They are dark red in color with a higher concentration of red cells.
Formed in areas of active blood flow.
Forms layers called Lines of Zahn.
May eventually liquefy & disappear.
Type IV --- Cell Mediated Hypersensitivity
Type III --- Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
Type II --- Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
Type I --- Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity
The mitral valve is the valve most commonly affected in carcinoid syndrome.
Mitral valve prolapse is the most frequent valvular lesion.
Upon ausculatation, a systolic murmur with midsystolic click can be heard in patients with MVP.
Mitral stenosis & insufficiency is most usually due to rheumatic heart diseases.
It is caused by inhalation of carbon dust & causes no harm.
It is marked by coal macules surrounding the bronchioles.
It predisposes a person to have bronchogenic carcinoma or mesothelioma.
It is associated with increased susceptibility with tuberculosis.
Alcoholic cirrhosis is otherwise known as Laennec's cirrhosis.
Primary biliary cirrhosis is due to long-standing extrahepatic biliary obstruction.
There is decreased ceruloplasmin in cirrhosis caused by Wilson's disease.
Postnecrotic cirrhosis is usually due to a previous hepatitis B infection.
There is a rubbery, nodular enlargement of the gland especially in the periurethral and peripheral zones.
It is the most common cause of urinary tract obstruction in males.
It has no relation to prostatic cancer, but the two can coexist.
May be caused by an age-related increase in estrogen.
Myxedema is more common in men than women.
TSH-receptor blocking antibodies are positive in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
The patient may have hair loss, coarse & brittle hair and scant axillary/pubic hair.
Cretinism may be due to transplacental transfer of antithyroid antibodies.
Von Hippel Lindau disease
Arboviruses (Western/Eastern Equine)
Formation of myelin figures
Swelling of organelles
Chronic granulomatous disease
Leukocyte-adhesion deficiency type 1 & 2
Von Gierke Disease
Characterized by necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the medium to large-sized vessels.
Commonly affects the respiratory tract & kidneys.
Associated with C-ANCAs.
There is fibrinoid necrosis, early infiltration of neutrophils and fibrosis.
They are mainly defects of platelet plug formation.
Characterized by bleeding from small capillaries resulting in mucocutaneous bleeding.
Often marked by prolonged bleeding time and normal APTT and PT.
Von Willebrand's disease is a defect in platelet aggregation.
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
It is the most common renal malignancy and is more common in men.
It is characterized by polygonal clear cells and notorious for hematogenous dissemination.
A triad of flank pain, hematuria and palpable mass. The most common of the 3 is flank pain.
There is secondary polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin production.
It is an anomaly wherein the urethral meatus opens on the ventral face of the penis.
It is an abnormally tight foreskin that is difficult or impossible to retract over the glans penis.
It is the subcutaneous fibrosis of the dorsum of the penis.
Inflammation of the glans penis.
It grossly resembles a bunch of grapes. Microscopically, the villi are hydropic.
Marked by a significant increase in B-HCG and rapid increase in uterine size.
An embryo is present in a complete mole.
There are 69 chromosomes in a partial mole.
Paget's Disease is a large, bulky mass with variable malignancy with ulceration of overlying skin.
Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in women younger than 25 years old.
Intraductal papilloma is most commonly manifested as serous or bloody discharge.
Medullary carcinoma of the breast is characterized by scanty stroma, fleshy consistency and lymphocytic infiltrate.