Janet Houser Nursing Research Test Bank

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Nursing Research: Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence 3rd edition
Author: Janet Houser

• 1.

An outcome of interest that occurs after the introduction of an independent variable. The “effect” of “cause and effect.”

• A.

Descriptive variables

• B.

Independent variables

• C.

Non-descriptive variables

• D.

Dependent variable

D. Dependent variable
Explanation
The dependent variable is the outcome of interest that occurs after the introduction of an independent variable. It is called the "dependent" variable because it depends on the independent variable for its occurrence or change. In other words, the dependent variable is the variable that is being studied or measured to see how it is affected by the independent variable. It is the variable that researchers are interested in understanding the effects or influence of the independent variable on.

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• 2.

Characteristics that describe the sample and provide a composite picture of the subjects of the study; they are not manipulated or controlled by the researcher.

• A.

Descriptive variables

• B.

Descriptive studies

• C.

Variable

• D.

Extraneous variables

A. Descriptive variables
Explanation
Descriptive variables are characteristics that describe the sample and provide a composite picture of the subjects of the study. These variables are not manipulated or controlled by the researcher. They are used to provide a detailed description of the subjects or population under study. Descriptive variables help in understanding the characteristics, behaviors, or attributes of the subjects, without any intervention or manipulation by the researcher.

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• 3.

Factors that exert an effect on the outcome but that are not part of the planned experiment and may confuse the interpretation of the results.

• A.

Exploratory studies

• B.

Variable

• C.

Research design

• D.

Extraneous variables

D. Extraneous variables
Explanation
Extraneous variables are factors that can influence the outcome of an experiment but are not intentionally manipulated by the researcher. These variables can potentially confuse the interpretation of the results because they are not part of the planned experiment. They are often considered as unwanted variables that may introduce bias or error into the study. Therefore, researchers try to control or eliminate the influence of extraneous variables to ensure that the results accurately reflect the effect of the independent variable being studied.

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• 4.

A factor that is artificially introduced into a study explicitly to measure an expected effect. The “cause” of “cause and effect.”

• A.

Dependent variable

• B.

Independent variable

• C.

Variable

• D.

Extraneous variable

B. Independent variable
Explanation
The independent variable is a factor that is intentionally introduced into a study to measure its effect on the dependent variable. It is the variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher. In a cause and effect relationship, the independent variable is considered the "cause" as it is expected to have an effect on the dependent variable.

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• 5.

Characteristic, event, or response that represents the elements of the research question in a detectable or measurable way

• A.

Exploratory studies

• B.

Seminal work

• C.

Correlation research

• D.

Variable

D. Variable
Explanation
A variable is a characteristic, event, or response that represents the elements of a research question in a detectable or measurable way. In research, variables are used to study the relationship between different factors and outcomes. They can be manipulated or measured to determine their impact on the research question. Variables are an essential component of any study as they allow researchers to gather data and analyze it to draw meaningful conclusions.

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• 6.

_______ introduced the concept of scientific inquiry as the basic for practice in 1859.  The topic environmental factors to promote physical/emotional well-being. This person is also the first nurse researcher.

• A.

Clara barton

• B.

Margaret Newman

• C.

Florence Nightingale

C. Florence Nightingale
Explanation
Florence Nightingale introduced the concept of scientific inquiry as the basis for practice in 1859. She emphasized the importance of using evidence-based practices and collecting data to improve patient care. Nightingale also recognized the role of environmental factors in promoting physical and emotional well-being. She is considered the first nurse researcher because she conducted extensive research and analysis on health outcomes and hospital sanitation.

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• 7.

_______ put nursing research on par with medical research and the other health sciences, ensuring financial support and a national audience for disciplined inquiry in the field.

• A.

IRB- International review board

• B.

NINH-National Institute of Nursing Research

• C.

NNA- National nurses association

B. NINH-National Institute of Nursing Research
Explanation
The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINH) is responsible for putting nursing research on par with medical research and other health sciences. It ensures financial support and a national audience for disciplined inquiry in the field.

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• 8.

__________ the process of subjecting research to the appraisal of a neutral third party.

• A.

Peer review

• B.

Intentional review

• C.

Nursing research

A. Peer review
Explanation
Peer review is the process of subjecting research to the appraisal of a neutral third party. In this process, experts in the field review and evaluate the research methodology, findings, and conclusions before it is published. This ensures that the research is rigorous, credible, and meets the standards of the scientific community. Peer review helps to maintain the quality and integrity of research by identifying any flaws, biases, or inaccuracies in the study. It also provides valuable feedback to the researchers, allowing them to improve their work before it is shared with the wider scientific community.

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• 9.

________ was established/done in the United States

• A.

Nuremberg Code

• B.

Tuskegee Study and National Research Act 1974

• C.

The Declaration of Helsinki

B. Tuskegee Study and National Research Act 1974
Explanation
The Tuskegee Study and National Research Act 1974 was established/done in the United States. The Tuskegee Study was a notorious unethical medical experiment conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service from 1932 to 1972, where African American men with syphilis were left untreated to observe the progression of the disease. This study led to significant changes in the ethical guidelines for human subjects research, culminating in the passage of the National Research Act in 1974. The act established the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which developed the Belmont Report and its principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

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• 10.

____ Are international codes

• A.

Tuskegee Study and National Research Act 1974

• B.

National Research Act in 1974

• C.

Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki

C. Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki
Explanation
The Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki are both international codes that provide ethical guidelines for conducting medical research involving human subjects. The Nuremberg Code was developed after the atrocities committed by Nazi doctors during World War II and emphasizes the importance of informed consent, voluntary participation, and minimizing harm to participants. The Declaration of Helsinki, updated several times since its inception in 1964, also focuses on informed consent, protection of vulnerable populations, and the necessity of ethical review boards. These codes aim to ensure that medical research is conducted ethically and with the well-being of participants as a top priority.

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• 11.

________ mission is to ensure that the research is ethically acceptable and that the welfare and rights of research participants are protected; PROTECTING THE CITIZENS.

• A.

IRB=institutional Review Board

• B.

NINH-National Institute of Nursing Research

• C.

Hawthorne effect

A. IRB=institutional Review Board
Explanation
The correct answer is IRB = institutional Review Board. An Institutional Review Board's mission is to ensure that research is ethically acceptable and that the welfare and rights of research participants are protected. They play a crucial role in protecting the citizens involved in research studies by reviewing and approving research protocols, monitoring ongoing studies, and ensuring compliance with ethical guidelines and regulations.

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• 12.

What kind of effect?Little Timmy always came to school stinky. One day, Timmy's teacher told the class that she would give candy to all of the kids if they came to school smelling good. So the next day, little Timmy made sure to come to class smelling good to get candy. * When the subject yearns to please the researcher. * (May skew results)

• A.

Cause and effect

• B.

Hawthorn effect

• C.

Subject-researcher bias

B. Hawthorn effect
Explanation
The correct answer is the Hawthorne effect. This refers to the phenomenon where individuals modify their behavior or performance in response to being observed or studied. In this case, Timmy changed his behavior (came to school smelling good) because he knew he was being observed by his teacher and wanted to receive candy. This effect can potentially skew research results as individuals may alter their behavior in response to being studied, leading to inaccurate findings.

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• 13.

_______ an overall belief system or way of viewing the nature of reality and the basis of knowledge.

• A.

• B.

Conceptual framework

• C.

Research hypothesis

Explanation
Paradigms in nursing research refer to an overall belief system or way of viewing the nature of reality and the basis of knowledge. In the context of nursing research, paradigms provide a framework for understanding and conducting research. They shape the researcher's perspective, guiding their choice of research methods, data collection, and analysis techniques. Paradigms in nursing research help researchers to approach their studies with a specific set of assumptions and theoretical foundations, which ultimately influence the knowledge produced and the advancement of nursing science.

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• 14.

The Triad of scientific evidence consists of____  (Check all that apply)

• A.

Best scientific evidence

• B.

Nursing research

• C.

Clinical experience

• D.

Patient preferences

• E.

A. Best scientific evidence
C. Clinical experience
D. Patient preferences
Explanation
The Triad of scientific evidence consists of best scientific evidence, clinical experience, and patient preferences. These three components are essential in making evidence-based decisions in healthcare. Best scientific evidence refers to the highest quality research studies and evidence available. Clinical experience involves the knowledge and expertise of healthcare professionals gained through their practice. Patient preferences take into account the individual values, beliefs, and choices of the patient. By considering all three aspects, healthcare decisions can be made that are both scientifically sound and tailored to the individual patient's needs and preferences.

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• 15.

_____ Subject are Randomized (In a quantitative study)Introducing something new into our study that wasn’t there before

• A.

Non-experimental

• B.

Experimental (true experimental)

• C.

Quasi-experimental

B. Experimental (true experimental)
Explanation
In a true experimental design, the researcher has control over the manipulation of the independent variable, which allows for the introduction of something new into the study. This manipulation is done in a randomized manner, meaning that participants are randomly assigned to different groups or conditions. This randomization helps to ensure that any differences observed between groups can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than any pre-existing differences among participants. Therefore, the correct answer is experimental (true experimental).

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• 16.

______ Observing , Collecting data, Non-randomized subjects Not introducing something new into the study.

• A.

Non-experimental

• B.

Experimental (true experimental)

• C.

Quasi-experimental

A. Non-experimental
Explanation
The given answer, "Non-experimental," is correct because the characteristics mentioned in the question, such as observing, collecting data, and not introducing something new into the study, are all indicative of non-experimental research. In non-experimental research, the researcher does not manipulate or control any variables but simply observes and collects data from existing conditions or situations. This type of research is often used when it is not possible or ethical to conduct an experiment or when the researcher wants to study natural phenomena as they occur.

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• 17.

Very similar to experimental study EXCEPT DO NOT USE RANDOMIZATION.NON-RANDOMIZED.

• A.

Non-experimental

• B.

Experimental (true experimental)

• C.

Quasi-experimental

C. Quasi-experimental
Explanation
Quasi-experimental studies are similar to experimental studies in that they both involve manipulating an independent variable to observe its effect on a dependent variable. However, the key difference is that quasi-experimental studies do not involve randomization. This means that participants are not randomly assigned to different groups, which is a common feature of true experimental studies. Instead, quasi-experimental studies use pre-existing groups or naturally occurring events to create comparison groups. Therefore, the correct answer is quasi-experimental.

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• 18.

Empirical litterature

• A.

Published works that demonstrate how theories apply to individual behavior or observed events.

• B.

Major ideas or themes in a research question.

• C.

Research designed to quantify the strength and the direction of the relationship of two variables in a single subject or the relationship between a single variable in two samples.

• D.

The science of publication patterns

A. Published works that demonstrate how theories apply to individual behavior or observed events.
Explanation
The correct answer is "Empirical literature refers to published works that demonstrate how theories apply to individual behavior or observed events." This explanation accurately describes empirical literature as published works that showcase the application of theories to individual behavior or observed events. It implies that empirical literature provides evidence and examples of how theories are put into practice and how they relate to real-world situations.

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• 19.

Research designed to describe in detail some processes, events, or outcome. The design is used when very little is known about the research questions & the variables are used to predict the outcome.

• A.

Correlation research

• B.

Qualitative research

• C.

Predictive research

C. Predictive research
Explanation
Predictive research is the correct answer because it is a type of research design that aims to predict outcomes based on variables. This design is used when there is limited knowledge about the research questions and the goal is to use the variables to make predictions. In predictive research, detailed descriptions of processes, events, or outcomes are not the main focus, but rather the emphasis is on using the variables to forecast future outcomes.

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• 20.

Relationship between two variables. Quantifies strength and direction of a relationship

• A.

Correlation research

• B.

Quantitative research

• C.

Descriptive research

A. Correlation research
Explanation
Correlation research is a type of quantitative research that aims to examine the relationship between two variables. It quantifies the strength and direction of this relationship, providing a numerical value known as the correlation coefficient. This coefficient indicates the degree to which the variables are related, with values ranging from -1 to +1. A positive correlation suggests that as one variable increases, the other also increases, while a negative correlation indicates that as one variable increases, the other decreases. Correlation research helps to determine the extent of the association between variables and is useful in predicting and understanding patterns in data.

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• 21.

everyone who we want to apply our study finding to.. ex) all of the patients with heart disease or high cholesterol.

• A.

Sample

• B.

Population

• C.

Portion

B. Population
Explanation
The term "population" refers to the entire group of individuals that the study findings are intended to be applied to. In this case, it includes all of the patients with heart disease or high cholesterol. The population represents the target group that the study aims to provide insights and recommendations for.

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• 22.

A carefully selected subset of the population that represents population characteristic

• A.

Population

• B.

Sample

• C.

Portion

B. Sample
Explanation
A sample refers to a carefully selected subset of the population that represents population characteristics. It is a smaller group that is chosen to represent the larger population in research or statistical analysis. By studying the sample, researchers can make inferences and draw conclusions about the entire population.

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• 23.

A specific population example BSN student in Florida, Heart failure patient

• A.

Sample

• B.

Population

• C.

Target population

• D.

Target sample

C. Target population
Explanation
The given options "Sample," "Population," "Target population," and "Target sample" are all related to the concept of population sampling. In this context, "Target population" refers to the specific group or population that the researcher aims to study or make inferences about. In this case, the target population is a specific group of BSN students in Florida who are heart failure patients. This means that the researcher is interested in studying this particular group and drawing conclusions based on their characteristics and experiences.

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• 24.

Who’s the easiest and most available people for the researcher? Ex: BSN in our back yard (Tampa, Florida)

• A.

Target population

• B.

Accessible Population

• C.

Target sample

B. Accessible Population
Explanation
The correct answer is Accessible Population. The question is asking about the easiest and most available people for the researcher to study. The accessible population refers to the group of individuals who meet the criteria for inclusion in the study and are readily accessible to the researcher. This means that they are easily reachable and can be easily recruited for participation in the research. In this case, the researcher is looking for people in their back yard (Tampa, Florida), indicating that they are easily accessible to the researcher. Therefore, the accessible population is the most appropriate answer.

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• 25.

Sample selection is referred to as PURPOSEFUL SUBJECTS ARE SELECTED BECAUSE THEY POSSESS CERTAIN CHARACTERISTIC

• A.

Qualitative sample selection

• B.

Quantitative sample selection

• C.

Longitudinal study sample selection

A. Qualitative sample selection
Explanation
Qualitative sample selection refers to the purposeful selection of subjects based on certain characteristics they possess. This means that researchers intentionally choose individuals who possess specific qualities or characteristics that are relevant to the research study. This approach allows for a focused and targeted sample that can provide rich and in-depth information for qualitative analysis. Unlike quantitative sample selection, which typically involves random or representative sampling, qualitative sample selection aims to gather detailed insights and understanding from a select group of individuals. This method is often used in qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups, or case studies.

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• 26.

What determines sample size in a qualitative study?

• A.

Power analysis

• B.

Redundancy & saturation:the point at which no new information is being generated

B. Redundancy & saturation:the point at which no new information is being generated
Explanation
In a qualitative study, the sample size is determined by redundancy and saturation, which refers to the point at which no new information is being generated. This means that once enough participants have been included in the study and no new insights or data are being obtained, the researcher can conclude that saturation has been reached and further sampling is not necessary. This ensures that the study is comprehensive and that all relevant information has been gathered from the participants. Power analysis, on the other hand, is typically used in quantitative studies to determine the appropriate sample size needed to detect a statistically significant effect.

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• 27.

What determines sample size in a quantitative study?

• A.

Power analysis: how large of a sample is needed to detect a difference in the outcome variables

• B.

Redundancy and saturation

A. Power analysis: how large of a sample is needed to detect a difference in the outcome variables
Explanation
The correct answer is power analysis: how large of a sample is needed to detect a difference in the outcome variables. Power analysis is a statistical method used to determine the sample size necessary for a study to accurately detect a significant difference or relationship between variables. It takes into account factors such as the desired level of statistical power, effect size, and significance level to calculate the appropriate sample size. By conducting a power analysis, researchers can ensure that their study has enough participants to yield valid and reliable results.

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• 28.

What’s in the dictionary definitions, everyone will read and understand the same meaning

• A.

Conceptual definition

• B.

Operational definition

• C.

Psychometric definition

A. Conceptual definition
Explanation
The given answer is "Conceptual definition". This answer suggests that the meaning of a word or concept can be universally understood by referring to its definition in a dictionary. It implies that dictionary definitions provide a clear and commonly accepted understanding of words or concepts, allowing everyone to interpret them in the same way. This aligns with the idea that dictionaries serve as authoritative sources for language definitions and promote consistent understanding among users.

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• 29.

Definition not found in the dictionary.... In order to find the meaning, tools like a survey, pain scale, questionnaires..etc! are used

• A.

Conceptual definition

• B.

Operational definition

• C.

Psychometric definition

B. Operational definition
Explanation
An operational definition is a definition that explains the meaning of a concept or variable in terms of the specific procedures or operations used to measure or manipulate it. In this context, when a definition is not found in the dictionary, researchers can use tools like surveys, pain scales, questionnaires, etc. to create an operational definition and determine the meaning of the concept or variable they are studying.

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• 30.

Error happens to every person at the study. Ex) thermometer, blood pressure, a question that everyone interpreted the same way and miss on a test

• A.

Systematic error

• B.

Random error

• C.

Internal error

A. Systematic error
Explanation
Systematic error refers to a consistent and predictable error that occurs in a study or experiment. It is caused by flaws in the design or execution of the study, leading to a consistent deviation from the true value. In the given context, the examples provided, such as misinterpreting a question on a test or using faulty equipment like a thermometer or blood pressure monitor, suggest a consistent error that affects the accuracy and reliability of the results. Therefore, the correct answer is systematic error.

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• 31.

Only one person made that error/ non-reproducible. Ex) One person accidentally hit the "agree" by mistake.

• A.

Systematic error

• B.

Random error

• C.

Internal error

B. Random error
Explanation
The given scenario describes a situation where only one person made an error, which was non-reproducible and accidental. This suggests that the error was not caused by a systematic error, which would affect multiple individuals or occur consistently. Instead, it is more likely to be a random error, which is an unpredictable and isolated mistake made by an individual. Therefore, the correct answer is random error.

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• 32.

True or false? Reliability equals accuracy

• A.

True.... Reliability= accuracy

• B.

False..... Reliability= consistency

B. False..... Reliability= consistency
Explanation
The statement is false because reliability does not equal accuracy. Reliability refers to the consistency or stability of a measurement or data, indicating the extent to which the same results can be obtained under different conditions. Accuracy, on the other hand, refers to how close a measurement or data is to the true or accepted value. While reliability is related to consistency, it does not necessarily guarantee accuracy. A measurement can be consistent but still be consistently wrong or biased. Therefore, reliability and accuracy are separate concepts.

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• 33.

True or false?Validity= accuracy

• A.

True... validity= accuracy

• B.

False... validity= consistency

A. True... validity= accuracy
Explanation
Validity refers to the extent to which a measurement or test accurately measures what it is intended to measure. In this context, accuracy is a synonym for validity. Therefore, the statement "validity = accuracy" is true because both terms refer to the same concept of how closely a measurement or test aligns with the true value or construct it is intended to measure.

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• 34.

Confidence that the experimental treatment or condition (independent) made a difference in the outcome (dependent variable).

• A.

Validity

• B.

External validity

• C.

Internal validity

C. Internal validity
Explanation
Internal validity refers to the extent to which a study is able to establish a causal relationship between the independent variable (experimental treatment or condition) and the dependent variable (outcome). In other words, it is the confidence that the observed effects are indeed caused by the independent variable and not by any other factors. Therefore, the given answer is appropriate as it directly relates to the confidence in the experimental treatment or condition making a difference in the outcome.

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• 35.

Generalized.  The ability to generalize study findings to other populations, places, and situations.

• A.

External validity

• B.

Internal validity

• C.

Validity

A. External validity
Explanation
External validity refers to the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized or applied to other populations, places, and situations. In other words, it assesses whether the results obtained from a particular sample can be extended to a larger population or different settings. Therefore, the given correct answer accurately describes the concept of external validity.

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• 36.

Quantitative validity is transferable findings

• A.

True.... Transferable findings

• B.

False... generalized findings

B. False... generalized findings
Explanation
The correct answer is False because quantitative validity refers to the extent to which research findings can be generalized or transferred to other contexts or populations. Therefore, transferable findings would be the correct term to use in this context, rather than generalized findings.

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• 37.

Qualitative trustworthiness is transferable findings

• A.

True.... transferable

• B.

False.... generalized

A. True.... transferable
Explanation
The given answer is true because qualitative trustworthiness refers to the credibility and dependability of qualitative research findings. Transferable findings means that the results of the research can be applied and generalized to other contexts or settings, indicating that the findings can be trusted and applied beyond the specific study. On the other hand, generalized findings would imply that the results are applicable to a broader population or sample, which is not the case in this scenario.

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• 38.

Convenience sampling is the weakest type of sampling

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Convenience sampling is considered the weakest type of sampling because it relies on selecting individuals who are easily accessible or readily available. This method often leads to a biased sample as it may not accurately represent the entire population. Convenience sampling is convenient and quick, but it lacks randomness and may introduce selection bias. Therefore, it is generally not recommended for obtaining accurate and reliable results.

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