Research Midterm: Quiz 1- Introduction To Nursing Research

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Research Midterm: Quiz 1- Introduction To Nursing Research - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A research nurse understands that evidenced-based practice in nursing does which of the following?

    • A.

      Relies on tradition

    • B.

      Consults recognized authorities

    • C.

      Depends primarily on textbooks

    • D.

      Is based on the latest research

    Correct Answer
    D. Is based on the latest research
    Explanation
    k EBP prioritizes research findings, which are found primarily in primary sources, such as journals, rather
    than in secondary sources, such as textbooks. It is not dependent on tradition or authority.

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  • 2. 

    A researcher wants to explore the process by which men make decisions about treatment for prostate cancer. The researcher's paradigm is most likely which of the following?

    • A.

      Positivism

    • B.

      Determinism

    • C.

      Empiricism

    • D.

      Constructivism

    Correct Answer
    D. Constructivism
    Explanation
    As this study involves gathering subjective, non-measurable data, the researcher's paradigm is most
    likely constructivism. Positivism is not likely, as there is no emphasis on an objective, orderly reality.
    Determinism, which refers to the belief that phenomena result from prior causes and are not
    haphazard, is not pertinent here. Although the research will involve empiricism, or gathering information
    using the senses, this is not the primary paradigm.

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  • 3. 

    A researcher wants to investigate the effect of patients' body position on blood pressure. The study would most likely be of which type?

    • A.

      Qualitative

    • B.

      Quantitative

    • C.

      Either quantitative or qualitative (researcher preference)

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    B. Quantitative
    Explanation
    Because this study would involve a measurable, numeric outcome—blood pressure—it should most
    likely be a quantitative study.

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  • 4. 

    An especially important goal for the nursing profession is to do which of the following?

    • A.

      Conduct research to better understand the context of nursing practice

    • B.

      Establish a solid base of evidence for practice through disciplined research

    • C.

      Document the role nursing serves in society

    • D.

      Establish research priorities

    Correct Answer
    B. Establish a solid base of evidence for practice through disciplined research
    Explanation
    Nurses are increasingly expected to understand and undertake research and to base their practice on
    evidence from research. Evidence-based practice is the use of the best evidence in making patient care
    decisions and typically comes from research conducted by nurses and other health-care professionals.
    All of the other answers are possible goals for the nursing profession, but none is as important as
    establishing evidence for practice.

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  • 5. 

    Constructivist qualitative research typically does which of the following?

    • A.

      Involves deductive processes

    • B.

      Attempts to control the research context to better understand the phenomenon being studied

    • C.

      Involves gathering narrative, subjective materials

    • D.

      Focuses on numeric information

    Correct Answer
    C. Involves gathering narrative, subjective materials
    Explanation
    In the constructivist paradigm, it is assumed that reality is not a fixed entity but is rather a construction
    of human minds—and thus “truth” is a composite of multiple constructions of reality. In the positivist
    paradigm, it is assumed that there is an objective reality and that natural phenomena are regular and
    orderly. Constructivist researchers emphasize understanding human experience as it is lived through
    the collection and analysis of subjective, narrative materials using flexible procedures; this paradigm is
    associated with qualitative research. The other answers are truer of positivist, quantitative research.

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  • 6. 

    Consumers of research do which of the following?

    • A.

      Design studies

    • B.

      Undertake studies

    • C.

      Produce research

    • D.

      Read research

    Correct Answer
    C. Produce research
    Explanation
    In the current EBP environment, every nurse is likely to engage in one or more activity along a
    continuum of research participation. At one end of the continuum are users (consumers) of nursing
    research—nurses who read research reports to keep up-to-date on findings that may affect their
    practice. EBP depends on well-informed nursing research consumers. At the other end of the
    continuum are the producers of nursing research: nurses who actively design and undertake studies.

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  • 7. 

    Empiricism refers to which of the following?

    • A.

      Making generalizations from specific observations

    • B.

      Articulating a study purpose in terms of an appropriate classification system

    • C.

      Gathering evidence about real-world phenomena through the senses

    • D.

      Verifying the assumptions on which the study was based

    Correct Answer
    C. Gathering evidence about real-world phenomena through the senses
    Explanation
    Empiricism refers to gathering evidence about real-world phenomena through the senses. This means that empirical knowledge is based on observation and experience rather than speculation or theory. Empiricists believe that knowledge comes from direct sensory experience and that it can be verified through observation and experimentation. By using their senses to gather evidence, empiricists aim to understand and explain the world around them. This approach emphasizes the importance of empirical evidence in forming beliefs and making conclusions.

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  • 8. 

    Evidenced-based nursing primarily uses which of the following to answer clinical questions?

    • A.

      Consulting an authority

    • B.

      Using intuition

    • C.

      Obtaining the newest research

    • D.

      Relying on experience

    Correct Answer
    C. Obtaining the newest research
    Explanation
    Nurses are increasingly expected to understand and undertake research, and to base their practice on
    evidence from research—that is, to adopt an evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP, broadly defined, is
    the use of the best evidence in making patient care decisions. Experience, intuition, and authority are
    not wholly ignored in the EBP process, but research is a priority.

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  • 9. 

    Non-research-based evidence includes which of the following? Select all that apply

    • A.

      Unit culture

    • B.

      Nurse's experience

    • C.

      Qualitative studies

    • D.

      Trial and error

    Correct Answer
    C. Qualitative studies
    Explanation
    Clinical reports, experience and beliefs are non-research based sources of evidence, which are
    considered to be comparatively weak. Qualitative studies are research-based.

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  • 10. 

    Nursing has experienced constant change over the past decades as a result of increased research. When determining best practices, nursing decisions should do which of the following? Select all that apply

    • A.

      Be based on tradition

    • B.

      Include holistic approaches

    • C.

      Be clinically appropriate

    • D.

      Be cost effective

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Be clinically appropriate
    D. Be cost effective
    Explanation
    Nurse leaders recognize the need to base specific nursing decisions on evidence indicating that the
    decisions are clinically appropriate, cost-effective, and result in positive client outcomes. Holistic
    treatments may be appropriate in some, but not all, circumstances. Tradition alone is an inadequate
    basis for practice

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  • 11. 

    Quantitative and qualitative research share which of the following features? Select all that apply

    • A.

      A desire to understand the true state of human affairs

    • B.

      An emphasis on formal measurement

    • C.

      A reliance on external evidence collected through the senses

    • D.

      Utility to the nursing profession

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. A desire to understand the true state of human affairs
    C. A reliance on external evidence collected through the senses
    D. Utility to the nursing profession
    Explanation
    Both quantitative and qualitative research share a desire to understand the true state of human affairs,
    a reliance on external evidence collected through the senses, and utility to the nursing profession.
    However, quantitative, not qualitative, research emphasizes formal measurement.

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  • 12. 

    The classic scientific method has its intellectual roots in which of the following?

    • A.

      Positivism

    • B.

      Determinism

    • C.

      Constructivism

    • D.

      Empiricism

    Correct Answer
    A. Positivism
    Explanation
    In the positivist paradigm, it is assumed that there is an objective reality and that natural phenomena
    are regular and orderly. The related assumption of determinism refers to the belief that phenomena
    result from prior causes and are not haphazard. In the constructivist paradigm, it is assumed that reality
    is not a fixed entity but is rather a construction of human minds—and thus “truth” is a composite of
    multiple constructions of reality. Although the word empiricism has come to be allied with the classic
    scientific method, researchers in both traditions gather and analyze evidence empirically, that is,
    through their senses.

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  • 13. 

    The major difference between quantitative and qualitative research is that qualitative research seeks to find answers based on which of the following?

    • A.

      Solid factual data

    • B.

      Experiences or descriptions

    • C.

      Etiology

    • D.

      Systematic process

    Correct Answer
    B. Experiences or descriptions
    Explanation
    Human experiences, and people's descriptions and interpretations of these experiences, are the main
    focus of qualitative research. Systematic process, etiology, and factual data are more closely aligned
    with the quantitative tradition.

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  • 14. 

    When little is known about a phenomenon or the phenomenon is not clearly identified, the best type of research suited to uncover this is which of the following?

    • A.

      Exploration

    • B.

      Description

    • C.

      Identification

    • D.

      Prediction

    Correct Answer
    C. Identification
    Explanation
    Qualitative researchers sometimes study phenomena about which little is known. In some cases, so
    little is known that the phenomenon has yet to be clearly identified or named or has been inadequately
    defined. Identification is thus necessary. Exploration (which addresses causation), predication, and
    description would likely be subsequent efforts.

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  • 15. 

    When nurses rely primarily on tradition, they are most likely to do which of the following?

    • A.

      Produce a precise range of answers

    • B.

      Increase new knowledge

    • C.

      Maintain an unbiased perspective

    • D.

      Undermine effective problem solving

    Correct Answer
    D. Undermine effective problem solving
    Explanation
    Tradition may undermine effective problem solving. There is growing concern that many nursing actions
    are based on tradition, custom, and “unit culture” rather than on sound evidence. This prevents the
    acceptance of new knowledge and increases bias and is unlikely to produce a precise range of
    answers.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following attributes is least characteristic of the traditional scientific method?

    • A.

      Control over external factors

    • B.

      Systematic measurement and observation of natural phenomena

    • C.

      Testing of hunches deduced from theory or prior research

    • D.

      Emphasis on a holistic view of a phenomenon, studied in a rich context

    Correct Answer
    D. Emphasis on a holistic view of a phenomenon, studied in a rich context
    Explanation
    Quantitative research (associated with positivism) involves the collection and analysis of numeric
    information. Quantitative research is typically conducted within the traditional scientific method, which is
    systematic and controlled. Quantitative researchers base their findings on empirical evidence (evidence
    collected by way of the human senses) and strive for generalizability beyond a single setting or
    situation. Constructivist researchers emphasize understanding human experience as it is lived through
    the collection and analysis of subjective, narrative materials using flexible procedures; this paradigm is
    associated with qualitative research.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following groups would be best served by the development of a scientific base for nursing practice?

    • A.

      Nursing administrators

    • B.

      Practicing nurses

    • C.

      Nurses' clients

    • D.

      Health care policymakers

    Correct Answer
    C. Nurses' clients
    Explanation
    Nursing research is systematic inquiry designed to develop trustworthy evidence about issues of
    importance to nurses and their clients. Nurse leaders recognize the need to base specific nursing
    decisions on evidence indicating that the decisions are clinically appropriate, cost-effective, and result
    in positive client outcomes. Although all of the people listed would benefit from the development of a
    scientific base for nursing practice, ultimately it is the clients themselves who would most benefit, as
    they would then receive the most appropriate and most effective care

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a descriptive question that a qualitative researcher most likely would ask?

    • A.

      What is the nature of this phenomenon?

    • B.

      What is the average intensity of this phenomenon?

    • C.

      How frequently does this phenomenon occur?

    • D.

      What is the average duration of this phenomenon?

    Correct Answer
    A. What is the nature of this phenomenon?
    Explanation
    Description of phenomena is an important purpose of research. In descriptive studies, researchers
    count, delineate, and classify. Nurse researchers have described a wide variety of phenomena, such as
    patients' stress, health beliefs, and so on. Quantitative description focuses on the prevalence, size, and
    measurable aspects of phenomena. Qualitative researchers describe the nature, dimensions, and
    salience of phenomena

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is a fundamental belief of those who hold to the constructivist paradigm?

    • A.

      A fixed reality exists in nature for humans to understand

    • B.

      The nature of reality has changed over time

    • C.

      Reality is multiply constructed and multiply interpreted by humans

    • D.

      Reality cannot be studied empirically

    Correct Answer
    C. Reality is multiply constructed and multiply interpreted by humans
    Explanation
    In the constructivist paradigm, it is assumed that reality is not a fixed entity but is rather a construction
    of human minds—and thus “truth” is a composite of multiple constructions of reality. However,
    constructivists do believe that reality can be studied empirically. Belief in a fixed reality that exists in
    nature for humans to understand would be an example of a positivist belief, not a constructivist one.
    The constructivist belief does not hold so much that the nature of reality has changed over time as that
    it has always been constructed by human minds.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is a fundamental belief of those who hold to the positivist paradigm?

    • A.

      The researcher is objective and independent of those being studied

    • B.

      The researcher cannot interact with those being studied

    • C.

      The researcher instructs those being studied to be objective in providing information

    • D.

      The distance between the researcher and those being researched is minimized to enhance the interactive process

    Correct Answer
    A. The researcher is objective and independent of those being studied
    Explanation
    In the positivist paradigm, it is assumed that there is an objective reality and that natural phenomena
    are regular and orderly. In the constructivist paradigm, it is assumed that reality is not a fixed entity but
    is rather a construction of human minds—and thus “truth” is a composite of multiple constructions of
    reality

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    Which of the following is a hallmark of the scientific method?

    • A.

      Rigorous

    • B.

      Holistic

    • C.

      Systematic

    • D.

      Flexible

    Correct Answer
    C. Systematic
    Explanation
    Quantitative research is typically conducted within the traditional scientific method, which is systematic
    and controlled. Quantitative researchers base their findings on empirical evidence and strive for
    generalizability beyond a single setting or situation. Constructivist researchers emphasize
    understanding human experience as it is lived through the collection and analysis of subjective,
    narrative materials using flexible procedures; this paradigm is associated with qualitative research.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    Which of the following limits the capacity of the scientific method to answer questions about humans?

    • A.

      The necessity of departing from traditional beliefs

    • B.

      The difficulty of accurately measuring complex human traits

    • C.

      The lack of funding for research

    • D.

      The shortage of theories about human behavior

    Correct Answer
    B. The difficulty of accurately measuring complex human traits
    Explanation
    Nursing research focuses on human beings, who are inherently complicated and diverse. The
    traditional scientific method typically focuses on a relatively small aspect of human experiences in a
    single study. Complexities tend to be controlled and, if possible, eliminated rather than studied directly,
    and this narrowness of focus can sometimes obscure insights

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following research focuses is qualitative?

    • A.

      Weekend and night outcomes of patients admitted to a specific hospital system's trauma departments

    • B.

      Trends in hospitalizations of patients with antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis

    • C.

      Predicting risks for serious complications with abdominal surgery

    • D.

      Needs of nursing students living with chronic illness

    Correct Answer
    D. Needs of nursing students living with chronic illness
    Explanation
    Constructivist studies are heavily focused on understanding the human experience as it is lived,
    through the careful collection and analysis of qualitative materials that are narrative and subjective.
    Human needs, and individuals' perceptions of those needs, are a common focus of qualitative research.
    Outcomes, risk factors, and treatment modalities are often addressed with quantitative research

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following would be most strongly associated with cause-probing research?

    • A.

      Identification

    • B.

      Description

    • C.

      Exploration

    • D.

      Explanation

    Correct Answer
    D. Explanation
    Explanation
    A fundamental distinction that is especially relevant in quantitative research is between studies whose
    primary intent is to describe phenomena and those that are cause-probing. Specific purposes on the
    description/explanation continuum include identification, description, exploration, prediction/control and
    explanation. Many nursing studies can also be classified in terms of a key EBP aim:
    therapy/treatment/intervention; diagnosis and assessment; prognosis; etiology and harm; and meaning
    and process.

    Rate this question:

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 21, 2018
    Quiz Created by
    Ashtrippett215
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