Respiratory System And Gas Exhanges: Quiz!

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Mtmeesha2001
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Respiratory System And Gas Exhanges: Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The process by which oxygen is obtained from the environment and delivered to the cells is called that?

    • A.

      Respiration

    • B.

      Exhalation

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Tidal volume

    Correct Answer
    A. Respiration
    Explanation
    Respiration is the correct answer because it refers to the process of obtaining oxygen from the environment and delivering it to the cells. This process involves both inhalation and exhalation, where oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is expelled. Tidal volume, on the other hand, refers to the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing, which is a component of respiration but not the overall process itself.

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  • 2. 

    When oxygen is taken into a cell and is used in the breakdown of nutrients it is called:

    • A.

      Cellular respiration

    • B.

      Compliance

    • C.

      Inhalation

    • D.

      Vital Capacity

    Correct Answer
    A. Cellular respiration
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which cells convert nutrients into energy in the presence of oxygen. This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose molecules to produce ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Oxygen is essential for this process as it acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, allowing for the production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, cellular respiration accurately describes the utilization of oxygen in the breakdown of nutrients within a cell.

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  • 3. 

    Spaces in the respiratory system are:

    • A.

      Nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea

    • B.

      Nostrils and sinus cavities

    • C.

      Glottis and epiglottis

    Correct Answer
    A. Nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea
    Explanation
    The spaces in the respiratory system include the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. These structures are all part of the upper respiratory tract and play a crucial role in the process of breathing. The nasal cavities filter, warm, and moisten the incoming air, while the pharynx serves as a passage for both air and food. The larynx contains the vocal cords and helps produce sound, and the trachea carries air from the larynx to the lungs. These spaces work together to ensure the proper functioning of the respiratory system.

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  • 4. 

    Air enters the body through:

    • A.

      Mouth

    • B.

      Nares

    • C.

      Nasal cavity

    Correct Answer
    B. Nares
    Explanation
    The nares are the openings of the nostrils, which allow air to enter the body. When we breathe, air passes through the nares and into the nasal cavity, where it is filtered, warmed, and humidified before reaching the lungs. The mouth is also a possible entry point for air, but it is not the primary route. Therefore, the correct answer is nares.

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  • 5. 

    Mucous membranes that line the nasal cavities contain what that assists in heat and moisture?

    • A.

      Dust and pollen

    • B.

      Blood vessels

    • C.

      Mucous

    • D.

      Cilia

    Correct Answer
    B. Blood vessels
    Explanation
    The correct answer is blood vessels because blood vessels in the mucous membranes help in regulating the temperature and moisture levels in the nasal cavities. They play a crucial role in maintaining the optimal conditions for the respiratory system to function properly.

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  • 6. 

    Small cavities lined with mucous in the skull bones that are highly susceptible to infection are what?

    • A.

      Conchae

    • B.

      Nasal cavities

    • C.

      Sinus cavities

    Correct Answer
    C. Sinus cavities
    Explanation
    Sinus cavities are small cavities lined with mucous in the skull bones that are highly susceptible to infection. These cavities are located in the facial bones surrounding the nasal cavity and are connected to the nasal passages. When the sinuses become infected or inflamed, it can cause symptoms such as congestion, facial pain, and pressure.

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  • 7. 

    What carries air into the respiratory tract?

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Bronchi

    • C.

      Larynx

    • D.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    D. Pharynx
    Explanation
    The pharynx carries air into the respiratory tract. It is a muscular tube that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx. Air passes through the pharynx before entering the trachea and eventually reaching the lungs. The pharynx also plays a role in swallowing, as it serves as a passage for food and liquids to enter the esophagus.

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  • 8. 

    The sections of the pharynx in order are?

    • A.

      Pharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx

    • B.

      Larynx, trachea, hyoid bone

    • C.

      Nasopharynx,oropharynx,pharynx

    Correct Answer
    C. Nasopharynx,oropharynx,pharynx
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nasopharynx, oropharynx, pharynx. The pharynx is a muscular tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx and esophagus. It is divided into three sections: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is located behind the nasal cavity and above the soft palate, the oropharynx is located behind the oral cavity and extends to the epiglottis, and the laryngopharynx is located below the epiglottis and connects to the esophagus and trachea. Therefore, the correct order of the sections of the pharynx is nasopharynx, oropharynx, pharynx.

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  • 9. 

    The larynx is also called the?

    • A.

      Voicebox

    • B.

      Throat

    • C.

      Windpipe

    • D.

      Glottis

    Correct Answer
    A. Voicebox
    Explanation
    The larynx is commonly known as the voicebox because it is responsible for producing sound and enabling speech. It contains the vocal cords, which vibrate when air passes through them, creating sound waves that produce speech. The larynx is located in the throat and is connected to the windpipe, or trachea. The glottis, on the other hand, refers to the opening between the vocal cords in the larynx.

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  • 10. 

    What is the little leaf-shaped cartilage found in the respiratory system?

    • A.

      Conchae

    • B.

      Hyoid bone

    • C.

      Hyaline cartlige

    • D.

      Epiglottis

    Correct Answer
    D. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The epiglottis is a small leaf-shaped cartilage found in the respiratory system. Its main function is to prevent food and liquid from entering the airway during swallowing. When we swallow, the epiglottis covers the opening of the larynx, ensuring that food and liquid only go down the esophagus and not into the lungs. This protective mechanism helps to prevent choking and aspiration pneumonia.

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  • 11. 

    The tube that extends from the inferior edge of the larynx to the upper part of the chest is the what?

    • A.

      Pharynx

    • B.

      Trachea

    • C.

      Windpipe

    Correct Answer
    C. Windpipe
    Explanation
    The tube that extends from the inferior edge of the larynx to the upper part of the chest is called the windpipe. The windpipe, also known as the trachea, is a vital part of the respiratory system that allows air to pass from the larynx to the lungs. It is made up of cartilage rings that provide support and protection to the airway. The windpipe plays a crucial role in breathing and is responsible for the transportation of air in and out of the lungs.

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  • 12. 

    Which one is the correct listing of the cartilages in the Trachea?

    • A.

      Thyroid cartlige, cornculate cartlige, arytenoid cartlige, cricoid catrlige

    • B.

      Hilum,thyroid cartlige, arytenoid cartlige, cricoid cartlige

    • C.

      None- cartlige is not located in the trachea only the pharynx.

    Correct Answer
    A. Thyroid cartlige, cornculate cartlige, arytenoid cartlige, cricoid catrlige
    Explanation
    The correct listing of the cartilages in the trachea is: thyroid cartilage, corniculate cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, cricoid cartilage.

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  • 13. 

    The trachea divides into how many "main stems"?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      Doesn't divide at all

    • D.

      6

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    The trachea divides into two "main stems" known as the bronchi. Each bronchus then further divides into smaller bronchioles, which eventually lead to the lungs. This branching pattern allows for the distribution of air to both lungs and ensures proper oxygenation of the blood.

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  • 14. 

    If a foreign body is inhaled, such as a piece of food, which lung will it likely enter?

    • A.

      Left lung

    • B.

      Right lung

    • C.

      Left lower lobe

    Correct Answer
    B. Right lung
    Explanation
    If a foreign body is inhaled, it is more likely to enter the right lung. This is because the right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical compared to the left main bronchus. As a result, any inhaled foreign object is more likely to follow the path of least resistance and enter the right lung.

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  • 15. 

    The epithelium that lines the conducting respiratory tract is described as:

    • A.

      Stratified

    • B.

      Containing cilia

    • C.

      Pseudostratified

    • D.

      Contains simple columnas epithelium

    • E.

      B, C and D are all correct

    Correct Answer
    E. B, C and D are all correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B, C and D are all correct. The epithelium that lines the conducting respiratory tract is described as stratified, meaning it consists of multiple layers of cells. It also contains cilia, which are hair-like structures that help move mucus and trapped particles out of the respiratory tract. Additionally, the epithelium is pseudostratified, meaning it appears to be stratified but all the cells are actually attached to the basement membrane. Finally, it contains simple columnar epithelium, which is a type of epithelial tissue made up of tall, narrow cells that help with absorption and secretion.

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  • 16. 

    The organs in which gas diffusion takes place is?

    • A.

      Aveoli

    • B.

      Bronchi

    • C.

      Lungs

    • D.

      Suffacant

    Correct Answer
    C. Lungs
    Explanation
    Gas diffusion is the process by which oxygen from the air enters the bloodstream and carbon dioxide, a waste product, is removed from the bloodstream and exhaled. This process primarily occurs in the lungs, where the alveoli, small air sacs, are responsible for the exchange of gases between the air and the bloodstream. The bronchi are air passages that lead to the lungs, while surfactant is a substance that helps to reduce surface tension in the alveoli, aiding in the process of gas exchange. However, the lungs as a whole are the main organs where gas diffusion takes place.

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  • 17. 

    Ther space between the lungs, including the heart, esophagus, and trachea is the

    • A.

      Mediasternum

    • B.

      Glottis

    • C.

      Thoracic cavity

    • D.

      Mediastenum

    Correct Answer
    D. Mediastenum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mediastenum. The term "mediastenum" refers to the space between the lungs, which includes the heart, esophagus, and trachea. It is a central compartment of the thoracic cavity, located between the two pleural cavities. The mediastenum plays a crucial role in housing and protecting vital organs such as the heart and major blood vessels.

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  • 18. 

    The right lung has how many subdivisions?

    Correct Answer
    three
    3
    Explanation
    The right lung has three subdivisions. This means that the right lung is divided into three parts or sections.

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  • 19. 

    The smallest conducting tubes in the lungs are called

    Correct Answer
    bronchioles
    Explanation
    Bronchioles are the smallest conducting tubes in the lungs. They are responsible for carrying air to the alveoli, where gas exchange occurs. Bronchioles are smaller in diameter compared to the bronchi and are lined with smooth muscle. This allows them to regulate airflow and control the distribution of air within the lungs. The bronchioles further divide into smaller branches called terminal bronchioles, which eventually lead to the alveolar ducts and alveoli. Overall, bronchioles play a crucial role in ensuring efficient and controlled airflow within the respiratory system.

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  • 20. 

    Do bronchi contain what to maintain its firmness?

    • A.

      Bits of cartlige

    • B.

      Nothing

    • C.

      Muscle tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Bits of cartlige
    Explanation
    Bronchi are the large airways in the lungs that branch off from the trachea. To maintain their firmness and prevent them from collapsing, they contain bits of cartilage. Cartilage provides structural support and helps to keep the bronchi open, allowing for the smooth flow of air in and out of the lungs. Without the presence of cartilage, the bronchi would be more prone to collapse, leading to difficulties in breathing and reduced lung function.

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  • 21. 

    Alveoli are located where?

    • A.

      Beginning of terminal bronchioles

    • B.

      Ending of terminal bronchiloles

    • C.

      Pleura

    Correct Answer
    B. Ending of terminal bronchiloles
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "ending of terminal bronchioles." Alveoli are tiny air sacs found at the end of the respiratory bronchioles within the lungs. They are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the bloodstream.

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  • 22. 

    There are hoe many aveoli in the human body.

    • A.

      600 million

    • B.

      200 billion

    • C.

      300 million

    Correct Answer
    C. 300 million
    Explanation
    The human body contains approximately 300 million alveoli. Alveoli are tiny air sacs located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of respiration. Having a large number of alveoli increases the surface area available for gas exchange, allowing for efficient oxygenation of the blood and removal of waste gases.

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  • 23. 

    What covers the lungs?

    • A.

      Cilia

    • B.

      Bronchial branches

    • C.

      Pleura

    • D.

      Mucous

    Correct Answer
    C. Pleura
    Explanation
    The pleura is a thin membrane that covers the lungs. It consists of two layers, the visceral pleura which is directly attached to the lung tissue, and the parietal pleura which lines the chest wall. The pleura helps to protect and cushion the lungs, as well as facilitate smooth movement during breathing. It also helps to maintain the negative pressure within the pleural cavity, allowing the lungs to expand and contract easily.

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  • 24. 

    What is a surfactant?

    • A.

      The process of air starvation

    • B.

      A result of an asthma attack

    • C.

      A substance that increases the surface tension

    • D.

      A substance that reduces surface tension

    Correct Answer
    D. A substance that reduces surface tension
    Explanation
    A surfactant is a substance that reduces surface tension. Surface tension is the force that causes the surface of a liquid to behave like a stretched elastic sheet. Surfactants work by disrupting the cohesive forces between the liquid molecules at the surface, allowing the liquid to spread more easily and reducing the surface tension. This property makes surfactants useful in various applications such as cleaning agents, emulsifiers, and foaming agents.

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  • 25. 

    What properly describes Alveoli?

    • A.

      Single cell layer of squamous tissue

    • B.

      Columnar cells in a compact layer

    • C.

      Provides easy passage of gases entering & exiting the blood

    • D.

      B & C

    • E.

      A & C

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Single cell layer of squamous tissue
    E. A & C
    Explanation
    The alveoli are tiny air sacs located at the end of the respiratory bronchioles in the lungs. They are lined by a single cell layer of squamous tissue, which allows for easy passage of gases entering and exiting the blood. This structure facilitates efficient gas exchange between the lungs and the bloodstream. Therefore, the options "single cell layer of squamous tissue" and "A & C" properly describe the alveoli.

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  • 26. 

    Pleura covers the chest wall is called:

    • A.

      Parietal pleura

    • B.

      Visceral pleura

    • C.

      Pleural space

    • D.

      Thoracic space

    Correct Answer
    A. Parietal pleura
    Explanation
    The pleura is a thin, double-layered membrane that lines the chest cavity and covers the lungs. The layer that covers the chest wall is called the parietal pleura. It helps protect and lubricate the lungs, allowing them to move smoothly during breathing. The visceral pleura, on the other hand, covers the surface of the lungs. The pleural space is the small gap between the parietal and visceral pleura, filled with a small amount of fluid that helps reduce friction during lung movement. Thoracic space is not a correct term for describing the pleura.

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  • 27. 

    The process of drawing air into the lungs is called

    • A.

      Inhalation

    • B.

      Exhalation

    • C.

      Compliance

    Correct Answer
    A. Inhalation
    Explanation
    Inhalation refers to the process of drawing air into the lungs. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, while the intercostal muscles between the ribs contract and lift the ribcage. This creates more space in the chest cavity, causing air to be drawn into the lungs. Exhalation, on the other hand, is the process of expelling air from the lungs. Compliance refers to the ability of the lungs to expand and contract easily.

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  • 28. 

    What allows the lungs to expand under pressure?

    • A.

      Diaphragm

    • B.

      Normal elasticity

    • C.

      Normal elasticity and surfacant

    • D.

      Lung capacity

    Correct Answer
    C. Normal elasticity and surfacant
    Explanation
    The lungs are able to expand under pressure due to their normal elasticity and the presence of surfactant. Normal elasticity allows the lungs to stretch and recoil, allowing for the expansion and contraction required for breathing. Surfactant, a substance produced by the lungs, reduces surface tension within the alveoli (air sacs) and prevents them from collapsing, further facilitating lung expansion.

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  • 29. 

    During the process of gas diffusion gases diffuse how?

    • A.

      From lower to higher concentration

    • B.

      Does not diffuse

    • C.

      From higher to lower concentration

    • D.

      Into the blood stream directly

    Correct Answer
    C. From higher to lower concentration
    Explanation
    Gas diffusion occurs from higher to lower concentration because gases naturally move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration in order to equalize the concentration gradient. This process is known as diffusion and is driven by the random motion of gas molecules. As a result, gases will diffuse from an area where there is a higher concentration of the gas to an area where there is a lower concentration until equilibrium is reached.

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  • 30. 

    During a gas exchange in the lungs, oxygen enters the blood, and what leaves the blood?

    • A.

      Bicarbonic ion

    • B.

      Hydrogen ion

    • C.

      CO2

    • D.

      Oygen

    Correct Answer
    C. CO2
    Explanation
    During gas exchange in the lungs, oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been produced as a waste product in the body's cells is transported from the blood to the lungs to be exhaled. Therefore, CO2 is the correct answer as it leaves the blood during gas exchange in the lungs.

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  • 31. 

    During a gas exchange in the tissues, O2 and Co2 do what?

    • A.

      CO2 enters and O2 leaves

    • B.

      Travels through CSF

    • C.

      O2 enters lungs and CO2 leaves the blood

    • D.

      O2 leaves the blood and CO2 enters

    Correct Answer
    D. O2 leaves the blood and CO2 enters
    Explanation
    During gas exchange in the tissues, oxygen (O2) leaves the blood and carbon dioxide (CO2) enters. This process occurs in the capillaries surrounding the tissues. Oxygen is released from the red blood cells and diffuses into the tissues, where it is used for cellular respiration. At the same time, carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular respiration, diffuses out of the tissues and enters the bloodstream to be transported back to the lungs for elimination.

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  • 32. 

    Air contains what percentage of oxygen?

    • A.

      32%

    • B.

      97%

    • C.

      21%

    • D.

      16%

    Correct Answer
    C. 21%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 21%. Air is composed of various gases, with oxygen being one of them. Oxygen makes up approximately 21% of the Earth's atmosphere. This percentage is crucial for supporting life on Earth, as oxygen is essential for respiration and the survival of most organisms.

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  • 33. 

    Oxygenated blood contains what percentage of saturation with oxygen?

    • A.

      97%

    • B.

      32%

    • C.

      16%

    • D.

      21%

    Correct Answer
    A. 97%
    Explanation
    Oxygenated blood refers to blood that has been enriched with oxygen. The percentage of saturation with oxygen in oxygenated blood is typically around 97%. This means that approximately 97% of the hemoglobin molecules in the blood are bound to oxygen molecules. This high level of oxygen saturation is necessary for the blood to effectively transport oxygen to the body's tissues and organs.

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  • 34. 

    Hemoglobin during oxygen transport has what characteristics?

    • A.

      Small iron regions and holding 97% if oxygen it can hold

    • B.

      Just protein

    • C.

      Small iron region

    Correct Answer
    A. Small iron regions and holding 97% if oxygen it can hold
    Explanation
    During oxygen transport, hemoglobin has small iron regions that are capable of holding 97% of the oxygen it can carry. This means that hemoglobin has specific binding sites for oxygen molecules, which are located in the small iron regions of the protein. These binding sites have a high affinity for oxygen, allowing hemoglobin to efficiently transport and deliver oxygen throughout the body.

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  • 35. 

    75% of CO2 is carried as what during CO2 transport?

    • A.

      Bicarbonate ion

    • B.

      Hydrogen ion

    • C.

      Carotid bodies

    Correct Answer
    A. Bicarbonate ion
    Explanation
    During CO2 transport, 75% of CO2 is carried as bicarbonate ion. This is because when CO2 enters the bloodstream, it combines with water to form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid then dissociates into bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion. Bicarbonate ion is the primary form in which CO2 is transported in the blood. This process allows for efficient transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs for elimination.

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  • 36. 

    Normal ph levels>

    • A.

      7.15-7.45

    • B.

      7.35-7.45

    • C.

      7.25-7.45

    Correct Answer
    B. 7.35-7.45
    Explanation
    The normal pH levels in the human body range from 7.35 to 7.45. This range is considered slightly alkaline or basic. Maintaining this pH range is crucial for the proper functioning of various bodily systems, including the respiratory and urinary systems. Any deviation from this range can lead to health issues, such as acidosis or alkalosis, which can disrupt normal bodily functions. Therefore, it is important to maintain the pH levels within the normal range to ensure overall health and well-being.

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  • 37. 

    What element is important in regulating the blood's ph (acid-base balance)?

    • A.

      O2

    • B.

      CO2

    • C.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    B. CO2
    Explanation
    CO2 is important in regulating the blood's pH because it can act as an acid or a base. When CO2 dissolves in the blood, it forms carbonic acid, which can lower the pH of the blood and make it more acidic. On the other hand, when CO2 is removed from the blood, it can increase the pH and make it more basic. This balance between acid and base is crucial for maintaining the body's overall pH level and ensuring proper functioning of various physiological processes.

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  • 38. 

    What nervous controls regulate Respiration?

    • A.

      Medulla and phrenic nerves

    • B.

      Phrenic nerves, medulla and pons

    • C.

      Medulla and pons

    • D.

      Medulla, spinal column, pons

    Correct Answer
    B. Phrenic nerves, medulla and pons
    Explanation
    The correct answer is phrenic nerves, medulla and pons. The phrenic nerves are responsible for controlling the diaphragm, a key muscle involved in respiration. The medulla and pons are regions in the brainstem that play a crucial role in regulating breathing. Together, these nervous controls work to coordinate and regulate the process of respiration.

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  • 39. 

    Chemoreceptors are centrally located near what areas?

    • A.

      Brain and peripherally in the artieries

    • B.

      Spinal cord

    • C.

      Thyroid and peripheral arteris

    Correct Answer
    A. Brain and peripherally in the artieries
    Explanation
    Chemoreceptors are sensory receptors that detect chemical changes in the body. They are centrally located in the brain, specifically in areas such as the medulla oblongata and the carotid and aortic bodies. Additionally, chemoreceptors are also found peripherally in the arteries, where they monitor the chemical composition of the blood. This dual location allows chemoreceptors to play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by detecting and responding to changes in blood chemistry and oxygen levels.

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  • 40. 

    What responds to chemicals that dissolve in the blood during respiration?

    • A.

      Hemoglobin

    • B.

      Bicarbonate ion

    • C.

      Chemorecptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemorecptors
    Explanation
    Chemoreceptors are specialized sensory cells that respond to chemical changes in the blood during respiration. They detect the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood, and send signals to the brain to regulate breathing rate and depth. These receptors are located in the carotid bodies in the neck and the aortic bodies in the aorta. When chemicals dissolve in the blood, such as carbon dioxide, chemoreceptors detect the increase in CO2 levels and trigger an increase in breathing rate to remove the excess CO2 and bring oxygen levels back to normal.

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  • 41. 

    Chemoreceptors respond to what?

    • A.

      CO2 levels

    • B.

      O2 levels

    • C.

      Blood pressure

    Correct Answer
    A. CO2 levels
    Explanation
    Chemoreceptors are sensory cells that detect chemical changes in the body. They are primarily responsible for monitoring the levels of certain chemicals, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2), in the blood. When CO2 levels rise, chemoreceptors detect this change and send signals to the brain, triggering an increase in breathing rate to remove excess CO2 from the body. Therefore, the correct answer is CO2 levels, as chemoreceptors specifically respond to changes in CO2 levels in the body.

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  • 42. 

    Peripheral chemo-receptors respond to?

    • A.

      O2 levels

    • B.

      The heart

    • C.

      CO2 levels

    Correct Answer
    A. O2 levels
    Explanation
    Peripheral chemoreceptors are specialized cells located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies that are responsible for detecting changes in oxygen levels in the blood. When the oxygen levels decrease, these receptors send signals to the brain, which in turn triggers physiological responses such as increased breathing rate and blood flow to compensate for the low oxygen levels. Therefore, peripheral chemoreceptors respond to O2 levels in order to maintain homeostasis in the body.

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  • 43. 

    Normal breathing rate in an adult is

    • A.

      10-50

    • B.

      12-25

    • C.

      12-20

    Correct Answer
    C. 12-20
    Explanation
    The normal breathing rate in an adult is 12-20 breaths per minute. This range is considered normal because it indicates that the person's respiratory system is functioning properly and efficiently. Breathing rates below or above this range may indicate an underlying health issue or respiratory problem. It is important to monitor and maintain a normal breathing rate for overall health and well-being.

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  • 44. 

    Tachypnea is what?

    • A.

      Excessive rate of breathing

    • B.

      Difficulty breathing

    • C.

      The rate a child breathes while lseeping

    Correct Answer
    A. Excessive rate of breathing
    Explanation
    Tachypnea refers to an excessive rate of breathing. It is a medical term used to describe abnormally rapid breathing, usually characterized by a high number of breaths per minute. This condition can be caused by various factors such as respiratory infections, lung diseases, heart problems, anxiety, or even certain medications. Tachypnea is often seen as a symptom of an underlying health issue and may require medical attention to determine and address the root cause.

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  • 45. 

    Orthopnea means

    • A.

      Difficulty breathing that is relieved by laying down

    • B.

      Laying supine

    • C.

      Difficulty breathing that is relieved by sitting up

    Correct Answer
    C. Difficulty breathing that is relieved by sitting up
    Explanation
    Orthopnea refers to a condition where a person experiences difficulty breathing when lying down and finds relief by sitting up. This means that the correct answer is "difficulty breathing that is relieved by sitting up."

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  • 46. 

    The normal rate for respirations for children are 20-40, this depends also on what factors?

    • A.

      Size of their medulla

    • B.

      Child's size and maturity

    • C.

      Child's size and age

    Correct Answer
    C. Child's size and age
    Explanation
    The correct answer is child's size and age. The normal rate for respirations in children can vary depending on their size and age. As children grow and develop, their respiratory rate tends to decrease. Additionally, larger children may have a lower respiratory rate compared to smaller children. Therefore, both the size and age of the child are important factors to consider when determining the normal rate for respirations in children.

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  • 47. 

    Which are considered abnormal ventilation?

    • A.

      Sitting in a hot room without open windows

    • B.

      Hyperventilation

    • C.

      Hypoxia

    • D.

      Hypoxemia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperventilation
    Explanation
    Abnormal ventilation refers to any deviation from normal breathing patterns. Hyperventilation is considered abnormal ventilation because it involves rapid and deep breathing, leading to excessive elimination of carbon dioxide from the body. This can lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the blood, causing symptoms such as dizziness, tingling, and shortness of breath. Sitting in a hot room without open windows may cause discomfort due to heat, but it does not directly affect ventilation. Hypoxia refers to a deficiency of oxygen in the tissues, while hypoxemia refers to low oxygen levels in the blood, both of which are not directly related to abnormal ventilation.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following are results of abnormal ventalation?

    • A.

      Hypothermia

    • B.

      Hypoplasia

    • C.

      Suffocation

    • D.

      Surfacant

    Correct Answer
    C. Suffocation
    Explanation
    Abnormal ventilation can lead to suffocation. When ventilation is abnormal, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is disrupted, resulting in inadequate oxygen supply to the body and accumulation of carbon dioxide. This can cause a person to suffocate, as they are unable to breathe properly and obtain the necessary amount of oxygen.

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  • 49. 

    Hypo apnea is a result of

    • A.

      Too much O2

    • B.

      Low CO2

    • C.

      Turning blue

    Correct Answer
    B. Low CO2
    Explanation
    Hypo apnea refers to a decrease in the respiratory rate and effort during sleep. It is commonly associated with low levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body. When CO2 levels are low, the body's respiratory drive is reduced, leading to shallow breathing or even temporary cessation of breathing. This can result in hypo apnea episodes during sleep. Therefore, the correct answer is low CO2.

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  • 50. 

    Mrs Reynold is ambulating down the hall of the West wing, she complains of a tingling sensation in her lips, dizziness. What what would be the most likley nursing Dx?

    • A.

      Hypa apnea

    • B.

      Cyanosis

    • C.

      Suffocation

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypa apnea
    Explanation
    The most likely nursing diagnosis for Mrs. Reynold would be hypa apnea. This is because she is experiencing symptoms such as tingling sensation in her lips and dizziness, which could be indicative of a decrease in oxygen levels. Hypa apnea refers to a condition where there is a decrease in respiratory effort, leading to inadequate ventilation and oxygenation. This diagnosis aligns with Mrs. Reynold's symptoms and suggests that she may be experiencing a compromised respiratory function.

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