Hemodynamic Disorders Pathology MCQs Quiz

Clinically Reviewed by Nicolette Natale
Nicolette Natale, DO (Medicine) |
Medicine
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Nicolette is an accomplished physician, research coordinator, and medical writer, boasting over 6 years of expertise in healthcare, research, psychology, and education. Her qualifications include a DO from Nova Southeastern University and BA degrees in English Literature and Psychology from the University of Miami. Nicolette is deeply involved in medical research and patient care, demonstrating a commitment to advancing the field of medicine.
, DO (Medicine)
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Hemodynamic Disorders Pathology MCQs Quiz - Quiz

Take the hemodynamic disorders pathology MCQs quiz today to find out more about the dynamics of blood flow, a process that explains the physical laws that govern the flow of blood in the blood vessels. As with any process in the body, it can come with its share of disorders. Don't forget to share this quiz with your friends so they can learn and revise their knowledge about hemodynamic disorders! All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is an embolus? 

    • A.

      An intravascular mass that forms in one anatomic site

    • B.

      A freely movable, intravascular mass that is carried from one anatomic site to another by the blood

    • C.

      An intravascular mass that forms in the legs

    • D.

      An intravascular mass that forms in the brain

    • E.

      An intravascular mass that forms in the foramen ovale

    Correct Answer
    B. A freely movable, intravascular mass that is carried from one anatomic site to another by the blood
    Explanation
    An embolus is a freely movable, intravascular mass that is carried from one anatomical site to another by the blood. This means that it is a mass that can travel through the bloodstream and can potentially block blood flow in a different part of the body. It is not limited to any specific anatomical site such as the legs, brain, or foramen ovale.

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  • 2. 

    Cholesterol crystals detached from atherosclerotic plaques, tumor cells, bone marrow emboli, and parts of bullets are all examples of what type of emboli?

    • A.

      Liquid emboli

    • B.

      Gaseous emboli

    • C.

      Solid particle emboli

    • D.

      Septic emboli

    Correct Answer
    C. Solid particle emboli
    Explanation
    Cholesterol crystals, tumor cells, bone marrow emboli, and parts of bullets are all examples of solid particles that can detach from their original locations and travel through the bloodstream to cause blockages in smaller blood vessels. This type of emboli is known as solid particle emboli.

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  • 3. 

    Fat emboli and amniotic fluid emboli are all examples of:

    • A.

      Gaseous emboli

    • B.

      Solid particle emboli

    • C.

      Liquid emboli

    • D.

      Septic emboli

    Correct Answer
    C. Liquid emboli
    Explanation
    Fat emboli and amniotic fluid emboli are both examples of liquid emboli. Fat emboli occur when fat particles enter the bloodstream, often due to trauma or certain medical procedures. Amniotic fluid emboli occur when amniotic fluid enters the maternal bloodstream during childbirth or other obstetric procedures. Both of these emboli are composed of liquid substances, rather than gaseous or solid particles.

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  • 4. 

    ______________ are venous emboli that reach the arterial circulation through the foramen ovale or an interventricular septal defect that can cause symptoms similar to those of arterial emboli. 

    • A.

      Paired emboli

    • B.

      Parental emboli

    • C.

      Passage emboli

    • D.

      Paradoxical emboli

    • E.

      Arterial emboli

    Correct Answer
    D. Paradoxical emboli
    Explanation
    Paradoxical emboli are venous emboli that reach the arterial circulation through the foramen ovale or an interventricular septal defect. This can cause symptoms similar to those of arterial emboli. Unlike typical emboli that travel through the arteries, paradoxical emboli bypass the lungs and enter the systemic circulation, leading to potential complications such as stroke or heart attack. This phenomenon is known as a paradox because the emboli travel from the venous to the arterial side of circulation, against the normal flow of blood.

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  • 5. 

    A patient comes in with an acute MI, after one night of hospitalization and subsequent treatment you send them home with instructions. What is something that can occur in the patient 1-2 weeks after the MI?

    • A.

      CHF

    • B.

      COPD

    • C.

      Kidney failure

    • D.

      Stroke

    • E.

      Fat metabolism syndrome

    Correct Answer
    D. Stroke
    Explanation
    After an acute myocardial infarction (MI), there is a risk of blood clots forming in the heart or blood vessels. These blood clots can potentially dislodge and travel to the brain, causing a stroke. This can occur 1-2 weeks after the MI due to the ongoing inflammation and healing process in the cardiovascular system. It is important to monitor patients closely during this period and provide appropriate preventive measures to reduce the risk of stroke.

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  • 6. 

    A patient admits to the ER after a jugular vein stabbing wound. What type of emboli would you most suspect to occur in this patient?

    • A.

      Solid particle emboli

    • B.

      Liquid emboli

    • C.

      Gaseous emboli

    • D.

      Fat emboli

    • E.

      Bullet emboli

    Correct Answer
    C. Gaseous emboli
    Explanation
    A jugular vein stabbing wound can potentially introduce air into the bloodstream, leading to the formation of gaseous emboli. These emboli can travel through the blood vessels and block blood flow to vital organs, causing serious complications such as stroke or organ damage. Solid particle emboli, liquid emboli, fat emboli, and bullet emboli are less likely in this scenario as they are not typically associated with jugular vein injuries.

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  • 7. 

    What is the most common form of emboli seen in clinical practice? 

    • A.

      Liquid emboli

    • B.

      Fat emboli

    • C.

      Gaseous emboli

    • D.

      Solid particle emboli

    • E.

      Thromboemboli

    Correct Answer
    E. Thromboemboli
    Explanation
    Thromboemboli are the most common form of emboli seen in clinical practice. Emboli are particles that travel through the bloodstream and can cause blockages in blood vessels. Thromboemboli specifically refer to blood clots that break off from their original site and travel to other parts of the body. They can lead to serious conditions such as pulmonary embolism, stroke, or deep vein thrombosis. Given their prevalence and potential for harm, it is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of thromboemboli and take appropriate measures to prevent and treat them.

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  • 8. 

    Where do most arterial emboli originate?

    • A.

      In the deep veins of the leg

    • B.

      In the jugular veins of the neck

    • C.

      In the right atrium, inferior vena cava, and major veins

    • D.

      Pulmonary vein

    • E.

      Left atrium or ventricle, aorta, and major arteries

    Correct Answer
    E. Left atrium or ventricle, aorta, and major arteries
    Explanation
    Most arterial emboli originate in the left atrium or ventricle, aorta, and major arteries. This is because arterial emboli are typically formed by blood clots that originate in the heart or large arteries. These clots can break off and travel through the bloodstream, eventually blocking smaller arteries and causing tissue damage or organ dysfunction.

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  • 9. 

    What is the most likely fate of a venous emboli in a pt. with an interventricular septal defect?

    • A.

      Pulmonary embolism

    • B.

      Pulmonary infarct

    • C.

      Stroke

    • D.

      A & B

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Stroke
    Explanation
    The most likely fate of a venous emboli in a patient with an interventricular septal defect is a stroke. This is because a venous emboli can travel through the bloodstream and reach the brain, causing a blockage in one of the blood vessels in the brain and resulting in a stroke.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is not a possible fate of an arterial embolism?

    • A.

      Brain

    • B.

      Spleen

    • C.

      Mesentary

    • D.

      Kidney

    • E.

      Pulmonary vein

    Correct Answer
    E. Pulmonary vein
    Explanation
    An arterial embolism occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material blocks an artery, cutting off blood supply to a specific organ or tissue. The possible fates of an arterial embolism include brain damage, spleen infarction (tissue death), mesentery infarction, and kidney infarction. However, the pulmonary vein is not a possible fate of an arterial embolism because it carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, not from the heart to an organ or tissue.

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  • 11. 

    A saddle embolism is carried by venous blood and obstructs blood flow in the:

    • A.

      Pulmonary artery

    • B.

      Pulmonary vein

    • C.

      Middle cerebral artery

    • D.

      Carotid artery

    • E.

      Abdominal aorta

    Correct Answer
    A. Pulmonary artery
    Explanation
    A saddle embolism refers to a blood clot that is lodged in the pulmonary artery, which is the main artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. This obstruction of blood flow can lead to serious consequences, such as pulmonary embolism, which can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and even death if not treated promptly. Therefore, it is crucial to identify and treat a saddle embolism in the pulmonary artery to restore normal blood flow and prevent further complications.

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  • 12. 

    True of False? All pulmonary emboli are considered saddle types.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False. Not all pulmonary emboli are considered saddle types. A saddle type pulmonary embolus refers to a large clot that straddles the main pulmonary artery and its branches, resembling a saddle. While saddle emboli are considered high-risk and potentially life-threatening, not all pulmonary emboli have this specific anatomical appearance. Pulmonary emboli can vary in size, location, and severity, ranging from small peripheral emboli to larger central emboli.

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  • 13. 

    The spleen, kidney, intestine, brain are all vulnerable to ____________ emboli. 

    • A.

      Venous

    • B.

      Arterial

    • C.

      Pulmonary

    • D.

      Saddle

    Correct Answer
    B. Arterial
    Explanation
    The question is asking which type of emboli can affect the spleen, kidney, intestine, and brain. Emboli are blood clots or other foreign bodies that travel through the bloodstream and can block blood vessels. Arterial emboli are more likely to cause blockages in these organs because they travel through the arteries, which carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Venous emboli, on the other hand, travel through the veins, which carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Pulmonary emboli specifically affect the lungs, and saddle emboli are large emboli that can block the main artery of the lungs.

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  • 14. 

    The most severe form of fat embolism syndrome is characterized by what 1-3 days post-injury?

    • A.

      MI

    • B.

      Stroke

    • C.

      Respiratory failure

    • D.

      Pulmonary embolism

    • E.

      Acute liver failure

    Correct Answer
    C. Respiratory failure
    Explanation
    The most severe form of fat embolism syndrome is characterized by respiratory failure 1-3 days post-injury. Fat embolism syndrome occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and block small blood vessels, leading to various complications. Respiratory failure is a common manifestation of this syndrome, as the fat globules can obstruct blood flow to the lungs and impair oxygen exchange. Other symptoms may include neurological changes, petechial rash, and cardiovascular instability. However, the most severe consequence is respiratory failure, which can be life-threatening if not promptly managed.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following types of emboli will result in widespread mental changes, thrombocytopenia, petechiae, acute resp. distress, and lesions in the brain including cerebral edema and microinfarcts. 

    • A.

      Solid particle emboli

    • B.

      Pulmonary embolism

    • C.

      Fat embolism syndrome

    • D.

      Coronary artery embolism

    • E.

      Gaseous embolism

    Correct Answer
    C. Fat embolism syndrome
    Explanation
    Fat embolism syndrome occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and travel to various organs, including the brain. This can lead to widespread mental changes, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), petechiae (small purple or red spots on the skin), acute respiratory distress, and brain lesions such as cerebral edema and microinfarcts. This condition is commonly seen in patients with long bone fractures, especially after orthopedic surgeries.

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  • 16. 

    In the formation of a thrombus _______ is polymerized into _______ forming a meshwork of thin filaments that bind together cellular elements of blood forming a clot. 

    • A.

      Fibrinogen; fibrin

    • B.

      Fibrin; fibrinogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibrinogen; fibrin
    Explanation
    In the formation of a thrombus, fibrinogen is polymerized into fibrin, forming a meshwork of thin filaments that bind together cellular elements of blood forming a clot. Fibrinogen is a soluble protein present in blood plasma, while fibrin is an insoluble protein formed when fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by the enzyme thrombin. This conversion is a crucial step in the clotting process, as fibrin forms a network that traps platelets and other blood cells to create a stable clot.

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  • 17. 

    Fat embolism syndrome occurs in _______ of patients with severe skeletal injuries; less than ___ of patients have clinical findings. 

    • A.

      50%; 90%

    • B.

      10%; 90%

    • C.

      90%; 10%

    • D.

      90%; 50%

    Correct Answer
    C. 90%; 10%
    Explanation
    Fat embolism syndrome occurs in 90% of patients with severe skeletal injuries, but only 10% of these patients have clinical findings. This means that while a large majority of patients may develop fat embolism syndrome, only a small percentage will actually show symptoms or signs of the condition.

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  • 18. 

    Intramural thrombi are attached to the mural endocardium of the heart chambers and are commonly found:

    • A.

      As an ulcerated atheroma in an atherosclerotic aorta

    • B.

      Lodged in an pulmonary vein

    • C.

      Overlying a MI which may embolize

    • D.

      In a distant femoral vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Overlying a MI which may embolize
    Explanation
    Intramural thrombi are blood clots that are attached to the inner lining of the heart chambers. They are commonly found overlying a myocardial infarction (MI), which is a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle. When a thrombus forms over a MI, it can become dislodged and travel through the bloodstream, causing an embolism in a different part of the body. This can lead to serious complications depending on where the embolism lodges, such as a stroke if it reaches the brain or a pulmonary embolism if it reaches the lungs.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following thrombi are found in arterioles, capillaries, venules and are typical of disseminated intravascular coagulation?

    • A.

      Arterial thrombi

    • B.

      Mural thrombi

    • C.

      Venous thrombi

    • D.

      Microvascular thrombi

    Correct Answer
    D. Microvascular thrombi
    Explanation
    Microvascular thrombi are found in arterioles, capillaries, and venules, and are typical of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC is a condition characterized by widespread activation of the coagulation system, leading to the formation of small blood clots throughout the microvasculature. These clots can obstruct blood flow and cause organ damage. Therefore, microvascular thrombi are the correct answer for this question.

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  • 20. 

    Based on pathological classification, which of the following thrombi are composed of tightly intermixed RBC's and fibrin?

    • A.

      Layered thrombi

    • B.

      Red thrombi

    • C.

      Fat thrombi

    • D.

      Lines of zahn

    Correct Answer
    B. Red thrombi
    Explanation
    Red thrombi are composed of tightly intermixed RBC's and fibrin. This type of thrombus is typically seen in venous circulation and is associated with slow blood flow or stasis. The red color is due to the presence of RBC's, while the fibrin provides structural support. Red thrombi are commonly found in conditions such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

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  • 21. 

    Based on pathological classification, which of the following thrombi contain fibrin called "lines of zahn"

    • A.

      Red thrombi

    • B.

      Layered thrombi

    • C.

      Fat thrombi

    • D.

      Coronary artery thrombi

    Correct Answer
    B. Layered thrombi
    Explanation
    Layered thrombi are composed of alternating layers of platelets and fibrin, which are formed in stagnant blood flow. These layers of fibrin are known as "lines of zahn." Red thrombi, fat thrombi, and coronary artery thrombi do not typically exhibit these distinct layers of fibrin.

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  • 22. 

    Thrombi in small vessels tends to be:

    • A.

      Fat emboli

    • B.

      Layered emboli

    • C.

      Red emboli

    • D.

      Pulmonary emboli

    Correct Answer
    C. Red emboli
    Explanation
    Thrombi in small vessels tend to be red emboli because they are composed mostly of red blood cells. These emboli form when a blood clot forms in a small blood vessel and breaks off, traveling through the bloodstream. The red color of these emboli is due to the high concentration of red blood cells. Red emboli can cause blockages in small vessels, leading to tissue damage and potentially serious health complications.

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  • 23. 

    Thrombi in larger arteries and veins, as well as mural thrombi tend to be:

    • A.

      Fat emboli

    • B.

      Red emboli

    • C.

      Layered emboli

    • D.

      Coronary artery emboli

    Correct Answer
    C. Layered emboli
    Explanation
    Layered emboli refers to thrombi that are composed of distinct layers of different materials, such as fibrin, platelets, and red and white blood cells. This type of emboli is commonly found in larger arteries and veins, as well as mural thrombi (thrombi that adhere to the walls of blood vessels). Fat emboli, red emboli, and coronary artery emboli do not specifically describe the composition or location of the thrombi, making them incorrect choices.

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  • 24. 

    An infarction is typically caused by:

    • A.

      Overexhaustion

    • B.

      Liver failure

    • C.

      Thrombosis of emboli

    • D.

      Respiratory failure

    • E.

      Stroke

    Correct Answer
    C. Thrombosis of emboli
    Explanation
    An infarction is typically caused by thrombosis of emboli. Thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot, while emboli are clots that break off and travel through the bloodstream to block a blood vessel. When a blood clot blocks a blood vessel, it cuts off the blood supply to a particular area of tissue or organ, leading to tissue death or infarction. Therefore, thrombosis of emboli is the most likely cause of an infarction.

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  • 25. 

    Infarcts typical of arterial occlusion in solid organs such as the kidneys and heart are:

    • A.

      Black

    • B.

      Caseous

    • C.

      White

    • D.

      Red

    • E.

      Lines of zahn

    Correct Answer
    C. White
    Explanation
    Infarcts typical of arterial occlusion in solid organs such as the kidneys and heart are white. This is because arterial occlusion leads to ischemia, which is the lack of blood supply to the affected organ. Without sufficient blood flow, the affected tissue becomes pale and white due to the absence of oxygenated blood. Additionally, the lack of blood flow also prevents the removal of waste products, leading to tissue death and further contributing to the white appearance of the infarct.

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  • 26. 

    True or False? A red infarct is often rimmed by a thin red zone containing extravasated blood that was destined to reach the ischemic zone from surrounded anastomotic blood vessels. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A red infarct is not often rimmed by a thin red zone containing extravasated blood. In fact, a red infarct is characterized by the presence of hemorrhage and extravasated blood within the ischemic zone, giving it a red appearance. There is no surrounding red zone in a red infarct. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 27. 

    White infarcts are cause by ____________ obstruction. 

    • A.

      Venous

    • B.

      Arterial

    Correct Answer
    B. Arterial
    Explanation
    White infarcts are caused by arterial obstruction. Arterial obstruction refers to the blockage of blood flow in the arteries, which can lead to tissue ischemia and subsequent infarction. White infarcts are characterized by pale or whitish appearance due to the lack of blood supply and subsequent absence of red blood cells. This is in contrast to red infarcts, which are caused by venous obstruction and have a reddish appearance due to the presence of blood.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following infarcts are typical of venous obstruction involving the testes such as in torsion or the intestines seen in a volvulus?

    • A.

      Black

    • B.

      Lines of zahn

    • C.

      White

    • D.

      Red

    • E.

      Arterial

    Correct Answer
    D. Red
    Explanation
    Red infarcts are typical of venous obstruction involving the testes such as in torsion or the intestines seen in a volvulus. Venous obstruction leads to congestion and impaired venous outflow, resulting in a red infarct. This is in contrast to arterial occlusion, which typically leads to pale or white infarcts due to the lack of oxygenated blood supply. The presence of black lines of zahn is not specific to any particular type of infarct.

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  • 29. 

    True or False? Since arteries have thinner walls than veins, they are more predisposed to red infarcts. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Arteries actually have thicker walls than veins, so they are not more predisposed to red infarcts. Red infarcts occur when there is reperfusion of blood into an area of tissue that has undergone ischemia. This typically happens in organs with a dual blood supply or in tissues with sluggish venous outflow, leading to the accumulation of deoxygenated blood. Since veins have thinner walls and lower pressure, they are more likely to undergo red infarction.

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  • 30. 

    Where are Red infarcts not typically seen:

    • A.

      Intestines

    • B.

      Testes

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Lungs

    • E.

      Kidneys

    Correct Answer
    E. Kidneys
    Explanation
    Red infarcts are typically seen in organs with dual blood supply, such as the lungs, liver, and intestines. This is because red infarcts occur when there is reperfusion of the necrotic tissue, leading to hemorrhage. However, the kidneys have a single blood supply, making them more prone to developing pale or white infarcts instead. Therefore, red infarcts are not typically seen in the kidneys.

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  • 31. 

    True or False? Red infarcts are also typical of organs that have a dual blood supply such as the liver or lungs. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Red infarcts are indeed typical of organs that have a dual blood supply such as the liver or lungs. In these organs, if one blood supply is compromised, the other blood supply can still provide oxygen and nutrients to the affected tissue. This allows for the development of red infarcts, which are characterized by hemorrhage and blood-filled spaces within the infarcted tissue. In contrast, organs with a single blood supply, such as the heart or brain, typically develop pale or white infarcts due to the lack of collateral circulation.

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  • 32. 

    Infarction in the ___________ is replaced by fibrous tissue resulting in fibrosis and scarring.

    • A.

      Brain

    • B.

      Heart

    • C.

      Intestines

    • D.

      Kidneys

    • E.

      A & B

    Correct Answer
    B. Heart
    Explanation
    Infarction in the heart is replaced by fibrous tissue resulting in fibrosis and scarring. This is because when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle, it can lead to a heart attack. During a heart attack, the affected area of the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, causing the tissue to die. Over time, the dead tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue, leading to fibrosis and scarring in the heart.

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  • 33. 

    ____________ cells cannot regenerate or form fibrous tissue but instead form liquid cysts that later undergo gliosis. 

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Brain

    Correct Answer
    D. Brain
    Explanation
    Brain cells, also known as neurons, cannot regenerate or form fibrous tissue. Instead, when brain cells are damaged, they form liquid cysts that later undergo gliosis, a process in which scar tissue is formed. This is why brain injuries or diseases often result in permanent damage, as the damaged cells cannot be replaced or repaired.

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Nicolette Natale |DO (Medicine) |
Medicine
Nicolette is an accomplished physician, research coordinator, and medical writer, boasting over 6 years of expertise in healthcare, research, psychology, and education. Her qualifications include a DO from Nova Southeastern University and BA degrees in English Literature and Psychology from the University of Miami. Nicolette is deeply involved in medical research and patient care, demonstrating a commitment to advancing the field of medicine.

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