang menjelaskan peristiwa di atas adalah?  

    • A.

      Coagulative necrosis

    • B.

      Fatty change

    • C.

      Degradasi enzymatic

    • D.

      Inflamasi akur

    • E.

      Apoptosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Apoptosis
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes a 48-year-old woman with breast cancer who undergoes chemotherapy, resulting in the reduction of tumor size through individual fragmentation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells. This process is known as apoptosis, which is a programmed cell death mechanism. Apoptosis plays a crucial role in eliminating damaged or unnecessary cells, including cancer cells, from the body. It is characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Therefore, apoptosis is the most suitable explanation for the given scenario.

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  • 9. 

    Laki-laki 53 tahun mengalami nyeri dada selama 6 jam terakhir. Hasil lab menunjukkan serum troponin I 10 ng/mL. Angiogram dari arteri koronaria menunjukkan adanya 90% blokade. Jejas irreversible yang paling mungkin terjadi pada sel otot jantung yang mengalami hypoxia dan ischemia pada kasus ini adalah?

    • A.

      Pembengkakakan sel

    • B.

      Gangguan transport ion elektrolit

    • C.

      Pembentukan bleb pada membran sel

    • D.

      Nukleus mengalami karyorrhexis

    • E.

      Terjadi proses perlemakan

    Correct Answer
    D. Nukleus mengalami karyorrhexis
    Explanation
    In this case, the most likely irreversible damage that occurs in the heart muscle cells due to hypoxia and ischemia is the nucleus undergoing karyorrhexis. Karyorrhexis refers to the fragmentation of the nucleus, which is a characteristic feature of cell death. When the heart muscle cells do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, they undergo irreversible damage, leading to the fragmentation of the nucleus. This can be seen as a result of the severe blockage in the coronary artery, causing prolonged chest pain and elevated troponin levels.

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  • 10. 

    Amir 12 tahun didiagnosis dokter mengalami marasmus karena kekurangan asupan protein dalam makanan sehariharinya. Bentuk adaptasi  yang terjadi pada sel-sel otot Amir yang paling mungkin adalah ...

    • A.

      Pembesaran kandungan matrik intraseluler

    • B.

      Peningkatan jumlah sel-sel otot

    • C.

      Pengerutan nukleus karena proses denaturasi sel otot

    • D.

      Perubahan sel otot ke bentuk sel lain

    • E.

      Proses perubahan DNA ke arah keganasan

    Correct Answer
    C. Pengerutan nukleus karena proses denaturasi sel otot
    Explanation
    The most likely adaptation that occurs in Amir's muscle cells due to protein deficiency is the shrinking of the nucleus due to the denaturation process of muscle cells.

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  • 11. 

     Mekanisme yang menjelaskan awal proses jejas ireversibel pada sel-sel adalah

    • A.

      Deposis trigliserida ke intraseluler

    • B.

      Gangguan transport ion elektrolit

    • C.

      Akumulasi ROS intrasel

    • D.

      Pembentukan vakuola dalam sel

    • E.

      Peningkatan growth hormon

    Correct Answer
    C. Akumulasi ROS intrasel
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Akumulasi ROS intrasel" which means intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. This refers to the build-up of harmful molecules called reactive oxygen species within the cells. These reactive oxygen species can cause damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to irreversible cell damage and dysfunction.

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  • 12. 

    Erythema pada radang akut disebabkan oleh :

    • A.

      Konstriksi vaskuler

    • B.

      Dilatasi vaskuler

    • C.

      Akumulasi cairan eksudat

    • D.

      Pelepasan bradykinin

    • E.

      Penurunan blood flow

    Correct Answer
    B. Dilatasi vaskuler
    Explanation
    Dilatasi vaskuler adalah peningkatan diameter pembuluh darah yang terjadi selama radang akut. Hal ini terjadi sebagai respons terhadap pelepasan mediator inflamasi seperti histamin dan prostaglandin. Dilatasi vaskuler ini memungkinkan aliran darah yang lebih banyak ke daerah yang terkena, sehingga menyebabkan eritema atau kemerahan pada kulit.

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  • 13. 

    Cairan yang keluar dari vaskular ke interstitiel karena perubahan permeabilitas disebut :

    • A.

      Transudat

    • B.

      Fibrin

    • C.

      Sekret

    • D.

      Eksudat

    • E.

      Pus

    Correct Answer
    D. Eksudat
    Explanation
    Cairan yang keluar dari vaskular ke interstitiel karena perubahan permeabilitas disebut eksudat.

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  • 14. 

    Emigrasi aktif dari sel radang akut (neutrofil) menuju tempat stimulus radang disebabkan adanya kemotaktik faktor yaitu 

    • A.

      Bradikinin

    • B.

      IL1, TNF α

    • C.

      Komplemen Faktor C5a dan C3a

    • D.

      Prostaglandin

    • E.

      ICAM

    Correct Answer
    C. Komplemen Faktor C5a dan C3a
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Komplemen Faktor C5a dan C3a. The emigration of neutrophils from acute inflammatory sites towards the stimulus of inflammation is caused by the chemotactic factors, which include complement factors C5a and C3a. These factors attract neutrophils to the site of inflammation, promoting their migration and recruitment to the area in order to combat the inflammatory response.

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  • 15. 

    Opsonisasi pada proses phagocytosis adalah

    • A.

      Pembunuhan bakteri dengan H2O2

    • B.

      Engulfment bakteri

    • C.

      Aktivasi makrofag

    • D.

      Aktivasi antibodi

    • E.

      Penggabungan antigen dengan Immunoglobulin atau Komplemen C3b

    Correct Answer
    E. Penggabungan antigen dengan Immunoglobulin atau Komplemen C3b
    Explanation
    Opsonisasi adalah proses di mana antigen (seperti bakteri) diikat oleh antibodi atau komplemen C3b, yang kemudian memfasilitasi pengenalan dan fagositosis oleh sel fagositik seperti makrofag. Dalam proses ini, antigen yang diopsonisasi menjadi lebih mudah dikenali oleh sel fagositik, yang membantu dalam penghancuran bakteri. Oleh karena itu, jawaban yang benar adalah "Penggabungan antigen dengan Immunoglobulin atau Komplemen C3b".

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  • 16. 

    Inflamasi purulen atau radang suppuratif disebabkan oleh

    • A.

      Virus

    • B.

      Bakteri pyogenik

    • C.

      Mycobacterium TBC

    • D.

      Trauma fisik yang hebat

    • E.

      Infeksi jamur

    Correct Answer
    B. Bakteri pyogenik
    Explanation
    Inflamasi purulen atau radang suppuratif disebabkan oleh bakteri pyogenik. This means that the presence of pus or the formation of pus is caused by certain bacteria that have the ability to induce a purulent inflammatory response in the body. These bacteria are commonly referred to as pyogenic bacteria, and they can cause infections such as abscesses, cellulitis, and certain types of pneumonia.

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  • 17. 

    Demam dan leukocytosis disebabkan karena mediator kimia :

    • A.

      Prostaglandin

    • B.

      Bradykinin

    • C.

      Complement 3a

    • D.

      Complement 3b

    • E.

      TNF

    Correct Answer
    E. TNF
    Explanation
    TNF (tumor necrosis factor) is a mediator chemical that can cause fever and leukocytosis. TNF is produced by immune cells in response to infection or inflammation. It acts on the hypothalamus to increase body temperature, leading to fever. TNF also stimulates the production of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the bone marrow, resulting in leukocytosis. Therefore, the presence of TNF can explain the occurrence of both fever and leukocytosis.

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  • 18. 

    Apabila pada radang akut didapatkan nekrosis jaringan maka sequelae yang akan terjadi adalah 

    • A.

      Resolusi total

    • B.

      Repair dengan bentukan cicatrik

    • C.

      Suppurasi

    • D.

      Transformasi maligna

    • E.

      Progresi ke radang kronis

    Correct Answer
    B. Repair dengan bentukan cicatrik
    Explanation
    Apabila pada radang akut didapatkan nekrosis jaringan, maka sequelae yang akan terjadi adalah repair dengan bentukan cicatrik. Ketika jaringan mengalami nekrosis, sel-sel mati akan digantikan oleh jaringan parut atau cicatrik. Ini adalah proses alami tubuh untuk memperbaiki kerusakan jaringan. Jaringan parut biasanya memiliki tekstur yang berbeda dan tidak memiliki fungsi yang sama dengan jaringan normal.

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  • 19. 

    Gambaran klinis radang kronis adalah

    • A.

      Demam ringan, lymphocytosis, anemia

    • B.

      Demam tinggi, leukositotis, kalor

    • C.

      Demam tinggi, lymphositosis, rubor dan dolor

    • D.

      Tumor, rubor dolor, kalor, nekrosis

    • E.

      Nekrosis, fibrosis, leukositosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Demam ringan, lymphocytosis, anemia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Demam ringan, lymphocytosis, anemia." This is because in chronic inflammation, there is usually a mild fever (demam ringan) due to the body's immune response. Lymphocytosis refers to an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood, which is a characteristic finding in chronic inflammation. Anemia can also be present in chronic inflammation due to the release of inflammatory cytokines that can suppress the production of red blood cells.

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  • 20. 

    Gambaran mikroskopis radang kronis 

    • A.

      Infiltrasi PMN

    • B.

      Proliferasi sel epithel

    • C.

      Neovaskularisasi

    • D.

      Vasodilatasi

    • E.

      Eksudasi cairan ekstravaskuler

    Correct Answer
    C. Neovaskularisasi
    Explanation
    Neovaskularisasi refers to the formation of new blood vessels. In the context of chronic inflammation, neovascularization occurs as a result of the body's response to the ongoing tissue damage and inflammation. The formation of new blood vessels helps to supply oxygen and nutrients to the inflamed area, aiding in the healing process. Therefore, the presence of neovascularization in the microscopic image suggests that chronic inflammation is occurring.

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  • 21. 

    Contoh penyakit yang memiliki gambaran radang kronik granulomatik 

    • A.

      Appendicitis kronis

    • B.

      Leprosy

    • C.

      Osteomyelitis kronis

    • D.

      Abses ovarii

    • E.

      Ulkus peptikum

    Correct Answer
    B. Leprosy
    Explanation
    Leprosy is a disease that presents with chronic granulomatous inflammation. It is characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are aggregates of immune cells that surround and isolate the infectious agent. Leprosy is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and primarily affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes. The chronic nature of the disease means that the inflammation persists over a long period of time, leading to the characteristic granulomatous appearance.

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