A&p Chapter 21 - The Cardiovascular SySTEM: Blood Vessels And Hemodynamics

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Blood Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The           reflex helps maintain normal blood pressure in the brain; the                reflex governs general systemic blood pressure.

    Explanation
    The carotid sinus reflex helps maintain normal blood pressure in the brain by regulating blood flow in the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain. The aortic reflex, on the other hand, governs general systemic blood pressure by regulating blood flow in the aorta, the largest artery in the body. Both reflexes play important roles in maintaining overall blood pressure homeostasis.

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  • 2. 

    In addition to the pressure created by contraction of the left ventricle, venous return is aided by the                and the              , both of which depend on the presence of valves in the veins.

    Explanation
    The contraction of skeletal muscles surrounding the veins creates a pumping action that helps propel blood back to the heart, known as the skeletal muscle pump. This pump is especially important in the lower extremities where gravity can hinder venous return. The respiratory pump refers to the changes in pressure within the thoracic cavity during breathing. When we inhale, the diaphragm contracts and the thoracic cavity expands, causing a decrease in pressure. This decrease in pressure helps to draw blood back to the heart from the veins in the chest and abdomen. Both the skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump rely on the presence of valves in the veins to prevent backflow of blood.

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  • 3. 

    Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are located in the aorta and carotid arteries.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are sensory receptors that monitor blood pressure and chemical composition in the body. They are located in the aorta and carotid arteries because these arteries are major blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain and other vital organs. By being located in these areas, the baroreceptors and chemoreceptors can quickly detect any changes in blood pressure or chemical levels and send signals to the brain to regulate these parameters, ensuring proper functioning of the body. Therefore, the statement "Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are located in the aorta and carotid arteries" is true.

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  • 4. 

    The most important method of capillary exchange is simple diffusion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The most important method of capillary exchange is simple diffusion because it allows for the movement of small molecules, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, across the capillary walls. This process occurs due to the concentration gradient between the blood and the tissues, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases. Other methods of capillary exchange, such as bulk flow and facilitated diffusion, are also important but not as crucial as simple diffusion.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following are not true?  1. Muscular arteries are also known as conducting arteries 2. capillaries play a key role in regulating resistance 3. the flow of blood through true capillaries is controlled by precapillary sphincters 4. the lumen of an artery is larger than in a comparable vein 5. elastic arteries help propel blood 6. the tunica media of arteries is thicker than the tunica media of veins.

    • A.

      2,3,and 6

    • B.

      1,2, and 4

    • C.

      1,2,4, and 6

    • D.

      3,4, and 5

    • E.

      1,2,3, and 4

    Correct Answer
    B. 1,2, and 4
    Explanation
    The given statement is correct because it correctly identifies the options that are not true. Options 1, 2, and 4 are not true. Muscular arteries are not known as conducting arteries, capillaries do not play a key role in regulating resistance, and the lumen of an artery is not larger than in a comparable vein. Therefore, the correct answer is 1, 2, and 4.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are true concerning capillary exchange?  1. Large, lipid-insluble molecules cross capillary walls by transcytosis 2. The blood hydrostatic pressure promotes reabsorption of fluid into the capillaries 3. If the pressures that promote filtration are greateer than the ressures that promote reabsorption, fluid will move out of a capillary and into interstitial spaces 4. A negative net filtration pressure results in reabsorption of fluid from interstitial spaces into a capillary 5. The difference in osmotic pressure across a capillary wall is due primarily to RBCs.

    • A.

      1,3, and 4

    • B.

      1,2,3,4, and 5

    • C.

      1,2,3, and 4

    • D.

      3 and 4

    • E.

      2,4, and 5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1,3, and 4
    Explanation
    1. Large, lipid-insoluble molecules cross capillary walls by transcytosis: This statement is true. Transcytosis is the process by which large, lipid-insoluble molecules are transported across capillary walls.
    3. If the pressures that promote filtration are greater than the pressures that promote reabsorption, fluid will move out of a capillary and into interstitial spaces: This statement is true. Filtration occurs when the hydrostatic pressure in the capillary is greater than the osmotic pressure, causing fluid to move out of the capillary and into the interstitial spaces.
    4. A negative net filtration pressure results in reabsorption of fluid from interstitial spaces into a capillary: This statement is true. A negative net filtration pressure means that the osmotic pressure is greater than the hydrostatic pressure, causing fluid to be reabsorbed from the interstitial spaces into the capillary.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following would not increase vascular resistance?  1. vasodilation 2. polycythemia 3. obesity 4. dehydration 5. anemia

    • A.

      1 and 2

    • B.

      1,3, and 4

    • C.

      1 and 5

    • D.

      1,4, and 5

    • E.

      1

    Correct Answer
    C. 1 and 5
    Explanation
    Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels, which would actually decrease vascular resistance. Anemia refers to a decrease in red blood cell count, which would also decrease vascular resistance. Therefore, options 1 and 5 are correct as they both would not increase vascular resistance.

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  • 8. 

    Capillary exchange is enhanced by 1. the slow rate of flow throught the capillaries 2. a small cross-sectional area 3. the thinness of capillary walls 4. the respiratory pump 5. extensive branching, which increases the surface area

    • A.

      1,2,3,4, and 5

    • B.

      1,2,3, and 5

    • C.

      1 and 3

    • D.

      3 and 5

    • E.

      1, 3, and 5

    Correct Answer
    E. 1, 3, and 5
    Explanation
    Capillary exchange refers to the movement of substances between the blood in the capillaries and the surrounding tissues. The slow rate of flow through the capillaries allows more time for exchange to occur. A small cross-sectional area of capillaries increases the pressure and velocity of blood flow, facilitating exchange. The thinness of capillary walls allows for the diffusion of substances. Extensive branching of capillaries increases the surface area available for exchange. Therefore, options 1, 3, and 5 are correct as they all contribute to enhancing capillary exchange.

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  • 9. 

    Systemic vascular resistance depends on which of the following factors?  1. blood viscosity 2. total blood vessel length 3. size of the lumen 4. type of blood vessel 5. oxygen concentration of the blood

    • A.

      1,2, and 3

    • B.

      2,3, and 4

    • C.

      3,4, and 5

    • D.

      1,3, and 5

    • E.

      2,4, and 5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1,2, and 3
    Explanation
    Systemic vascular resistance refers to the resistance encountered by blood flow in the systemic circulation. It depends on several factors, including blood viscosity, total blood vessel length, and the size of the lumen.

    Blood viscosity refers to the thickness or stickiness of the blood, which affects the ease of blood flow. A higher viscosity increases resistance.

    Total blood vessel length refers to the combined length of all blood vessels in the systemic circulation. The longer the blood vessels, the greater the resistance.

    The size of the lumen, which is the opening or diameter of the blood vessels, also affects resistance. A smaller lumen size increases resistance.

    Therefore, factors 1, 2, and 3 (blood viscosity, total blood vessel length, and size of the lumen) all contribute to systemic vascular resistance.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following help regulate blood pressure and help control regional blood flow? 1. baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes 2. hormones 3. autoregulation 4. H+ concentration of blood 5. oxygen concentration of the blood

    • A.

      1,2, and 4

    • B.

      2,4, and 5

    • C.

      1, 4, and 5

    • D.

      1,2,3,4, and 5

    • E.

      3,4, and 5

    Correct Answer
    D. 1,2,3,4, and 5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1,2,3,4, and 5. Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes, hormones, autoregulation, H+ concentration of blood, and oxygen concentration of the blood all play a role in regulating blood pressure and controlling regional blood flow. Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes detect changes in blood pressure and chemical composition and initiate appropriate responses to maintain homeostasis. Hormones, such as angiotensin II and aldosterone, regulate blood pressure by constricting blood vessels and increasing fluid retention. Autoregulation allows organs and tissues to adjust their blood flow based on their metabolic needs. H+ concentration of blood and oxygen concentration of the blood also influence blood pressure and regional blood flow.

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  • 11. 

    For each of the following, indicate if it causes vasoconstriction or vasodilation.  Check the box for vasodilation and don't check the box for vasocondtriction.

    • A.

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • B.

      ADH

    • C.

      Decrease in body temperature

    • D.

      Lactic acid

    • E.

      Histamine

    • F.

      Hypoxia

    • G.

      Hypercapnia

    • H.

      Angiotensin II

    • I.

      Nitric oxide

    • J.

      Decreased sympathetic impulses

    • K.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Atrial natriuretic peptide
    D. Lactic acid
    E. Histamine
    I. Nitric oxide
    J. Decreased sympathetic impulses
    Explanation
    Atrial natriuretic peptide, lactic acid, histamine, nitric oxide, and decreased sympathetic impulses all cause vasodilation.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 16, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    MelMH
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