11 Biology - Macromolecules, Enzymes And Photosynthesis

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Enzyme Quizzes & Trivia

Quiz on macromolecules, enzymes and photosynthesis


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The four main macromolecules are ___________, _____________, ___________ and ___________

    Explanation
    The four main macromolecules are DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. These macromolecules are essential for the functioning and structure of living organisms. DNA carries genetic information and is responsible for the inheritance of traits. Proteins are involved in various biological processes and perform functions such as catalyzing reactions and providing structure. Lipids are important for energy storage, insulation, and forming cell membranes. Carbohydrates are a major source of energy and also play a role in cell structure and communication.

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  • 2. 

    How many different types of amino acids make up proteins?

    • A.

      34

    • B.

      20

    • C.

      16

    • D.

      55

    Correct Answer
    B. 20
    Explanation
    Proteins are composed of amino acids, which are organic compounds. There are 20 different types of amino acids that make up proteins. Each amino acid has a unique structure and side chain, giving it distinct properties. These amino acids can combine in various sequences to form different proteins, each with its own specific function. Therefore, the correct answer is 20.

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  • 3. 

    Carbohydrates are composed of:

    • A.

      Monosaccharides

    • B.

      Polysaccharides

    • C.

      Disaccharides

    Correct Answer
    A. Monosaccharides
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are composed of monosaccharides, which are the simplest form of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are single sugar molecules that cannot be further broken down into smaller units. They are the building blocks of more complex carbohydrates such as disaccharides and polysaccharides. Disaccharides are formed by the combination of two monosaccharides, while polysaccharides are made up of multiple monosaccharide units bonded together. Therefore, monosaccharides are the correct answer as they are the basic units from which all other carbohydrates are formed.

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  • 4. 

    The molecule of DNA consists of two strands coiled together to form a ________ ________

    Correct Answer
    double helix
    Explanation
    The molecule of DNA consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. This structure resembles a twisted ladder, with the two strands of DNA running in opposite directions and held together by hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases. The double helix structure of DNA allows for its replication and transmission of genetic information during cell division.

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  • 5. 

    Each nucleotide is made up of ____ chemical groups

    Correct Answer
    3
    Explanation
    Each nucleotide is made up of three chemical groups. This is because a nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar molecule and phosphate group form the backbone of the nucleotide, while the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar molecule. These three components together make up a nucleotide, which is the building block of DNA and RNA molecules.

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  • 6. 

    The substances that enzymes bind to are called ___________.

    Correct Answer
    substrates
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in living organisms. They bind to specific molecules called substrates and facilitate the conversion of substrates into products. The binding of enzymes to substrates is highly specific, as each enzyme has a unique active site that can only accommodate certain substrates. Therefore, the correct answer is "substrates" because it accurately describes the molecules that enzymes interact with during a biochemical reaction.

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  • 7. 

    Enzymes......

    • A.

      Speed up reactions

    • B.

      Are not used up in the reaction

    • C.

      Eventually become 'worn-out' and must be replaced

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. They are not used up in the reaction and can be used repeatedly. However, over time, enzymes can become denatured or lose their activity due to various factors such as temperature, pH, or exposure to certain substances. In such cases, they need to be replaced or regenerated for the reaction to continue. Therefore, all of the given statements are correct explanations about enzymes.

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  • 8. 

    Each enzyme catalyses only one type of reaction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Enzymes are highly specific catalysts that speed up specific chemical reactions in living organisms. They are designed to bind to specific substrates and convert them into products through a series of chemical reactions. This specificity is due to the unique structure and active site of each enzyme, which allows it to interact with only a specific substrate or group of substrates. Therefore, each enzyme is capable of catalyzing only one type of reaction, making the statement "Each enzyme catalyses only one type of reaction" true.

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  • 9. 

    A ___________ is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction itself.

    Correct Answer
    catalyst
    Explanation
    A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction itself. It works by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, allowing the reaction to proceed at a faster rate. The catalyst provides an alternative pathway for the reaction to take place, reducing the energy barrier and increasing the rate of reaction. It remains unchanged at the end of the reaction and can be used again in subsequent reactions.

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  • 10. 

    What is the name given to the amount of energy needed to start a reaction?

    Correct Answer
    Activation energy
    Explanation
    Activation energy is the term used to describe the amount of energy that is required to initiate or start a chemical reaction. It represents the energy barrier that needs to be overcome for the reaction to occur. Activation energy is necessary because it allows the reactant molecules to reach an unstable transition state, where they can then proceed to form products. Without sufficient activation energy, the reaction would not proceed, as the reactant molecules would lack the necessary energy to overcome the energy barrier and transition to the product state.

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  • 11. 

    The rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction increases when the temperature's raised. But, if the temperature increases beyond a certain point, the reaction stops. At this point, the enzyme is __________.

    Correct Answer
    denatured
    Explanation
    When the temperature is raised, the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction increases because the higher temperature provides more energy for the reaction to occur. However, if the temperature becomes too high, the enzyme becomes denatured. Denaturation is the process in which the enzyme's structure is altered, causing it to lose its shape and function. This occurs because the high temperature disrupts the weak bonds that hold the enzyme's structure together. Once the enzyme is denatured, it can no longer catalyze the reaction effectively, leading to the reaction stopping.

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  • 12. 

    3 factors that will affect the rate of enzyme activity.

    • A.

      temperature

    • B.

      Enzyme concentration

    • C.

      Size

    • D.

      Shape

    • E.

      pH

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. temperature
    B. Enzyme concentration
    E. pH
    Explanation
    The factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity are temperature, enzyme concentration, and pH. Temperature affects the rate of enzyme activity because enzymes have an optimal temperature at which they work most efficiently. Enzyme concentration also affects the rate of activity because the more enzymes present, the faster the reaction can occur. pH affects enzyme activity because enzymes have an optimal pH at which they function best. Size and shape are not factors that directly affect enzyme activity.

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  • 13. 

    A chemical process that captures light energy and stores it as potential chemical energy. This is the definiton of which term below

    • A.

      Cellular respiration

    • B.

      Respiration

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the correct answer because it is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. During photosynthesis, these organisms use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and release oxygen as a byproduct. This process is crucial for the survival of plants and other organisms that depend on them for food and oxygen.

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  • 14. 

    The ultimate source of energy for most autotrophs and heterotrophs is ________ ________

    Correct Answer
    light energy
    Explanation
    The ultimate source of energy for most autotrophs and heterotrophs is light energy. Autotrophs, such as plants, use light energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose through the process of photosynthesis. This glucose is then used as a source of energy for the autotroph and can be stored as starch. Heterotrophs, on the other hand, obtain their energy by consuming autotrophs or other heterotrophs. In this way, the energy from the sun is transferred through the food chain and ultimately provides energy for all organisms.

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  • 15. 

    What is the role of chlorophyll is photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    traps light energy
    makes leaves green
    Explanation
    Chlorophyll plays a crucial role in photosynthesis by trapping light energy. It absorbs sunlight and converts it into chemical energy, which is used to power the process of photosynthesis. Additionally, chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of leaves. It reflects green light and absorbs other wavelengths of light, allowing plants to utilize the energy for photosynthesis.

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  • 16. 

    The main source of energy for life on Earth is sunlight.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sunlight is the main source of energy for life on Earth because it is necessary for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then passed on to other organisms in the food chain, providing them with the energy they need to survive and carry out their biological functions. Without sunlight, plants would not be able to produce food, and the entire ecosystem would collapse. Therefore, it can be concluded that the statement "The main source of energy for life on Earth is sunlight" is true.

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  • 17. 

    The word equation for photosynthesis:                                                  LIGHT_______ _______ + ______      -------------->      ________ + oxygen                                             CHLOROPHYLL

    Correct Answer
    carbon dioxide, water, glucose
    Explanation
    The word equation for photosynthesis states that carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of light and chlorophyll, react to produce glucose and oxygen. This means that during photosynthesis, plants use carbon dioxide and water as raw materials and convert them into glucose (a form of sugar) and oxygen. The process is powered by light energy captured by chlorophyll, a pigment found in plant cells.

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  • 18. 

    The chemical equation for respiration: _______ + _____   -------------->  _____ + 6H2O + energy (ATP)                                  

    Correct Answer
    C6H12O6, 6O2, 6CO2
    Explanation
    The chemical equation for respiration shows that glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (6O2) are reactants, which combine to form carbon dioxide (6CO2), water (6H2O), and energy in the form of ATP. This equation represents the process by which cells break down glucose molecules to release energy for cellular activities.

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