Medical-surgical Nursing Respiratory System Quiz

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Respiratory System Quizzes & Trivia

Medical-Surgical Nursing. Studying for respiratory test


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    This type of necrosis impacts the lungs. Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Resembles clumped cheese, soft and granular.

    Explanation
    Caseous necrosis is a type of necrosis that affects the lungs and is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is characterized by the appearance of soft and granular tissue that resembles clumped cheese. This type of necrosis is commonly seen in tuberculosis infections, where the bacteria cause the affected tissue to become necrotic and form a cheesy, granular material.

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  • 2. 

    Dry lung drowning is caused by the _______ response, resulting in extreme bronchoconstriction.

    Explanation
    Dry lung drowning is caused by the vagal response, which refers to the activation of the vagus nerve. This response leads to extreme bronchoconstriction, where the airways in the lungs narrow, making it difficult for air to pass through. This can result in a lack of oxygen reaching the bloodstream, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. The vagal response can be triggered by various factors, such as exposure to cold water or a sudden change in temperature, causing the airways to constrict and leading to dry lung drowning.

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  • 3. 

    Pulmonary emboli commonly arise from the deep veins in the _______ and _______ .

    Explanation
    Pulmonary emboli commonly arise from the deep veins in the thighs and calf. This means that blood clots, known as emboli, often originate in the deep veins located in these areas. These clots can then travel through the bloodstream and become lodged in the pulmonary arteries of the lungs, causing a condition known as pulmonary embolism.

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  • 4. 

    It takes a lot of ________ to reinflate the alveoli once they've collapsed. A _______ to help the patient.

    Explanation
    A pressure spirometer is a device used to measure lung capacity and assess lung function. When the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs in the lungs, collapse, it requires a significant amount of pressure to reinflate them. Therefore, using a pressure spirometer can help provide the necessary pressure to assist the patient in reinflating their collapsed alveoli.

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  • 5. 

    Atelectasis increases the risk of ...

    Explanation
    Atelectasis refers to the partial or complete collapse of a lung or a section of it, resulting in reduced oxygen levels in the affected area. This condition can lead to the accumulation of mucus and fluid, making it easier for bacteria to grow and causing inflammation in the lungs. As a result, the risk of developing pneumonia, which is an infection that causes inflammation in the air sacs of the lungs, is increased.

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  • 6. 

    What condition is described below:Blood is occluded; Increased V/Q ratio/perfusion problem; and not much blood can get to the alveoli to get oxygen and perfuse it to the rest of the body.

    Explanation
    The given description matches the condition of pulmonary embolism. In this condition, there is a blockage in the pulmonary artery or one of its branches, leading to the occlusion of blood flow. This results in an increased V/Q (ventilation-perfusion) ratio, meaning that there is inadequate blood supply to the alveoli for oxygenation and perfusion. As a result, the affected individual experiences a decrease in oxygen levels and impaired blood circulation to the rest of the body.

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  • 7. 

    What condition are signs and symptoms indicative of:Chronic hypoxemia; hypercapnea; increased work to breath; bronchospasm; mucus plugging; and pulmonary HTN leads to RHF.

    Explanation
    The signs and symptoms described in the question, such as chronic hypoxemia, hypercapnea, increased work to breathe, bronchospasm, mucus plugging, and pulmonary HTN, are indicative of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This condition is characterized by abnormal development of the lungs in premature infants, often as a result of prolonged mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. The symptoms mentioned in the question align with the respiratory complications commonly seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, such as impaired gas exchange, airway obstruction, and pulmonary hypertension, which can eventually lead to right heart failure.

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  • 8. 

    What condition does the factors listed below cause:Premature birth; immature lungs; Increased inspired oxygen; (+) pressure ventilation; and infections

    Explanation
    The factors listed, such as premature birth, immature lungs, increased inspired oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, and infections, can lead to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This condition is characterized by abnormal development of the lungs in premature infants, often due to the use of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Premature birth and immature lungs make the infants more susceptible to lung injury, while increased inspired oxygen and positive pressure ventilation can further damage the delicate lung tissue. Infections can also contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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  • 9. 

    What condition is described below:An instability of a portion of the chest that occurs from serious trauma like an accident, ribs are broken, etc. Paradoxical movement of the chest (1 side sinks in when they breath in)

    Explanation
    Flail chest is a condition characterized by an instability in a portion of the chest, usually caused by severe trauma such as accidents or broken ribs. It is identified by the paradoxical movement of the chest, where one side sinks in when the individual breathes in. This occurs due to the detached section of the rib cage, causing the affected area to move independently from the rest of the chest during breathing.

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  • 10. 

    What is described below:Fluid is accumulated in the pleural space, most likely from an infection...

    Explanation
    Pleural effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the space between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity. In this case, the fluid accumulation is most likely due to an infection. This can occur as a result of various infections, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis, which can cause inflammation and fluid buildup in the pleural space. Pleural effusion can cause symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing. Diagnosis and treatment of the underlying infection are necessary to resolve the pleural effusion.

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  • 11. 

    A complication of an open pneumothorax. Whatever caused the seal to break creates a flap that makes a one-way valve causing air to accumulate with each breath. Pleural space grows and impinges on heart and trachea. This is an example of          

    Explanation
    This scenario describes a tension pneumothorax, which occurs when air enters the pleural space through a one-way valve mechanism. The broken seal creates a flap that allows air to accumulate with each breath, causing the pleural space to expand. As the pleural space grows, it puts pressure on the heart and trachea, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, difficulty breathing, and decreased blood pressure. Immediate medical intervention is required to relieve the pressure and prevent further complications.

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  • 12. 

    How is acute epiglottis treated?

    Explanation
    Acute epiglottitis is a serious condition where the epiglottis, a small flap of tissue at the base of the tongue, becomes inflamed and blocks the airway. The treatment for this condition involves providing an emergency airway to ensure that the patient can breathe properly. This may involve intubation or a tracheostomy. Additionally, antibiotics are administered to treat the underlying infection that is causing the inflammation. This combination of emergency airway management and antibiotics helps to alleviate the symptoms and prevent further complications.

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  • 13. 

    Nasal flaring; grunting; and intercostal muscle retraction are signs and symptoms of        in children

    Explanation
    Nasal flaring, grunting, and intercostal muscle retraction are all signs and symptoms commonly associated with respiratory distress in children. These manifestations indicate that the child is experiencing difficulty breathing and is using additional muscles to aid in their respiratory effort. Respiratory distress can be caused by various conditions such as asthma, pneumonia, or bronchiolitis, and it requires immediate medical attention to ensure adequate oxygenation and prevent further complications.

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  • 14. 

    If a V/Q ratio is low, it's a _______ problem.

    Explanation
    If a V/Q ratio is low, it indicates a ventilation problem. The V/Q ratio refers to the ratio of alveolar ventilation (V) to pulmonary blood flow (Q). A low V/Q ratio means that there is insufficient ventilation compared to blood flow in the lungs. This can occur due to conditions such as airway obstruction, lung collapse, or inadequate breathing. In these cases, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is impaired, leading to decreased oxygenation of the blood and potential respiratory distress.

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  • 15. 

    _______ is the most common type of lung cancer in non-smoking women.

    Explanation
    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer in non-smoking women. Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that line the glands in the lungs. It is more likely to occur in non-smokers and is the most common form of lung cancer in women. This type of cancer is often found in the outer parts of the lungs and tends to grow slower than other types of lung cancer.

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  • 16. 

    Sudden apprehension; SOB; chest pain; rapid pulse; cough with blood sputum; syncope; and diaphoresis are symptoms of a                            

    Explanation
    Sudden apprehension, SOB (shortness of breath), chest pain, rapid pulse, cough with blood sputum, syncope (fainting), and diaphoresis (excessive sweating) are all symptoms commonly associated with a pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot, usually from the legs, travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel. This blockage can cause a sudden decrease in oxygen levels, leading to the symptoms mentioned. It is important to seek immediate medical attention if these symptoms are experienced, as a pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening.

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  • 17. 

    Dyspnea on exertion; think; decreased FEVI (less than 70%); barrel chest; tripod positioning, leaned forward; pursed lips; Increased FRC, RV and TLC; dark areas and flattening on x-ray are signs and symptoms of        

    Explanation
    The given signs and symptoms are indicative of emphysema. Dyspnea on exertion, decreased FEVI (less than 70%), barrel chest, tripod positioning, leaned forward, pursed lips, increased FRC, RV, and TLC, and dark areas and flattening on x-ray are all characteristic features of emphysema. Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by the destruction of alveolar walls, leading to air trapping and hyperinflation of the lungs. This results in the symptoms mentioned above and can be visualized on a chest x-ray.

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  • 18. 

    Mechanical ventilation; surfactant admin; glucocorticoid admin to women to women in pretermlabor are treatments for      

    Explanation
    Mechanical ventilation, surfactant administration, and glucocorticoid administration are all treatments for RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome). RDS is a condition that affects premature infants and is characterized by a lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Mechanical ventilation helps provide oxygen and support to the baby's lungs, while surfactant administration helps replace the missing surfactant. Glucocorticoid administration to women in preterm labor can also help accelerate the development of the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of RDS.

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  • 19. 

           leads to the breakdown of elastin in the septa which leads to the loss of recoil (can't push air out) which leads to hyperinflation of the lungs which leads to increased RV.

    Explanation
    Smoking is the correct answer because it is known to cause the breakdown of elastin in the septa. Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to the lungs, allowing them to expand and contract during breathing. When elastin breaks down, the septa lose their ability to recoil, resulting in the loss of the lungs' ability to push air out effectively. This leads to hyperinflation of the lungs, where they become overinflated and retain more air than normal. As a result, the residual volume (RV) of air in the lungs increases. Smoking is a major risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by these changes in lung function.

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  • 20. 

    In     , the lungs collapses causing incomplete expansion of the alveoli. That part of the lung becomes non-functional.

    Explanation
    Atelectasis refers to the collapse of the lungs, which leads to incomplete expansion of the alveoli. This collapse can occur due to various reasons such as blockage of the air passages, compression of the lungs, or decreased surfactant production. When a part of the lung collapses, it becomes non-functional as it cannot effectively exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the bloodstream. This condition can cause symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels in the body. Treatment for atelectasis involves addressing the underlying cause and may include techniques to re-expand the collapsed lung tissue.

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  • 21. 

    Atelectasis is an indication of ... a        , it isn't a condition on it's own, it's a symptom.

    Explanation
    Atelectasis is not a disease state on its own, but rather an indication or symptom of a disease state. It refers to the partial or complete collapse of a lung or a section of a lung, usually due to blockage or compression of the airways. Therefore, the correct answer is "disease state" because atelectasis is a manifestation of an underlying condition or disease.

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  • 22. 

    SOA; no lung sounds on affected side; anxiety; unconscious (maybe); and cyanosis are signs and symptoms of a closed         

    Explanation
    The signs and symptoms described, such as absence of lung sounds on the affected side, anxiety, unconsciousness, and cyanosis, are consistent with a pneumothorax. A pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse. The absence of lung sounds indicates that there is no air movement in the affected lung. Anxiety and unconsciousness may be present due to the decreased oxygen levels in the body. Cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the skin, occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the blood. Therefore, the correct answer is pneumothorax.

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  • 23. 

    In a ventilation problem _______ is coming to the area there's no _______ because of a problem with the _______.

    Explanation
    In a ventilation problem, the supply of blood to the area is not reaching because of a problem with the oxygen in the lungs. This suggests that there is a disruption in the process of oxygenation in the lungs, which is crucial for delivering oxygenated blood to various parts of the body. This could be due to factors such as lung disease, respiratory failure, or any other condition that impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs.

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  • 24. 

    High V/Q ratio = _______ problem

    Explanation
    A high V/Q ratio refers to a situation where there is an imbalance between ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) in the lungs. In this case, the amount of air reaching the alveoli is greater than the amount of blood flow to the alveoli. This can lead to inadequate oxygenation of the blood and is commonly associated with a perfusion problem.

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  • 25. 

    Tachynpnea; expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and dusky skin are signs and symptoms of          

    Explanation
    Tachypnea refers to rapid breathing, expiratory grunting is a noise made during exhalation, nasal flaring is the widening of the nostrils, and dusky skin indicates a bluish or grayish color. These signs and symptoms are characteristic of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), a condition commonly seen in premature infants. RDS occurs due to underdeveloped lungs and a lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the air sacs in the lungs open. This leads to difficulty in breathing and inadequate oxygenation, resulting in the observed symptoms.

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  • 26. 

    Small cell/oat cell _______ can produce ADH from the lung. It's rapidly growing, rapidly metastasizes. Poor prognosis.

    Explanation
    Small cell/oat cell carcinoma is a type of lung cancer that can produce ADH (antidiuretic hormone). This type of carcinoma is known for its rapid growth and metastasis, which means it can spread quickly to other parts of the body. Unfortunately, small cell/oat cell carcinoma has a poor prognosis, meaning the outlook for patients with this type of cancer is generally not favorable.

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  • 27. 

    Dyspnea, tachypnea, V/Q mismatch (Increased ratio), chest pain, cough, apprehension, diaphoresis, crackles, low grade fever, signs and symptoms of RHF (systemic edema) are common signs and symptoms of a               

    Explanation
    The symptoms described, such as dyspnea (shortness of breath), tachypnea (rapid breathing), chest pain, cough, apprehension, diaphoresis (excessive sweating), crackles (abnormal lung sounds), low-grade fever, and signs of right-sided heart failure (systemic edema), are all indicative of a pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot travels to the lungs and blocks the blood flow. This can lead to a decrease in oxygenation and cause symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, and cough. The increased V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) mismatch refers to the imbalance between air and blood flow in the lungs, which is a common finding in pulmonary embolism.

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  • 28. 

    In a perfusion problem, blood is _______, usually by a _______ .

    Explanation
    In a perfusion problem, blood flow is blocked or restricted, usually by a pulmonary embolism.

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  • 29. 

    Situations in which a patient conditions are life threatening, no breath sounds, tracheal deviations, SOA, anxious, cyanosis, and may be unconscious are signs and symptoms of a        

    Explanation
    The given signs and symptoms, such as no breath sounds, tracheal deviations, shortness of breath, anxiety, cyanosis, and possible unconsciousness, are indicative of tension pneumothorax. Tension pneumothorax occurs when air accumulates in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse and putting pressure on the heart and other structures in the chest. This can lead to life-threatening conditions, as the lack of breath sounds suggests a compromised respiratory system, tracheal deviations indicate a shift in the position of the trachea, and the presence of cyanosis and unconsciousness suggest a severe lack of oxygen.

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  • 30. 

    Chest tube to re-exert (-) pressure is how a            is treated

    Explanation
    A closed pneumothorax refers to a condition where air accumulates in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse. To treat this condition, a chest tube is inserted to re-exert negative pressure in the pleural space, allowing the lung to re-expand and removing the excess air.

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  • 31. 

    The presence of air or gas in the pleural space that leads to lung collapse...

    Explanation
    Pneumothorax is a condition characterized by the presence of air or gas in the pleural space, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This accumulation of air can cause the lung to collapse, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and decreased breath sounds. Pneumothorax can occur spontaneously, as a result of lung disease or injury, or as a complication of medical procedures. Prompt treatment is necessary to remove the air from the pleural space and reinflate the lung.

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  • 32. 

    Increased LV systolic or diastolic dysfunction; LV overload; and LV outflow obstruction are the underlying causes of              

    Explanation
    Increased LV systolic or diastolic dysfunction refers to a decrease in the ability of the left ventricle of the heart to contract or relax properly, leading to impaired pumping of blood. LV overload occurs when there is an excessive amount of blood volume or pressure in the left ventricle, which can be caused by conditions such as heart failure or fluid overload. LV outflow obstruction refers to a blockage or narrowing in the left ventricular outflow tract, which can impede the flow of blood from the heart. All of these underlying causes can lead to an accumulation of fluid in the lungs, resulting in pulmonary edema.

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  • 33. 

    Closed; occurs in healthy young men; and visceral layerThese conditions described             

    Explanation
    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a condition where air accumulates in the space between the lungs and the chest wall, causing the lung to collapse. It typically occurs in healthy young men and is characterized by a sudden onset of chest pain and difficulty breathing. The term "closed" refers to the fact that there is no external injury or trauma that causes the pneumothorax. The "visceral layer" refers to the layer of the pleura, the membrane that covers the lungs, which is affected in this condition.

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  • 34. 

    Lungs don't expand or contract due to remodeling of vessels describes            

    Explanation
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease that primarily affects premature infants who have received mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. The statement "Lungs don't expand or contract due to remodeling of vessels" is an accurate description of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This condition is characterized by inflammation and scarring of the lungs, leading to reduced lung compliance and impaired ability of the lungs to expand and contract properly. The remodeling of vessels refers to the abnormal development and restructuring of the blood vessels in the lungs, which further contributes to the lung dysfunction seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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  • 35. 

    Barotrauma and connective tissue diseases causes a          

    Explanation
    Barotrauma refers to the damage caused to the lungs due to changes in pressure, commonly seen in scuba divers or individuals exposed to high altitudes. Connective tissue diseases, on the other hand, are a group of disorders that affect the connective tissues in the body, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Both of these conditions can lead to the development of a closed pneumothorax, which is a condition where air accumulates in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse.

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  • 36. 

    In a          ,the parietal is intact but the visceral pleura is disrupted. Essentially a separation of the wall layers.

    Explanation
    The given description suggests that there is a separation of the wall layers in the chest cavity, specifically the parietal layer is intact while the visceral pleura is disrupted. This condition is known as a closed pneumothorax. In a closed pneumothorax, air enters the pleural space between the chest wall and the lung, causing the lung to collapse. The intact parietal layer prevents air from escaping into the surrounding tissues, resulting in a closed or trapped pneumothorax.

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  • 37. 

    Pancreas; respiratory tract; sweat and salivary glands; intestines; and liver are structures affected by     .

    Explanation
    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects various organs in the body including the pancreas, respiratory tract, sweat and salivary glands, intestines, and liver. CF causes the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways, leading to respiratory problems. It also affects the pancreas, preventing the release of digestive enzymes, and can lead to malnutrition. CF can also affect the sweat and salivary glands, causing salty skin and saliva. Additionally, it can affect the intestines, leading to problems with nutrient absorption, and the liver, causing liver disease.

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  • 38. 

    50% of metastatic carcinomas arise from the _______ .

    Explanation
    50% of metastatic carcinomas arise from the lungs. This means that in half of the cases where cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the primary tumor originated in the lungs. Metastatic carcinomas occur when cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other organs or tissues. The lungs are a common site for metastasis due to their rich blood supply and close proximity to other organs.

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  • 39. 

    Hyperventilation triggers respiratory _______ and that can lead to seizures.

    Explanation
    Hyperventilation, which is rapid and deep breathing, can lead to a condition called alkalosis. Alkalosis is a disturbance in the body's acid-base balance, characterized by excessive alkalinity in the blood. This occurs when there is an excessive elimination of carbon dioxide through the lungs, causing a decrease in carbonic acid levels. Alkalosis can lead to various symptoms, including dizziness, numbness, tingling, and in severe cases, seizures. Therefore, hyperventilation can trigger alkalosis, which in turn can lead to seizures.

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  • 40. 

    If a patient has hypoxemia, they'll have _______ also.

    Explanation
    If a patient has hypoxemia, it means that their blood oxygen levels are low. Hypoxia, on the other hand, refers to a condition where the body or a specific tissue is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Since hypoxemia is a specific type of hypoxia where the oxygen levels in the blood are low, it can be inferred that if a patient has hypoxemia, they will also have hypoxia.

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  • 41. 

    Loss of elastic recoil and expiration speed leads to not enough elasticity to push air up and out which leads to increased air in lungs, decreased mucus production and alveoli cannot push air out describe the pathology of       

    Explanation
    Emphysema is a chronic lung disease characterized by the destruction of the walls of the alveoli in the lungs. This destruction leads to a loss of elastic recoil, meaning that the lungs are unable to fully deflate during expiration. Without enough elasticity, the air gets trapped in the lungs, causing them to become overinflated. Additionally, the decreased mucus production makes it difficult to clear the airways, further contributing to the retention of air. This pathology ultimately leads to the symptoms associated with emphysema, such as shortness of breath and difficulty exhaling.

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  • 42. 

    _______ happen in people that have hypoxia in the brain due to decreased brain stem functioning.

    Explanation
    Cheyne-Stokes respirations occur in individuals who have decreased brain stem functioning, leading to hypoxia in the brain. This pattern of breathing is characterized by a gradual increase in the depth and rate of breathing, followed by a gradual decrease until a period of apnea occurs. This cycle then repeats itself. The underlying cause of Cheyne-Stokes respirations is believed to be due to an imbalance in the regulation of breathing by the brain stem, resulting in abnormal breathing patterns.

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  • 43. 

    Leaning over, gasping, and sweating are all signs and symptoms of      breathing.

    Explanation
    Leaning over, gasping, and sweating are all signs and symptoms that indicate a difficulty or obstruction in breathing. These signs suggest that the person is experiencing labored or obstructed breathing.

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  • 44. 

    Abnormal permanent enlargement of the gas-exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis is indicative of         

    Explanation
    The given description of abnormal permanent enlargement of the gas-exchange airways accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis is characteristic of emphysema. Emphysema is a chronic lung condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs become damaged, causing them to lose their elasticity and ability to efficiently exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. This leads to difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath, and other respiratory symptoms.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 20, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Sgomes
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