Sample Timed Test (Verbal)

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SECTION - VERBAL

This section has questions from Sentence Correction, Critical Reasoning & Reading Comprehension. The section contains 41 Questions which are to be answered in 75 minutes.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Children who played more video games did not suffer from obesity, had good visual-spatial skills, and suffered low test scores and lower self-esteem.

    • A.

      Had good visual-spatial skills, and suffered low test scores

    • B.

      Have better visual-spatial skills, but also suffered from lower test scores

    • C.

      They had better visual-spatial skills, although they suffered from lower test scores

    • D.

      Had better visual-spatial skills, but suffered lower test scores

    • E.

      Had best visual-spatial skills, but suffered lowest test scores

    Correct Answer
    D. Had better visual-spatial skills, but suffered lower test scores
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (The sentence has contrasting informations (‘did not suffer’ and ‘suffered’) and ‘but’ is the correct word to show that contrast. It also shows comparisons between those who played games and who did not play. Moreover all the clauses must be parallel (in same form). So after comma, ‘but’ must come instead of ‘and’. Also comparative words must be used, such as ‘better’ in place of ‘good’ and ‘lower’ in place of ‘low’. ‘Suffered from lower test score’ is wrong use. Hence (D) is correct.)

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  • 2. 

    Warning:  “Antibiotics, blood pressure drugs can be a risky mix.” Therefore patients on blood pressure drugs known as Calcium Channel Brokers, who are given antibiotics such as Erythromycin or Clarithromycin, will be at greater risk of being hospitalized for dangerously high blood pressure. The argument presupposes which of the following?

    • A.

      Only Erythromycin and Clarithromycin antibiotics make risky mix with blood pressure drugs.

    • B.

      No other drug combination is as risky as antibiotics and blood pressure drugs combination.

    • C.

      The mix will only neutralize the effect of blood pressure drugs and not the other way.

    • D.

      Antibiotics inhibit an enzyme vital to metabolizing Calcium Channel Blockers, leading to high blood pressure.

    • E.

      Azithromycin, an antibiotic, was not linked to the risk.

    Correct Answer
    C. The mix will only neutralize the effect of blood pressure drugs and not the other way.
    Explanation
    ANS: (C) (This is an assumption question. The option which when negated makes the conclusion (Therefore patients ….) fall apart is the correct one. Also the correct option tries to fill a gap. Do remember that the options which only support the premise and not the conclusion, are not correct in assumption type. Negate the options one by one. (A) will be - erythromycin and clarithromycin are not the only antibiotics which make risky mix with blood pressure drugs, it does not make conclusion fall apart, hence it is not correct. Try similar with others and only (C) will come out to be correct.)

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  • 3. 

    Much of what we eat nowadays contain more calories than was contained in what we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, and it also contain the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – appealing to what is commonly called the reward centers in the brain.

    • A.

      Was contained in what we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, and it also contain the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – appealing to what is

    • B.

      The food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contain the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – that appeal to what are

    • C.

      That is contained in the food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contains the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – which appeals to which is

    • D.

      The food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contains the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – that appeal to what are

    • E.

      The food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contains the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – that appeal to what are

    Correct Answer
    B. The food we ate in the 1970s and 1980s, but it also contain the sorts of calories – particularly a combination of sugar, salt and fat – that appeal to what are
    Explanation
    ANS: (B) (The correct idiom is ‘X contain more calories than Y’, where X is ‘what we eat’ (food), so Y must be such that it refers to ‘the food’. ‘– ‘ is used to give details of the preceding word (here calories). ‘But’ is to be used in place of ‘and’ to show the contrast. ‘Appealing’ is not the correct modifier here for the previous clause because it does not modify that properly. ‘That’ correctly indicates ‘calories’. ‘Is’ refers to ‘the reward centers’ which is plural, hence ‘are’ must be used. So (B) is the correct option.)

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  • 4. 

    I would, although I can’t really prove this, speculate that a change in the food environment brought this association about.

    • A.

      I would, although I can’t really prove this, speculate that

    • B.

      Although I can’t really prove this, I would speculate that

    • C.

      I would speculate, although I can’t really prove this,

    • D.

      I would speculate, although I can’t really prove this, that

    • E.

      I would speculate that, although I can’t really prove this,

    Correct Answer
    D. I would speculate, although I can’t really prove this, that
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (‘Although I can’t really prove this’ is a modifier and must come just after ‘speculate’, which it modifies. If it comes before, then ‘speculate’ will not be the right word, which it will refer to. Because ‘a change …’ is a complete independent sentence, so to connect two sentences, use of ‘that’ is a must. Hence (D) is correct.)

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  • 5. 

    The best method for finding narcotics that smugglers, or drug "mules," hide within their bodies is CT Scan. In a study, all 18 CT scans on smugglers correctly detected drugs they had swallowed or stuffed inside bodily cavities. There was only one mistake - one non-smuggler was wrongly identified as hiding drugs.  By comparison, conventional digital X-rays accurately detected smuggled drugs in 21 cases, but missed nine. The X-rays also indicated drugs when there were none in six cases.  Which of the following most supports why many of the International Airports use X-rays not CT scan to detect smugglers?

    • A.

      Smugglers often don't drink or eat anything during long flights, to avoid losing their swallowed drug pouches in airplane toilets, making them suspects and no elaborate arrangement is required to detect them.

    • B.

      CT scan machines are quite expensive.

    • C.

      Earlier, X-rays was the best method and Airports will slowly switchover to CT scan.

    • D.

      Although less, but CT scan is also not free from errors.

    • E.

      CT scan is time consuming to use routinely unlike X-rays.

    Correct Answer
    E. CT scan is time consuming to use routinely unlike X-rays.
    Explanation
    ANS: (E) (This is a strengthen type question. Here the option which strengthens the statement (why many of the International Airports use X-rays not CT scan to detect smugglers) is the correct one. (A) is based on a doubt, to confirm doubt proper testing can not be ruled out. (B) says CT scan is expensive, but how much in comparison to X-ray. (C) is baseless. For (D), if CT scan gives less error than why to go for X-rays. (E) is correct because it speaks against the routine use of CT scan. These methods are routinely used at Airports and if CT scan does not serve this purpose, then no point in having CT scan. Hence (E) is correct.)

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  • 6. 

    The meltdown in the Arctic is speeding up and as a result the North Pole could be ice-free within 5 years instead of 60 years time as earlier predicted. This is based on computer studies of satellite images that reveal that ice at North Pole melted at an unprecedented rate recently-the disappearance is said to have exceeded the record loss of more than a million square kilometers in 2007 as global warming tightened its grip. The crucial point is that ice is clearly not building up enough over winter to restore cover and that when you combine current estimates of ice thickness with the extent of the ice cap, you get a very clear indication that the Arctic is going to be ice free in five years.  In the above argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

    • A.

      The first is an apprehension against some belief; the second is the conclusion based on that apprehension.

    • B.

      The first is a prediction based on some evidence; the second is that evidence.

    • C.

      The first is the conclusion; the second is the assumption on which the conclusion is based.

    • D.

      The first is an apprehension against some belief; the second is an explanation in support of that apprehension.

    • E.

      The first is a prediction; the second is the explanation on which the prediction is based.

    Correct Answer
    D. The first is an apprehension against some belief; the second is an explanation in support of that apprehension.
    Explanation
    ANS: (d) In boldface questions, important is to understand different parts of the arguments and their roles. The first portion is an evidence in the form of an apprehension which is based on some studies. Second portion is an explanation which supports the apprehension expressed in first portion.

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  • 7. 

    Read the following comprehension and answer the questions: More than 60 years ago, in his "Foundation" series, the science fiction novelist Isaac Asimov invented a new science - psychohistory - that combined mathematics and psychology to predict the future . Now social scientists are trying to mine the vast resources of the internet - Web searches and Twitter messages, Facebook and blog posts, the digital location trails generated by billions of cellphones - to do the same thing. The most optimistic researchers believe that these storehouses of "big data" will for the first time reveal sociological laws of human behaviour - enabling them to predict political crises, revolutions and other forms of social and economic instability , just as physicists and chemists can predict natural phenomena. The government is showing interest in the idea. This summer a little-known intelligence agency began seeking ideas from academic social scientists and corporations for ways to automatically scan the internet in 21 Latin American countries for "big data," according to a research proposal being circulated by the agency. The data collection system is to focus on patterns of communication, consumption and movement of populations. It will use publicly accessible data, including web search queries, blog entries, internet traffic flow, financial market indicators, traffic webcams and changes in Wikipedia entries. It is intended to be an entirely automated system, a "data eye in the sky" without human intervention, according to the program proposal. The research would not be limited to political and economic events, but would also explore the ability to predict pandemics and other types of widespread contagion, something that has been pursued independently by civilian researchers and by companies like Google. Some social scientists and advocates of privacy rights are deeply skeptical of the project, saying it evokes queasy memories of Total Information Awareness, a post-9 /11 Pentagon program that proposed hunting for potential attackers by identifying patterns in vast collections of public and private data: telephone calling records , e-mail , travel data, visa and passport information, and credit card transactions.  Which of the following best describes the role of 4th paragraph in the passage?

    • A.

      It not only describes the methodology but also stretches out the scope of the proposal discussed in the passage.

    • B.

      It mainly focuses on describing the wider uses of data collection system.

    • C.

      It presents the premises that help in establishing what the proposal in the passage tries to conclude.

    • D.

      It not only supports what the passage intends to emphasize upon but also widens the scope of the proposal of the passage.

    • E.

      It indicates in detail what the proposal will be used for.

    Correct Answer
    A. It not only describes the methodology but also stretches out the scope of the proposal discussed in the passage.
    Explanation
    The fourth paragraph of the passage describes the methodology of the data collection system that the government is interested in. It mentions that the system will focus on patterns of communication, consumption, and movement of populations, and will use publicly accessible data such as web search queries, blog entries, internet traffic flow, and financial market indicators. Additionally, it states that the research would not be limited to political and economic events, but would also explore the ability to predict pandemics and other types of widespread contagion. Therefore, the fourth paragraph not only describes the methodology but also stretches out the scope of the proposal discussed in the passage.

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  • 8. 

    Read the following comprehension and answer the questions: More than 60 years ago, in his "Foundation" series, the science fiction novelist Isaac Asimov  invented a new science - psychohistory - that combined mathematics and psychology to predict the future . Now social scientists are trying to mine the vast resources of the internet - Web searches and Twitter messages, Facebook and blog posts, the digital location trails generated by billions of cellphones - to do the same thing. The most optimistic researchers believe that these storehouses of "big data" will for the first time reveal sociological laws of human behaviour - enabling them to predict political crises, revolutions and other forms of social and economic instability , just as physicists and chemists can predict natural phenomena. The government is showing interest in the idea. This summer a little-known intelligence agency began seeking ideas from academic social scientists and corporations for ways to automatically scan the internet in 21 Latin American countries for "big data," according to a research proposal being circulated by the agency. The data collection system is to focus on patterns of communication, consumption and movement of populations. It will use publicly accessible data, including web search queries, blog entries, internet traffic flow, financial market indicators, traffic webcams and changes in Wikipedia entries. It is intended to be an entirely automated system, a "data eye in the sky" without human intervention, according to the program proposal. The research would not be limited to political and economic events, but would also explore the ability to predict pandemics and other types of widespread contagion, something that has been pursued independently by civilian researchers and by companies like Google. Some social scientists and advocates of privacy rights are deeply skeptical of the project, saying it evokes queasy memories of Total Information Awareness, a post-9 /11 Pentagon program that proposed hunting for potential attackers by identifying patterns in vast collections of public and private data: telephone calling records , e-mail , travel data, visa and passport information, and credit card transactions.  Which of the following follows from the passage except

    • A.

      Patterns of communication may help in revealing sociological laws of human behavior.

    • B.

      Isaac Asimov used psychohistory to predict the future.

    • C.

      Some scientists feel that the proposal may impinge upon the privacy of the people.

    • D.

      The proposed system will use the publicly accessible data.

    • E.

      Soon it will be possible to predict political crises, revolutions and other forms of social instability.

    Correct Answer
    E. Soon it will be possible to predict political crises, revolutions and other forms of social instability.
    Explanation
    The passage mentions that the most optimistic researchers believe that the use of "big data" may reveal sociological laws of human behavior, enabling them to predict political crises, revolutions, and other forms of social and economic instability. Therefore, it can be inferred that it is possible to predict political crises and other forms of social instability in the future.

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  • 9. 

    Read the following comprehension and answer the questions: More than 60 years ago, in his "Foundation" series, the science fiction novelist Isaav Asimov invented a new science - psychohistory - that combined mathematics and psychology to predict the future . Now social scientists are trying to mine the vast resources of the internet - Web searches and Twitter messages, Facebook and blog posts, the digital location trails generated by billions of cellphones - to do the same thing. The most optimistic researchers believe that these storehouses of "big data" will for the first time reveal sociological laws of human behaviour - enabling them to predict political crises, revolutions and other forms of social and economic instability , just as physicists and chemists can predict natural phenomena. The government is showing interest in the idea. This summer a little-known intelligence agency began seeking ideas from academic social scientists and corporations for ways to automatically scan the internet in 21 Latin American countries for "big data," according to a research proposal being circulated by the agency. The data collection system is to focus on patterns of communication, consumption and movement of populations. It will use publicly accessible data, including web search queries, blog entries, internet traffic flow, financial market indicators, traffic webcams and changes in Wikipedia entries. It is intended to be an entirely automated system, a "data eye in the sky" without human intervention, according to the program proposal. The research would not be limited to political and economic events, but would also explore the ability to predict pandemics and other types of widespread contagion, something that has been pursued independently by civilian researchers and by companies like Google. Some social scientists and advocates of privacy rights are deeply skeptical of the project, saying it evokes queasy memories of Total Information Awareness, a post-9 /11 Pentagon program that proposed hunting for potential attackers by identifying patterns in vast collections of public and private data: telephone calling records , e-mail , travel data, visa and passport information, and credit card transactions.  The primary purpose of the passage is to

    • A.

      Discuss the pros and cons of a new system which will help in doing something for the first time.

    • B.

      Discuss a system which will be used differently from what was proposed to be used 60 years back but failed.

    • C.

      Suggest an alternative method to carry out something.

    • D.

      Discuss a first of its kind system which may help in doing something which has not been done before.

    • E.

      Suggest a proposal and then reject it by pointing out its weaknesses.

    Correct Answer
    D. Discuss a first of its kind system which may help in doing something which has not been done before.
    Explanation
    The passage discusses a new system that aims to use big data from the internet to predict social and economic instability, similar to how physicists and chemists predict natural phenomena. It mentions that the government is interested in this idea and is seeking input from social scientists and corporations. It also mentions that the system would not be limited to political and economic events, but would also explore the ability to predict pandemics and other types of widespread contagion. The passage overall focuses on the potential of this new system and its implications, suggesting that it may help in doing something that has not been done before.

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  • 10. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the questions:  More than 60 years ago, in his "Foundation" series, the science fiction novelist Isaac Asimov invented a new science - psychohistory - that combined mathematics and psychology to predict the future . Now social scientists are trying to mine the vast resources of the internet - Web searches and Twitter messages, Facebook and blog posts, the digital location trails generated by billions of cellphones - to do the same thing. The most optimistic researchers believe that these storehouses of "big data" will for the first time reveal sociological laws of human behaviour - enabling them to predict political crises, revolutions and other forms of social and economic instability , just as physicists and chemists can predict natural phenomena. The government is showing interest in the idea. This summer a little-known intelligence agency began seeking ideas from academic social scientists and corporations for ways to automatically scan the internet in 21 Latin American countries for "big data," according to a research proposal being circulated by the agency. The data collection system is to focus on patterns of communication, consumption and movement of populations. It will use publicly accessible data, including web search queries, blog entries, internet traffic flow, financial market indicators, traffic webcams and changes in Wikipedia entries. It is intended to be an entirely automated system, a "data eye in the sky" without human intervention, according to the program proposal. The research would not be limited to political and economic events, but would also explore the ability to predict pandemics and other types of widespread contagion, something that has been pursued independently by civilian researchers and by companies like Google. Some social scientists and advocates of privacy rights are deeply skeptical of the project, saying it evokes queasy memories of Total Information Awareness, a post-9 /11 Pentagon program that proposed hunting for potential attackers by identifying patterns in vast collections of public and private data: telephone calling records , e-mail , travel data, visa and passport information, and credit card transactions.  The proposal in the passage would be severely undermined in some countries if it were found that

    • A.

      Some groups of people in those countries do not find social sites very useful.

    • B.

      Governments in those countries have imposed restrictions on the use of internet.

    • C.

      The visits to only small number of sites are maximum in those countries.

    • D.

      The people in those areas feel uncomfortable in sharing their personal informations such as e-mail, phone number etc.

    • E.

      Several people in those countries migrate to developed countries.

    Correct Answer
    B. Governments in those countries have imposed restrictions on the use of internet.
    Explanation
    The proposal in the passage would be severely undermined in some countries if it were found that governments in those countries have imposed restrictions on the use of the internet. This is because the proposal relies on accessing publicly accessible data from the internet, such as web search queries, blog entries, and internet traffic flow. If governments have imposed restrictions on internet usage, it would limit the availability of this data and hinder the effectiveness of the proposal in predicting social and economic instability.

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  • 11. 

    People who work on computers or watch television for four or more hours a day are 125% more likely to suffer a major heart problem, often leading to death, than those who spend two hours or less. There is also a 48% increase in deaths from any cause among people who spend too much time staring at a screen.   Which of the following can be inferred from the above statements.

    • A.

      Those who spend more than two hours in front of computer or television are equally likely to suffer heart problems.

    • B.

      A totally feasible and realistic redesign of the work place and home environment can easily convert long periods of time that currently are strictly sedentary into a mixture of sitting, standing and light intensity activity.

    • C.

      Heart disease and poor health in general are not only the result of high cholesterol, diets high in fats, smoking and low exercise.

    • D.

      Even exercise can not make up for the damage caused due to long hours of sitting in front of television or computer.

    • E.

      People who work in front of computer can reduce their risk by taking breaks for a brief walk every 20 minutes.

    Correct Answer
    C. Heart disease and poor health in general are not only the result of high cholesterol, diets high in fats, smoking and low exercise.
    Explanation
    ANS: (C) (In inference question, the correct answer is always which is true with respect to the statement. Always be narrow minded in CR questions and concentrate only on what statement is saying. It is clear from the statement that sitting in front of television or computer for long hours also deteriorate heart and health in general apart from other causes such as high cholesterol etc.., hence (C) is true with respect to the statement. For (A), although it is clear that those who spend three hours they are more likely than those who spend two hours but there is no clarity whether they are equally likely as those who spend four hours or more.)

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  • 12. 

    Persistent assertions of executives more based on self interest and emotions than ground realities of executives that the issue of moderate hike in their salaries is completely irrelevant and meaningless from the perspective of viability of the company compounded matters like anything.

    • A.

      Persistent assertions of executives more based on self interest and emotions than ground realities that

    • B.

      Executives’ persistent assertions that are more based on self interest and emotions than ground realities

    • C.

      Persistent assertions based on self interest and emotions more than ground realities of executives that

    • D.

      Persistent assertions, which are more based on self interest and emotions than ground realities of executives, that

    • E.

      Persistent assertions, which are more based on self interest and emotions than ground realities of executives, about

    Correct Answer
    A. Persistent assertions of executives more based on self interest and emotions than ground realities that
    Explanation
    (Ans: (a) The sentence uses the idiom ‘more X than Y’, here X is ‘self interest and emotions’ and Y is ‘ground realities’. Both X & Y are parallel. Basically the form of the sentence is ‘persistent assertions of executives that the…’. The question correctly follows this form and also ‘their’ correctly refer to ‘executives. Hence (a) is correct. Other options fail in following the correct form.)

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  • 13. 

    Today the company is having to deal with a very complex situation, even though easily manageable if management’s top priority shift from protecting executives to Company’s growth, particularly when the Company is virtually in a completely barren state with resources continuing to nosedive.

    • A.

      If management’s top priority shift from protecting executives to Company’s growth

    • B.

      Providing management shifts its top priority from Company’s growth to protecting executives

    • C.

      Providing management shifts its top priority from protecting executives to Company’s growth

    • D.

      Provided management shift their top priority from protecting executives to Company’s growth

    • E.

      Provided management’s top priority shifts to Company’s growth from protecting executives

    Correct Answer
    E. Provided management’s top priority shifts to Company’s growth from protecting executives
    Explanation
    (Ans: (e) In GMAT, ‘if’ is used in conditional sentence or in ‘uncertain’ or ‘unreal’ situations. In conditional sentences ‘if’ and ‘then’ sentence follow a particular structure which is not the case here. ‘Top priority’ is singular so ‘shifts’ must come. ‘Providing’ is not the correct use, hence (b) & (c) are wrong. (d) treats ‘management’ as plural which is wrong. (e) correctly uses ‘provided’, singular ‘shifts’ and also idiom ‘to X from Y’. Hence (e) is correct.)

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  • 14. 

    As per a survey, more than 90% of recruiters and hiring managers have visited a potential candidate’s profile on a social network as part of the screening process. And a whopping 69% of recruiters have rejected a candidate based on content found on his or her social networking profile – an almost equal proportion of recruiters (68%), though, have hired a candidate based on his or her presence on those networks. Based on the above argument, what does the claim that, for jobseekers, managing the reputation on social media is important assume?

    • A.

      The jobseekers who do not have their profile on at least one social network will be the least likely to get a job.

    • B.

      All jobseekers have their profile on at least one social network.

    • C.

      The main reason of rejection of candidates for a job is poor content in social networking profile.

    • D.

      The survey included recruiters from large number of industries across sectors.

    • E.

      Most of the recruiters visit a candidate’s profile on a social network.

    Correct Answer
    D. The survey included recruiters from large number of industries across sectors.
    Explanation
    (Ans: (d) (It is an assumption question. The option which when negated makes the claim (for jobseekers, managing the reputation on social media is important) fall apart is the correct one. Moreover the option should fill up the gap, and should not come directly from the arguments like (e). If the survey on which the argument is based does not represent the general picture about the recruitment then the claim does not stand. Hence (d) is the correct option. All other options are also based on (d))

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  • 15. 

    A poll of 3,000 adults found that those under-30s are twice as likely to miss work because of illness as their older colleagues. It also emerged that the under-30s took time off because of stress, tiredness and feeling run-down while most of those over-55 said it wouldn’t be a reason to call in sick. The answer to which of the following questions will help in evaluating the claim that the fast-paced modern workplace seems to be taking its toll on younger employees?

    • A.

      Whether the survey included sufficient number of aged adults?

    • B.

      What about the dietary habits of employees?

    • C.

      How many industries in the countries to which the survey locations belong use modern workplace?

    • D.

      What are the reasons for aged adults to call in sick?

    • E.

      Whether the employees were informed beforehand about the survey?

    Correct Answer
    B. What about the dietary habits of employees?
    Explanation
    (Ans: (b) The correct option is whose answer can either support the claim or raise doubt on it. (a) is wrong because what is sufficient is not known. (b) raises doubt on the validity of the claim because young people get into eating junk foods which can result in bad health. The locations of the survey are important not the countries as a whole and this may not give the exact idea about the industries in the locations, so (c) is wrong. (d) & (e) are irrelevant. Hence (b) is correct.)

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  • 16. 

    If college football players cry after losing a big game, then those players would be having higher self-esteem than those tough guys who would be saying tears are a ‘no-no’.

    • A.

      If college football players cry after losing a big game, then those players would be having higher self-esteem than those tough guys who would be saying tears are a ‘no-no’.

    • B.

      If college football players cried after losing a big game, they would have higher self-esteem than those tough guys who would say tears are a ‘no-no’.

    • C.

      The college football players would have higher self-esteem than those tough guys who would say tears are a ‘no-no’, had they cried after losing a big game.

    • D.

      If college football players had cried after losing a big game, they would have higher self-esteem than those tough guys who would say tears are a ‘no-no’.

    • E.

      If college football players cry after losing a big game, they would have higher self-esteem than those tough guys who say tears are a ‘no-no’.

    Correct Answer
    B. If college football players cried after losing a big game, they would have higher self-esteem than those tough guys who would say tears are a ‘no-no’.
    Explanation
    (Ans: (b) This is a sentence involving IF and THEN clause (THEN is not necessary to be mentioned and can be omitted). This is the case of past tense and the correct use is ‘If players cried…., they would….’. So (a) & (e) are wrong. (b) is correct. The sentence in past perfect can be written as ‘If players had cried, they would have had …’. So (c) & (d) can not be correct. Hence (b) is correct.)

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  • 17. 

    Found in the northern Indian Ocean, five species of sea turtles each have threats from accidental catches by fishermen targeting other species, and the direct harvest of turtles or their eggs for food or turtle shell material for commercial use.

    • A.

      Found in the northern Indian Ocean, five species of sea turtles each have threats

    • B.

      Five species of sea turtles each, which are found in the northern Indian Ocean, has threats

    • C.

      Found in the northern Indian Ocean, each of the five species of sea turtles have threats

    • D.

      Each of the five species of sea turtles, which is found in the northern Indian Ocean, has threats

    • E.

      Each of the five species of sea turtles, which are found in the northern Indian Ocean, have threats

    Correct Answer
    A. Found in the northern Indian Ocean, five species of sea turtles each have threats
    Explanation
    (ANS: (a) When ‘each’ precedes a subject, then a singular verb is used. But when ‘each’ follows a subject, then verb depends upon the subject only. Here, the subject is ‘five species of sea turtles’, so verb must be plural. ‘Have threats’ is correct, also ‘found in the northern Indian Ocean’ is the correct modifier for ‘five species..’, hence (a) i.e. the sentence is correct. (b) uses singular verb with plural subject, (c) uses plural verb with singular subject (each of ..), (d) although uses the correct subject-verb form, but the modifier ‘which is……’ modifies ‘five species of sea turtles’, hence must have ‘are’ in place of ‘is’. And (e) uses plural verb with singular subject.)

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  • 18. 

    Each hour-long episode begins with the actor riffing in the style that over the years has characterized his comedy: unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.

    • A.

      Unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.

    • B.

      Which was such as unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.

    • C.

      Like unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.

    • D.

      His comedy was by unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.

    • E.

      Such as unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.

    Correct Answer
    A. Unscripted banter layered with humor, narcissism and anger, directed both outward and inward.
    Explanation
    ANS: (A) (The words after ‘:’ indicate the examples of the preceding words. Here ‘unscripted banter ………’ shows characteristics of his comedy, hence (A) is correct. ‘Like’ or ‘such as’ are redundant here. ‘;’ is used when the sentence is related to the previous clause and can stand alone.)

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  • 19. 

    Contrary to earlier predictions, demand for strawberries did not increase in 1997. Yet, even though prices and production had been stable during 1993 to 1997, strawberry growers could increase their profits in 1997 by more than ten percent   over the previous year’s level.   Any of the following statements, if true about the year 1997, helps to explain the rise in profits EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Many countries that are large consumers of Strawberries increased their production of strawberry-based juices, yet their overall consumption of strawberries decreased.

    • B.

      Strawberry growers saved money on wages by switching from paying laborers on hourly basis to paying them by the amount harvested.

    • C.

      The price of inputs used in harvesting strawberry dropped by over twenty percent.

    • D.

      Many small strawberry growers who constitute the majority of growers, joined together to form an association and began to buy supplies at low group rates.

    • E.

      Rainfall in strawberry-growing regions was higher than it had been during the previous years, allowing the growers to save money on expensive artificial irrigation.

    Correct Answer
    A. Many countries that are large consumers of Strawberries increased their production of strawberry-based juices, yet their overall consumption of strawberries decreased.
    Explanation
    ANS: (A) (It is a resolve the gap type question. Here which ever option does not fill the gap between stable price & production and profit to growers is the correct answer. Except (A), all options justify profit.)

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  • 20. 

    Smokers who switched to a low-tar, light or mild brand of cigarette will not find it easier to quit and in fact may find harder. It may be that smokers think that a lighter brand is better for their health and is therefore an acceptable alternative to giving up completely. As per a study conducted on 50,000 smokers, those who switched brands were 58% more likely to have tried to quit smoking than those who stuck with their brands. But they were 60% less likely to actually succeed in quitting. Other research has shown that so-called low-tar cigarettes have just as much tar, nicotine and other compounds as regular cigarettes.   In the above argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

    • A.

      The first part provides evidence that, if correct, would weaken the main conclusion; the second is an explanation in support of main conclusion.

    • B.

      The first part is a prediction that, if correct, would support the main conclusion; the second is a conclusion drawn in order to support the main conclusion.

    • C.

      The first is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes; the second is a claim advanced in support of the main conclusion of the argument.

    • D.

      The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is evidence presented in support of the main conclusion of the argument.

    • E.

      The first part is a presumption that, if correct, would weaken the main conclusion; the second provides evidence in support of the main conclusion.

    Correct Answer
    E. The first part is a presumption that, if correct, would weaken the main conclusion; the second provides evidence in support of the main conclusion.
    Explanation
    (Ans: (e) The main conclusion of the argument is ‘Smokers who switched to a low-tar, light or mild brand of cigarette will not find it easier to quit and in fact may find harder’. The first part is clearly a presumption which is against the conclusion. The second part is the result of a survey and is clearly evidence which supports the conclusion. Hence (e) is correct.)

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  • 21. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question:For the first time, scientists have created human embryos from slivers of skin, a feat they say has brought closer the day when babies are cloned in the lab. In experiments that mirror the cloning technique used to make 'Dolly the sheep', the researchers took cells from men's arms and legs and placed them into women's eggs. The embryos created lived for only five or six days, but they represented a key step in the quest for treatments for incurable diseases from Alzheimer's to cancer.   For the study, the scientists placed the DNA from the skin cells inside the eggs and triggered them to grow and divide. In the case of Dolly, the eggs used were "hollowed-out" - their DNA had been removed. But here, the technique only worked properly when the eggs' DNA was left in, showing there is something about it that is vital for the creation of life. The embryos, and the cells they contained, were mutants with three sets of DNA instead of the two we normally have - one from our mother and one from our father. But the researchers are confident they will eventually be able to create healthy cloned embryos with the required two sets of genetic material.The aim of the research was not to create cloned babies, but to extract stem cells - "master cells" capable of becoming any type of body tissue - from the embryos. All stem cells gathered in this research were abnormal and not suitable for treating patients. Researchers said their work was inspired by the thought of being able to take stem cells from embryos and use them to treat and even cure diseases. Worn out hearts could be patched up, aged brains could be rejuvenated and diabetics could be freed from the need to take insulin, all thanks to stem cells. As per the passage, which of the following is true EXCEPT 

    • A.

      The purpose of the research was different from cloning babies.

    • B.

      The technique used was similar to what was earlier used but not same.

    • C.

      Research was conclusive.

    • D.

      Stem cells from the embryos may be used to treat even incurable diseases.

    • E.

      The research made some headway in the direction in which thought of.

    Correct Answer
    C. Research was conclusive.
    Explanation
    The passage states that the purpose of the research was not to create cloned babies, but to extract stem cells from the embryos. It also mentions that the technique used to create the embryos was similar to the one used to clone Dolly the sheep, but not exactly the same. Additionally, it states that the embryos created were mutants with three sets of DNA instead of the normal two, but the researchers are confident they will eventually be able to create healthy cloned embryos. Lastly, it mentions that the research made headway in the direction of using stem cells to treat incurable diseases. However, there is no mention in the passage about the research being conclusive.

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  • 22. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question:For the first time, scientists have created human embryos from slivers of skin , a feat they say has brought closer the day when babies are cloned in the lab. In experiments that mirror the cloning technique used to make 'Dolly the sheep', the researchers took cells from men's arms and legs and placed them into women's eggs. The embryos created lived for only five or six days, but they represented a key step in the quest for treatments for incurable diseases from Alzheimer's to cancer.  For the study, the scientists placed the DNA from the skin cells inside the eggs and triggered them to grow and divide. In the case of Dolly, the eggs used were "hollowed-out" - their DNA had been removed. But here, the technique only worked properly when the eggs' DNA was left in, showing there is something about it that is vital for the creation of life. The embryos, and the cells they contained, were mutants with three sets of DNA instead of the two we normally have - one from our mother and one from our father. But the researchers are confident they will eventually be able to create healthy cloned embryos with the required two sets of genetic material.The aim of the research was not to create cloned babies, but to extract stem cells - "master cells" capable of becoming any type of body tissue - from the embryos. All stem cells gathered in this research were abnormal and not suitable for treating patients. Researchers said their work was inspired by the thought of being able to take stem cells from embryos and use them to treat and even cure diseases. Worn out hearts could be patched up, aged brains could be rejuvenated and diabetics could be freed from the need to take insulin, all thanks to stem cells. According to the passage, which of the following is true with respect to the technique used to make Dolly? 

    • A.

      This technique was used to clone human babies.

    • B.

      The eggs used were without DNA.

    • C.

      The embryos had three sets of DNAs instead of two we normally have.

    • D.

      The embryos created lived for 5-6 days.

    • E.

      This can be used to extract stem cells.

    Correct Answer
    B. The eggs used were without DNA.
    Explanation
    The passage states that in the case of Dolly, the eggs used were "hollowed-out" - their DNA had been removed. This means that the eggs used to make Dolly did not contain any DNA. Therefore, the statement "The eggs used were without DNA" is true with respect to the technique used to make Dolly.

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  • 23. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question: For the first time, scientists have created human embroys from slivers of skin , a feat they say has brought closer the day when babies are cloned in the lab. In experiments that mirror the cloning technique used to make 'Dolly the sheep', the researchers took cells from men's arms and legs and placed them into women's eggs. The embryos created lived for only five or six days, but they represented a key step in the quest for treatments for incurable diseases from Alzheimer's to cancer.  For the study, the scientists placed the DNA from the skin cells inside the eggs and triggered them to grow and divide. In the case of Dolly, the eggs used were "hollowed-out" - their DNA had been removed. But here, the technique only worked properly when the eggs' DNA was left in, showing there is something about it that is vital for the creation of life. The embryos, and the cells they contained, were mutants with three sets of DNA instead of the two we normally have - one from our mother and one from our father. But the researchers are confident they will eventually be able to create healthy cloned embryos with the required two sets of genetic material.The aim of the research was not to create cloned babies, but to extract stem cells - "master cells" capable of becoming any type of body tissue - from the embryos. All stem cells gathered in this research were abnormal and not suitable for treating patients. Researchers said their work was inspired by the thought of being able to take stem cells from embryos and use them to treat and even cure diseases. Worn out hearts could be patched up, aged brains could be rejuvenated and diabetics could be freed from the need to take insulin, all thanks to stem cells. The purpose of the passage is to 

    • A.

      Discuss the finding of an experiment.

    • B.

      Discuss the benefit of a new research.

    • C.

      Discuss how human cloning can be used for good purpose.

    • D.

      Discuss a new study.

    • E.

      Discuss how new technique is different from the older one.

    Correct Answer
    D. Discuss a new study.
    Explanation
    The passage discusses a new study in which scientists created human embryos from slivers of skin using a cloning technique. The purpose of the study was not to create cloned babies, but to extract stem cells from the embryos for potential treatments of incurable diseases. The passage explains the process of the study, the significance of the embryos with three sets of DNA, and the researchers' confidence in eventually creating healthy cloned embryos. Therefore, the purpose of the passage is to discuss a new study.

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  • 24. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question: For the first time, scientists have created human embryos from slivers of skin , a feat they say has brought closer the day when babies are cloned in the lab. In experiments that mirror the cloning technique used to make 'Dolly the sheep', the researchers took cells from men's arms and legs and placed them into women's eggs. The embryos created lived for only five or six days, but they represented a key step in the quest for treatments for incurable diseases from Alzheimer's to cancer.  For the study, the scientists placed the DNA from the skin cells inside the eggs and triggered them to grow and divide. In the case of Dolly, the eggs used were "hollowed-out" - their DNA had been removed. But here, the technique only worked properly when the eggs' DNA was left in, showing there is something about it that is vital for the creation of life. The embryos, and the cells they contained, were mutants with three sets of DNA instead of the two we normally have - one from our mother and one from our father. But the researchers are confident they will eventually be able to create healthy cloned embryos with the required two sets of genetic material.The aim of the research was not to create cloned babies, but to extract stem cells - "master cells" capable of becoming any type of body tissue - from the embryos. All stem cells gathered in this research were abnormal and not suitable for treating patients. Researchers said their work was inspired by the thought of being able to take stem cells from embryos and use them to treat and even cure diseases. Worn out hearts could be patched up, aged brains could be rejuvenated and diabetics could be freed from the need to take insulin, all thanks to stem cells. As per the passage, the main motivation for the scientists to carry out the research was 

    • A.

      The thought of being able to cure incurable diseases.

    • B.

      The thought that the human babies would be cloned in lab.

    • C.

      This research would be first of its kind.

    • D.

      Similar experiment was conducted before so it would be easier to carry out the research.

    • E.

      The feeling that they would be able to match up with an experiment which was acclaimed world over.

    Correct Answer
    A. The thought of being able to cure incurable diseases.
    Explanation
    The main motivation for the scientists to carry out the research was the thought of being able to cure incurable diseases. The passage mentions that the researchers aimed to extract stem cells from the embryos, which could be used to treat and even cure diseases such as Alzheimer's and cancer. The passage also mentions the potential benefits of using stem cells to patch up worn-out hearts, rejuvenate aged brains, and free diabetics from the need to take insulin. This indicates that the scientists' main motivation was to find treatments for incurable diseases.

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  • 25. 

    Those who had been taken up to a stage dished out an amount less than half than those who had been taken down to an orchestra pit.

    • A.

      An amount less than half than those who had been taken

    • B.

      Less than half the amount than dished out by those who had been taken

    • C.

      An amount which was less than half of those who had been taken

    • D.

      Less than half the amount than those who had been taken

    • E.

      An amount which was half less than those who had been taken

    Correct Answer
    D. Less than half the amount than those who had been taken
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (The correct idiom is ‘X than Y’, where X & Y must be parallel (same form). Here comparison is being made between ‘Those who had been taken up’(X) and ‘those who had been taken down’(Y). Also ‘less than half the amount’ is proper and conveys the clear meaning than ‘an amount less than half’ of what? So (D) is correct.)

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  • 26. 

    More substantial than oysters, but tamed by steaming, they are rarely eaten raw, which also opens up their shells.

    • A.

      More substantial than oysters, but tamed by steaming, they are rarely eaten raw, which also opens up their shells.

    • B.

      They are rarely eaten raw, more substantially than oysters, but are tamed by steaming, which also opens up their shells.

    • C.

      They are rarely eaten raw, but tamed by steaming, which also opens up their shells, more substantial than oysters.

    • D.

      Rarely eaten raw, they are more substantial than oysters, but are tamed by steaming, opening up their shells.

    • E.

      More substantial than oysters, they are rarely eaten raw, but are tamed by steaming, which also opens up their shells.

    Correct Answer
    E. More substantial than oysters, they are rarely eaten raw, but are tamed by steaming, which also opens up their shells.
    Explanation
    ANS: (E) (This is based on correct location of modifiers and parallelism. ‘More ……oysters’ refers to (modifies) ‘they’, so ‘they’ must come immediately after ‘More….’. ‘But’ is a contrasting word, so must come after ‘they…..raw’ and both the clauses must be parallel (‘they are’ and ‘but are’). ‘Which’ modifies ‘steaming’, so must come after ‘steaming’. Hence (E) is correct.)

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  • 27. 

    In what could spell the end of people’s anxiety about trips to the dentist, scientists claim to have invented a gadget which camouflages the whirr of the doctor’s drill. The device plugs into an MP3 and uses a filtering technique to cancel out the high pitched buzz of the drill – but still allows the patient to listen to music and hear what the dentist is saying. Moreover it would be fairly cost effective and patients with an MP3 player would be able to benefit from it. Studies have shown that for many people it is the sound of the drill that causes the most anxiety about visiting the dentist, and the scientists hope that the device would encourage all needy people to get necessary treatment.   Which one of the following, if added to the passage, will make the hope of the scientists logical.

    • A.

      Dentists would easily switch over to a device which benefits patients

    • B.

      The cost of treatment using this device will actually come down.

    • C.

      The reason for many people not visiting the dentists is the sound of the drill.

    • D.

      The MP3 player is easily available and is affordable.

    • E.

      All teeth related problems require use of drill.

    Correct Answer
    D. The MP3 player is easily available and is affordable.
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (It is an assumption question. The option which when negated makes the conclusion (hope of scientists) fall apart is the correct one. Moreover the option should fill up the gap, it should not come directly from the arguments like (C). If MP3 is not easily available and is costly then this device will not work. Hence option (D) is correct.)

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  • 28. 

    A team has carried out a study and found that getting up while talking on the phone and taking a minute’s desk break at regular intervals can help lower levels of potentially dangerous glucose and fats in the blood. The study of almost 5000 staff found standing more often made hearts healthier – even for those who led super fit lifestyles out of the office. Those who took the most breaks had an average 4.1 cm smaller waist circumference. But those who sat around had more problems, including high levels of bad cholesterol.   Answer to which of the following will make the study more valid?

    • A.

      Did the result take note of the economic conditions including salary of the volunteers?

    • B.

      Was the result checked up for those who frequently burn energies in the gymnasium?

    • C.

      How much was the improvement in the bad cholesterol level of those who got up while talking on phone?

    • D.

      Did the result account for confounding factors such as socio-demographic differences between volunteers, their medical history and their diet?

    • E.

      What type of jobs were the volunteers in?

    Correct Answer
    D. Did the result account for confounding factors such as socio-demographic differences between volunteers, their medical history and their diet?
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (The correct option is whose answer is either not irrelevant or not already mentioned in the statement. Answer for (B) is already mentioned and (A), (C) and (E) are irrelevant. Hence correct answer is (D))

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  • 29. 

    About to leave for college, he finds his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, doesn’t junk them, but gives them to a little girl, even playing with them one last time as a way of introducing them to her.

    • A.

      About leave for college, he finds his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, doesn’t junk them, but gives them to a little girl, even playing with them one last time as a way of introducing them to her.

    • B.

      About to leave for college, finding his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, doesn’t junk them, but giving them to a little girl, even playing with them one last time as a way of introducing them to her.

    • C.

      About to leave for college, he finds his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, doesn’t junk them, and gives them to a little girl, while playing with them one last time like a way of introducing them to her.

    • D.

      About to leave for college, where he finds his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, doesn’t junk them, but gives them to a little girl, even playing with them one last time like a way of introducing them to her.

    • E.

      About leaving for college, he finds his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, didn’t junk them, but gave them to a little girl, even playing with them one last time as a way of introducing them to her.

    Correct Answer
    A. About leave for college, he finds his toys again, and in a truly wonderful last scene, doesn’t junk them, but gives them to a little girl, even playing with them one last time as a way of introducing them to her.
    Explanation
    ANS: (A) (The sentence is based on use of correct form of clauses and modifiers. The subject of the sentence is ‘he’. First modifier (‘About …….college’) correctly modifies ‘he’. The modifier, ‘In a ………scene’ correctly modifies ‘doesn’t junk them’. ‘But’ correctly shows the contrast. ‘Even playing…’ correctly refers to the previous phrase. Use of ‘as’ is also correct because it shows comparison of two clauses (X as Y, where X is ‘playing with them’ and Y is ‘a way of introducing them’). All clauses are in same (present) tense. Hence (A) is correct.)

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  • 30. 

    But in the past 10-15 years, this has made major inroads in Western cuisine and often used to substitute for pastas, risottos and gratins.

    • A.

      Often used to substitute for pastas, risottos and gratins.

    • B.

      Is often used as a substitute for pastas, risottos and gratins.

    • C.

      This is often used as substituting for pastas, risottos and gratins.

    • D.

      Is often used to replace for pastas, risottos and gratins.

    • E.

      Is often used for replacing as pastas, risottos and gratins.

    Correct Answer
    B. Is often used as a substitute for pastas, risottos and gratins.
    Explanation
    ANS: (B) (The correct idiom is ‘X as a substitute for Y’. Here ‘and’ is used to separate two clauses not words, so ‘is often used’ is correct. Hence (B) is the correct option.)

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  • 31. 

    A light bulb that will wake you up gently by stimulating sunrise half an hour before the alarm beeps is on the anvil. The new bulb will surely ease the pain of early morning wake-up calls that leave you in dark mood. The bulb is embedded with LED lights that begin to glow 30 minutes before the programmed time and slowly get brighter, helping the person in sleep to wake up naturally before the built-in alarm beeps.   The argument presupposes which one of the following?

    • A.

      The street lamps are not ‘ON’ in early morning hours when normally people wake-up.

    • B.

      Science is quite advanced and the light bulbs with a timer and a controller that increases the brightness can be easily developed.

    • C.

      People in general do not like the early morning wake-up calls.

    • D.

      People in general respond according to the intensity of sun light while in sleep.

    • E.

      The bulb will not be much costly.

    Correct Answer
    D. People in general respond according to the intensity of sun light while in sleep.
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (This is an assumption question. The option which when negated makes the conclusion (The new bulb will surely ease the pain of early morning wake-up calls) fall apart is the correct one. Also the correct option tries to fill a gap. The options which only support the premise and not the conclusion, are not correct in assumption type. Here only (D), when negated makes the conclusion fall apart. Hence (D) is correct.)

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  • 32. 

    As a child, I had wanted to see my parents going out and enjoying an extravagant social life, rather they believed in saving every penny for us and watching us grow, as most middle-class parents.

    • A.

      Rather they believed in saving every penny for us and watching us grow, as most middle-class parents.

    • B.

      But as most middle-class parents, they believed in saving every penny for us and watching us grow.

    • C.

      But like most middle-class parents do, they believed in saving every penny for us and watching us grow.

    • D.

      But as most middle-class parents, it was believed by them to save every penny for us and watch us grow.

    • E.

      But like most middle-class parents, they believed in saving every penny for us and watching us grow.

    Correct Answer
    E. But like most middle-class parents, they believed in saving every penny for us and watching us grow.
    Explanation
    ANS: (E) (‘Like’ is used to compare two nouns, while ‘as’ is used to compare two clauses(noun + verb). In both cases (‘like’ or ‘as’), the two things being compared are adjacent to each other. After ‘as’, ‘Most middle-class parents’ is not a clause, so it is not correct. The correct use is ‘like X, Y’ (like most middle-class parents, they). Also ‘but’ correctly indicates the contrast between two phrases. So (E) is correct.)

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  • 33. 

    As per established belief, Neanderthals’ broad foreheads and large noses were an adaptation which allowed Neanderthals to live in cold arctic conditions of the last Ice Age and they had enlarged sinuses which helped to warm the air as it was inhaled. As per a recent study, Neanderthals’ sinuses were no bigger than that of modern humans who evolved in more temperate climates.   On which of the following assumption, the claim of the study, that Neanderthals, which died out around 30,000 years ago after surviving for nearly 400,000 years, did not evolve to survive in the harsh frozen tundra of Europe, is based?

    • A.

      Enlarge sinuses are the cause for broad forehead and large noses.

    • B.

      The last Ice Age was located in tundra of Europe and no other area was more harsh than this.

    • C.

      There can not be any other cause which could have made survival possible in harsh cold conditions.

    • D.

      Broad foreheads and large noses might have been found in some sample skulls which can not be generalized.

    • E.

      It was more than likely that Neanderthals lived in temperate refuges.

    Correct Answer
    C. There can not be any other cause which could have made survival possible in harsh cold conditions.
    Explanation
    ANS:(C) (This is an assumption question. The option which when negated makes the claim of the study fall apart is the correct one. Also the correct option tries to fill a gap. The options which only support the premise and not the conclusion, are not correct in assumption type. The claim is based on only the study of size of the sinuses without taking any other cause into account, even neglecting the cause for broad forehead and large nose, hence (C) is the correct answer.)

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  • 34. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question:   The study found that smoking one cigarette increases the stiffness of the arteries in 18 to 30 year olds by a whopping 25 percent. Arteries that are stiff or rigid increase resistance in the blood vessels, making the heart work harder. The stiffer the artery, the greater the risk for heart disease or stroke. Young adults aged 20-24 years have the highest smoking rate of all age groups in Canada The study compared the arterial stiffness of young smokers to non-smokers. The median age was 21 years. Arterial stiffness in both smokers and non-smokers was measured using a new but well established method called applanation tonometry. Arterial stress test measures the arteries' response to the stress of exercise. The test is comparable to a cardiac stress test, which measures the heart's response to the stress of exercise. An initial arterial stress test was carried out to establish a baseline measurement for both the non-smokers and the smokers, who were asked not to smoke for 12 hours prior to the test. After the first meeting, smokers returned and smoked one cigarette each and then repeated the stress test. During the final meeting, smokers were asked to chew a piece of nicotine gum prior to the stress test. It was found that after exercise the arterial stiffness levels in non-smokers dropped by 3.6 percent. Smokers, however, showed the reverse: after exercise their arterial stiffness increased by 2.2 per cent. After nicotine gum, it increased by 12.6 percent. After one cigarette, it increased by 24.5 per cent.  The purpose of the passage is 

    • A.

      To compare the impact of something between two class of people.

    • B.

      To conclude something based on some arguments.

    • C.

      To find out the causes of a particular disease.

    • D.

      To find out the severity of impact on one thing by different things.

    • E.

      To find out the impact of one thing on another.

    Correct Answer
    E. To find out the impact of one thing on another.
    Explanation
    The passage aims to find out the impact of smoking on arterial stiffness in young adults. It presents the results of a study that compared the arterial stiffness of smokers and non-smokers. The study found that smoking one cigarette increased arterial stiffness by 24.5%, while exercise decreased arterial stiffness in non-smokers. The passage provides evidence of the direct impact of smoking on arterial stiffness and highlights the increased risk of heart disease or stroke associated with stiff arteries. Therefore, the purpose of the passage is to find out the impact of smoking on arterial stiffness.

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  • 35. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question:   The study found that smoking one cigarette increases the stiffness of the arteries in 18 to 30 year olds by a whopping 25 percent. Arteries that are stiff or rigid increase resistance in the blood vessels, making the heart work harder. The stiffer the artery, the greater the risk for heart disease or stroke. Young adults aged 20-24 years have the highest smoking rate of all age groups in Canada The study compared the arterial stiffness of young smokers to non-smokers. The median age was 21 years. Arterial stiffness in both smokers and non-smokers was measured using a new but well established method called applanation tonometry. Arterial stress test measures the arteries' response to the stress of exercise. The test is comparable to a cardiac stress test, which measures the heart's response to the stress of exercise. An initial arterial stress test was carried out to establish a baseline measurement for both the non-smokers and the smokers, who were asked not to smoke for 12 hours prior to the test. After the first meeting, smokers returned and smoked one cigarette each and then repeated the stress test. During the final meeting, smokers were asked to chew a piece of nicotine gum prior to the stress test. It was found that after exercise the arterial stiffness levels in non-smokers dropped by 3.6 percent. Smokers, however, showed the reverse: after exercise their arterial stiffness increased by 2.2 per cent. After nicotine gum, it increased by 12.6 percent. After one cigarette, it increased by 24.5 per cent.  As per the passage, which of the option follows

    • A.

      The person of age 21 years will notice the highest increase in the stiffness of arteries after smoking one cigarette.

    • B.

      Among the youth in their twenties, just one cigarette can harm arteries.

    • C.

      Physical stress such as exercise also causes arterial stiffness.

    • D.

      Chances of heart strokes are the least among non-smokers.

    • E.

      The smokers of age group 18-30 years have the greatest risk for heart diseases.

    Correct Answer
    B. Among the youth in their twenties, just one cigarette can harm arteries.
    Explanation
    The passage states that smoking one cigarette increases the stiffness of the arteries in 18 to 30 year olds by 25 percent. This implies that among the youth in their twenties, just one cigarette can harm arteries.

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  • 36. 

    Read the following Comprehension and Answer the Question:   The study found that smoking one cigarette increases the stiffness of the arteries in 18 to 30 year olds by a whopping 25 percent. Arteries that are stiff or rigid increase resistance in the blood vessels, making the heart work harder. The stiffer the artery, the greater the risk for heart disease or stroke. Young adults aged 20-24 years have the highest smoking rate of all age groups in Canada The study compared the arterial stiffness of young smokers to non-smokers. The median age was 21 years. Arterial stiffness in both smokers and non-smokers was measured using a new but well established method called applanation tonometry. Arterial stress test measures the arteries' response to the stress of exercise. The test is comparable to a cardiac stress test, which measures the heart's response to the stress of exercise. An initial arterial stress test was carried out to establish a baseline measurement for both the non-smokers and the smokers, who were asked not to smoke for 12 hours prior to the test. After the first meeting, smokers returned and smoked one cigarette each and then repeated the stress test. During the final meeting, smokers were asked to chew a piece of nicotine gum prior to the stress test. It was found that after exercise the arterial stiffness levels in non-smokers dropped by 3.6 percent. Smokers, however, showed the reverse: after exercise their arterial stiffness increased by 2.2 per cent. After nicotine gum, it increased by 12.6 percent. After one cigarette, it increased by 24.5 per cent.  According to the passage, which of the following is true about arterial stress test EXCEPT

    • A.

      It is comparable to cardiac stress test.

    • B.

      This measures the arteries stiffness in the people whether they are placed under stress or not.

    • C.

      It is required to carry out a baseline measurement.

    • D.

      It shows higher arteries stiffness after a cigarette than after nicotine gum.

    • E.

      It helps in proving that smoking a few cigarettes a day impacts the health of the arteries.

    Correct Answer
    C. It is required to carry out a baseline measurement.
    Explanation
    The passage states that an initial arterial stress test was carried out to establish a baseline measurement for both non-smokers and smokers. Therefore, the statement that the arterial stress test is required to carry out a baseline measurement is true, not false.

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  • 37. 

    Country’s B-Schools may not be Harvard caliber yet, but for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, these schools are increasingly on the short list.

    • A.

      Country’s B-Schools may not be Harvard caliber yet, but for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, these schools are increasingly on the short list.

    • B.

      Although Country’s B-Schools are not Harvard caliber, for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, these schools are increasingly on the short list.

    • C.

      Although Country’s B-Schools may not be Harvard caliber yet, but for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, these schools are increasingly on the short list.

    • D.

      Country’s B-Schools are not Harvard caliber, but for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, these schools are increasingly on the short list.

    • E.

      Even if Country’s B-Schools are not of Harvard caliber, but for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, they’re increasingly on the short list.

    Correct Answer
    A. Country’s B-Schools may not be Harvard caliber yet, but for Country’s students, and even for some Westerners, these schools are increasingly on the short list.
    Explanation
    ANS: (A) (‘yet’ and ‘But for’ are correctly used and the sentence is precise and correct. In (B), ‘may’ is replaced by ‘are’, changing the uncertainty to certainty, which is wrong. In (C), ‘although’ is redundant. (D) & (E) also use ‘are’ in place of ‘may’.)

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  • 38. 

    It’s a company that looks towards the future, although it looks into it’s past.

    • A.

      Although it looks into it’s past.

    • B.

      But it looks into its past.

    • C.

      Even though looking into its past.

    • D.

      Even as it looks into its past.

    • E.

      Also looking into its past.

    Correct Answer
    D. Even as it looks into its past.
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (‘Although’ distorts the meaning which the sentence wants to convey. Basically, the sentence conveys that the company is a future looking company. ‘Even as’ conveys the true meaning. ‘It’s’ mean ‘it is’, which is wrong. The possessive pronoun of ’it’ is ‘its’. Hence (D) is correct.)

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  • 39. 

    The bluer light that energy saving devices such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) emit, closely mimic daylight. But the flip side is it disrupts the body’s production of the hormone melatonin more than older style filament bulbs, which cast a yellower light. Melatonin, thought to protect against some breast and prostate cancers, is produced and secreted by the brain’s pineal gland round the clock, with highest secretion levels being at night.   Which of the following can be concluded from the above?

    • A.

      People suffering from breast and prostate cancers have problem in production of melatonin hormone.

    • B.

      Women who work in night shifts, mainly suffer from breast cancer.

    • C.

      CFL is the main energy saving device being used worldwide.

    • D.

      Energy saving light bulbs could result in higher breast cancer rates if used late at night.

    • E.

      Those who use older styled yellower light bulbs, are least likely to suffer from breast and prostate cancer.

    Correct Answer
    D. Energy saving light bulbs could result in higher breast cancer rates if used late at night.
    Explanation
    ANS: (D) (This is an inference question and the correct answer is which can be truly derived from the arguments. There may be other causes of breast and prostate cancers apart from melatonin, so (A) can not be correct. Women working in night shift may have suffer from some other more acute problem, hence (B) is not correct. (C) is also wrong. (D) is correct because it can be truly inferred from the argument. (E) is also not correct because there may be other causes also of breast and prostate cancer.)

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  • 40. 

    A newspaper article:   Why intelligent people drink more? It is not because more intelligent people occupy higher-paying, more important jobs that require them to socialize and drink with their business associates that they drink more alcohol.  It appears to be their intelligence itself that inclines them to drink more.   Which of the following if true does not strengthen the above newspaper article argument except for the following

    • A.

      The intelligent people normally behave in such a way that their business associates can enjoy drinks even without any company.

    • B.

      Normally after taking drink, intelligent people start showing unintelligent behavior

    • C.

      Not many intelligent people are in high paying jobs and those who are, they are heavy drinkers

    • D.

      Drinking and socializing is a common trend in business nowadays

    • E.

      Less than 10% of people are intelligent

    Correct Answer
    A. The intelligent people normally behave in such a way that their business associates can enjoy drinks even without any company.
    Explanation
    ANS: (A) (It is a strengthen the argument type question. The option which strengthens the conclusion that it is not the business need which is the cause of more drinking is the correct answer. Hence A is correct.)

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  • 41. 

    Indeed, that ‘Lord God’, involved with every true seeker of worthy living – regardless of their faith in a God or lack of these – have made them all, and made them well too, in the ultimate scheme of things.

    • A.

      Regardless of their faith in a God or lack of these – have made them all, and made them well too, in the ultimate scheme of things.

    • B.

      Regardless of his faith in a God or lack of it – has made them all, and made them, in the ultimate scheme of things, well too.

    • C.

      Regardless of his faith in a God or lack of it –in the ultimate scheme of things, have made them all, and made them well too.

    • D.

      Regardless of their faith in a God or lack of it – has made him, and made him well too, in the ultimate scheme of things.

    • E.

      In the ultimate scheme of things, regardless of his faith in a God or lack of it – has made them all, and made them, , well too.

    Correct Answer
    B. Regardless of his faith in a God or lack of it – has made them all, and made them, in the ultimate scheme of things, well too.
    Explanation
    ANS. (B) (The phrase with ‘ – ‘ refers to ‘true seeker of worthy living’, which is singular. The phrase after ‘ – ‘ describes the act of God which is also singular. The phrase ‘in the ultimate….’ refers to ‘made them’, so it should come after this)

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 20, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Snapgmat
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