Evaluation Test For Introduction Of Nursing Research & Evidence-based Practice

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Post Test for the following Chapters:
Chapter 14: Qualitative Designs & Traditions
Chapter 15: Sampling & Data Collection in Qualitative Studies


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Compare the data collection methods in qualitative research based on the following criteria (3 Marks):CriteriaEthnography PhenomenologyGrounded Theory1. Type of Data    2. Salient issue     

  • 2. 

    The flexibility and limited structure of qualitative research designs is an advantage because:

    • A.

      The researcher does not impose any predetermined formats on the social world.

    • B.

      The researcher can adapt their theories and methods as the project unfolds.

    • C.

      It allows for unexpected results to emerge from the data.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The flexibility and limited structure of qualitative research designs allow the researcher to approach the social world without imposing predetermined formats. This means that the researcher can adapt their theories and methods as they go along, allowing for a more organic and responsive approach to the project. Additionally, this flexibility allows for unexpected results to emerge from the data, which can lead to new insights and understandings. Therefore, all of the given options are advantages of qualitative research designs.

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  • 3. 

    In qualitative research, differences among types of purposive sample have to do with:

    • A.

      Timing during the study.

    • B.

      Individual variability.

    • C.

      Representativeness.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because in qualitative research, differences among types of purposive sample can vary in terms of timing during the study, individual variability, and representativeness. Timing during the study refers to when the sample is selected, which can impact the data collected. Individual variability accounts for the differences among participants within the sample, such as their unique perspectives and experiences. Representativeness relates to how well the sample represents the larger population or phenomenon being studied. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the differences among types of purposive sample in qualitative research.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is not a general feature that characterizes most qualitative research?

    • A.

      Personal contact and insight

    • B.

      Holistic perspective

    • C.

      Naturalistic inquiry

    • D.

      Inflexible design

    Correct Answer
    D. Inflexible design
    Explanation
    Most qualitative research is characterized by personal contact and insight, as it involves direct interaction with participants to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and perspectives. It also emphasizes a holistic perspective, aiming to examine the research topic in its entirety rather than focusing on isolated variables. Additionally, qualitative research often employs naturalistic inquiry, which involves studying phenomena in their natural settings. However, an inflexible design is not a general feature of qualitative research. Qualitative studies typically have flexible designs that allow for iterative data collection and analysis, enabling researchers to adapt their approach based on emerging findings.

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  • 5. 

    In which approach to qualitative research do the researchers intend to generate a theory that is based on data systematically gathered and analyzed?

    • A.

      Grounded theory

    • B.

      Phenomenology

    • C.

      Case study

    • D.

      Biography

    Correct Answer
    A. Grounded theory
    Explanation
    Grounded theory is an approach to qualitative research where researchers aim to generate a theory that is based on systematically gathered and analyzed data. This approach involves collecting and analyzing data in a way that allows patterns and themes to emerge, which are then used to develop a theory that is grounded in the data itself. The goal is to generate a theory that is closely aligned with the experiences and perspectives of the participants, rather than imposing preconceived notions or theories onto the data.

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  • 6. 

    Researchers study just one individual, classroom, school, or program in which approach to qualitative research?

    • A.

      Phenomenology

    • B.

      Ethnography

    • C.

      Case study

    • D.

      Grounded theory

    Correct Answer
    C. Case study
    Explanation
    A case study is an approach to qualitative research where researchers focus on studying a single individual, classroom, school, or program in depth. This approach allows researchers to gain a detailed understanding of the specific context and explore the complexities of the particular case. By examining a specific case, researchers can gather rich and detailed data, analyze patterns and relationships, and draw conclusions that can be applicable to similar situations. It is a valuable method for exploring unique or rare phenomena and providing in-depth insights into specific contexts.

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  • 7. 

    Researchers who study various reactions to or perceptions of a particular phenomenon take which approach to qualitative research?

    • A.

      Grounded theory

    • B.

      Phenomenology

    • C.

      Ethnography

    • D.

      Case study

    Correct Answer
    B. Phenomenology
    Explanation
    Phenomenology is the approach to qualitative research that researchers use when studying various reactions to or perceptions of a particular phenomenon. This approach focuses on understanding the lived experiences and subjective perspectives of individuals involved in the phenomenon. It aims to explore the essence and meaning of the phenomenon through in-depth interviews, observations, and analysis of participants' experiences. Phenomenology allows researchers to gain insights into the subjective interpretations and meanings individuals assign to the phenomenon, providing a rich understanding of their lived experiences.

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  • 8. 

    The study of a single individual and his or her experiences as told to the researcher or found in documents and archival material describes which approach to qualitative research?

    • A.

      Phenomenology

    • B.

      Ethnography

    • C.

      Grounded theory

    • D.

      Case study

    Correct Answer
    A. Phenomenology
    Explanation
    Phenomenology is the approach to qualitative research that focuses on understanding the essence and meaning of an individual's experiences. It involves studying the subjective experiences of a single individual, as told to the researcher or found in documents and archival material. This approach aims to gain insight into the individual's unique perspective and the underlying meanings and patterns within their experiences. Ethnography, grounded theory, and case study are other approaches to qualitative research that focus on different aspects of understanding social phenomena.

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  • 9. 

    Suppose that a researcher studies one gifted student in order to better understand how this student's school day differs from that of more typical students. This type of study is certainly a(n):

    • A.

      Ethnography

    • B.

      Case study

    • C.

      Phenomenology

    • D.

      Grounded theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Case study
    Explanation
    A case study is the most appropriate explanation for this scenario. In a case study, a researcher focuses on a specific individual or group to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of their experiences, behaviors, or characteristics. In this case, the researcher is studying one gifted student to explore the differences in their school day compared to typical students. A case study allows for detailed examination and analysis of a specific case, providing valuable insights and findings that can contribute to a broader understanding of the topic.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is a characteristic of qualitative research that affects how a researcher approaches data analysis? 

    • A.

      Reality is described with language that potentially has different semantic meanings for the researcher and participants.

    • B.

      There is no single way to gain understanding of phenomena.

    • C.

      There are many ways to report data.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Qualitative research involves the study of subjective experiences and interpretations, which means that reality is described using language that may have different meanings for the researcher and participants. This affects data analysis as it requires the researcher to be aware of and navigate these potential differences in interpretation. Additionally, qualitative research recognizes that there is no single way to gain understanding of phenomena, allowing for flexibility in the research approach. Furthermore, qualitative research offers multiple ways to report data, such as through narratives, themes, or patterns, providing researchers with various options for presenting their findings. Therefore, all of these characteristics of qualitative research influence how a researcher approaches data analysis.

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  • 11. 

    A researcher would like to conduct a study about the role of childhood informal sport in Japanese, Russian, and American culture. Her work might best be categorized as which of the following?

    • A.

      Phenomenology.

    • B.

      Grounded Theory.

    • C.

      Ethnography.

    • D.

      Case Study

    Correct Answer
    C. Ethnography.
    Explanation
    The researcher's study aims to explore and understand the role of childhood informal sport in Japanese, Russian, and American culture. Ethnography is the most suitable category for this type of research as it involves immersing oneself in a specific cultural group to observe and understand their behaviors, beliefs, and practices. Through ethnography, the researcher can gain in-depth insights into how childhood informal sport is perceived and experienced within these cultures. Phenomenology focuses on individual experiences, grounded theory aims to develop theories from data, and case study investigates a specific case or phenomenon.

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  • 12. 

    Phenomenology is most closely identified with which of the following?

    • A.

      Sociology.

    • B.

      Anthropology.

    • C.

      Psychology.

    • D.

      Anthropology.

    Correct Answer
    C. Psychology.
    Explanation
    Phenomenology is a philosophical approach that focuses on the subjective experiences and consciousness of individuals. It seeks to understand the meaning and essence of human experiences. While it can be applied to various disciplines, it is most closely associated with psychology. Psychology often uses phenomenological methods to study and analyze the subjective experiences of individuals, such as their thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. By understanding these subjective experiences, psychologists aim to gain insights into human behavior and mental processes. Therefore, psychology is the discipline that is most closely identified with phenomenology.

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  • 13. 

    Which method can be applicable for collecting qualitative data?

    • A.

      Media products (textual, visual and sensory)

    • B.

      Artifacts

    • C.

      People

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above methods can be applicable for collecting qualitative data. Media products, such as textual, visual, and sensory materials, can provide valuable insights and perspectives. Artifacts, such as objects or documents, can also offer qualitative data. Additionally, people themselves can be a valuable source of qualitative data through interviews, observations, or focus groups. Therefore, all of these methods can be used to collect qualitative data.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is non-probability sampling?

    • A.

      Stratified

    • B.

      Snowball

    • C.

      Cluster

    • D.

      Random

    Correct Answer
    B. Snowball
    Explanation
    Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method where initial participants are selected based on the researcher's knowledge or contacts, and then they refer additional participants. This technique is useful when the target population is difficult to access or identify, such as in hidden populations or rare characteristics. In contrast, stratified, cluster, and random sampling are all probability sampling methods that involve randomly selecting participants from the target population to ensure representativeness and reduce bias.

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  • 15. 

    Which statement BEST describes qualitative research? 

    • A.

      Data are collected from a large number of subjects.

    • B.

      The research design is structured and fixed.

    • C.

      Studies are conducted in natural settings.

    • D.

      Data collected tend to be numeric.

    Correct Answer
    C. Studies are conducted in natural settings.
    Explanation
    Qualitative research involves conducting studies in natural settings rather than controlled environments. This approach allows researchers to gain a deep understanding of the social and cultural context in which the research is conducted. It focuses on exploring and interpreting people's experiences, beliefs, and behaviors through methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of texts. By conducting studies in natural settings, researchers can capture the complexity and richness of human experiences, which may not be possible in a structured and fixed research design.

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  • 16. 

    Probability sampling is rarely used in qualitative research because:

    • A.

      Research questions are more important than sampling

    • B.

      Qualitative researchers are not trained in statistics

    • C.

      It is very old-fashioned

    • D.

      It is often not feasible

    Correct Answer
    D. It is often not feasible
    Explanation
    Probability sampling is rarely used in qualitative research because it is often not feasible. Qualitative research focuses on in-depth understanding and exploration of experiences, perceptions, and behaviors, rather than generalizability to a larger population. Probability sampling requires a complete sampling frame, which may not be available in qualitative research where participants are selected based on specific criteria or characteristics. Additionally, qualitative research often involves small sample sizes, making it difficult to achieve the level of precision and representativeness required for probability sampling. Therefore, researchers often opt for purposeful or convenience sampling methods that are more suitable for qualitative inquiry.

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  • 17. 

    What is involved in "purposive sampling" for grounded theory?

    • A.

      Using a random numbers table to select a representative sample of people

    • B.

      Strategically selecting respondents who are likely to provide relevant data

    • C.

      Deciding on a sampling strategy early on and pursuing it relentlessly

    • D.

      Sampling units of time rather than individual persons

    Correct Answer
    B. Strategically selecting respondents who are likely to provide relevant data
    Explanation
    "Purposive sampling" for grounded theory involves strategically selecting respondents who are likely to provide relevant data. This means that the researcher intentionally chooses participants who have specific knowledge or experiences related to the research topic. By selecting respondents who are likely to provide relevant data, the researcher can gather information that is directly related to the research objectives and contribute to the development of grounded theory.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a component of ethnographic research?

    • A.

      Participant observation, interviews, and/or documentary analysis

    • B.

      Being immersed in a social group or setting

    • C.

      A written account of an ethnographic study

    • D.

      All of th eabove

    Correct Answer
    D. All of th eabove
    Explanation
    Ethnographic research involves various components, including participant observation, interviews, and/or documentary analysis. Participant observation refers to actively participating in and observing the social group or setting under study. Interviews involve engaging with individuals from the group to gather information and insights. Documentary analysis involves examining relevant documents, texts, or artifacts related to the group or setting. A written account of an ethnographic study is also an essential component as it presents the findings, analysis, and conclusions of the research. Therefore, all of the options mentioned are components of ethnographic research.

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  • 19. 

    What is a key informant?

    • A.

      Someone who cuts keys to help the ethnographer gain access to a building

    • B.

      A participant who appears to be helpful but then blows the researcher's cover

    • C.

      A senior level member of the organisation who refuses to allow researchers into it

    • D.

      A group member who helps the ethnographer gain access to relevant people/events

    Correct Answer
    D. A group member who helps the ethnographer gain access to relevant people/events
    Explanation
    A key informant is a group member who assists the ethnographer in gaining access to important individuals or events. This person provides valuable information and guidance to the researcher, helping them navigate the social dynamics and cultural context of the community being studied. The key informant acts as a bridge between the ethnographer and the community, facilitating the research process and enhancing the researcher's understanding of the subject matter.

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  • 20. 

    What is the name of the role adopted by an ethnographer who joins in with the group's activities but admits to being a researcher?

    • A.

      Complete participant

    • B.

      Participant-as-observer

    • C.

      Observer-as-participant

    • D.

      Complete observer

    Correct Answer
    B. Participant-as-observer
    Explanation
    Participant-as-observer is the correct answer because this role refers to an ethnographer who actively engages in the activities of the group they are studying, but also openly acknowledges their role as a researcher. This means that they are not trying to hide their identity or intentions, allowing them to gain a deeper understanding of the group's dynamics while still maintaining a level of objectivity. This approach enables the ethnographer to gather rich and authentic data while being aware of their own influence on the group.

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  • 21. 

    The emic perspective refers to an external, social scientific view of reality.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The emic perspective actually refers to an internal, cultural view of reality, rather than an external, social scientific view. It focuses on understanding and interpreting the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a particular culture from within that culture itself. This perspective seeks to uncover the unique meanings and experiences that are specific to a particular cultural group.

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  • 22. 

    Which of these is not a method of data collection?

    • A.

      Questionnaires

    • B.

      Interviews

    • C.

      Experiments

    • D.

      Observations

    Correct Answer
    C. Experiments
    Explanation
    Experiments are not a method of data collection because they involve manipulating variables and measuring their effects on other variables, rather than collecting data directly from individuals or sources. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations are all methods of data collection that involve gathering information from people or observing events or phenomena. Experiments are used to test hypotheses and establish cause-and-effect relationships, but the data collected in experiments are typically analyzed and interpreted rather than directly observed or reported. Therefore, experiments do not fit into the category of data collection methods.

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  • 23. 

    In which of the following sampling techniques does the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants?

    • A.

      Theoretical

    • B.

      Convenience

    • C.

      Purposive

    • D.

      Snowball

    Correct Answer
    A. Theoretical
    Explanation
    Theoretical sampling is a sampling technique where the researcher selects participants based on their theoretical relevance to the research question. In this technique, the researcher may ask the selected participants to identify other potential research participants who possess the desired characteristics or knowledge related to the research topic. This helps in expanding the sample size and capturing a diverse range of perspectives and experiences.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following sampling strategies involves deliberately selecting cases with wide variation on dimensions of interest?

    • A.

      Extreme (deviant) case sampling

    • B.

      Maximum variation sampling

    • C.

      Maximum variation sampling

    • D.

      Criterion sampling

    Correct Answer
    B. Maximum variation sampling
    Explanation
    Maximum variation sampling involves deliberately selecting cases with wide variation on dimensions of interest. This strategy aims to capture diverse perspectives and experiences, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon being studied. By including cases with extreme or deviant characteristics, researchers can explore the full range of possibilities and identify patterns or commonalities that may not be apparent when only typical cases are included. This sampling strategy is particularly useful when studying complex or multifaceted phenomena, as it enhances the richness and depth of the data collected.

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  • 25. 

    A researcher asks three groups of 6 depressed individuals from 3 different mental health units how they think they are being labeled by the society because of their mental health status. Each group discusses the topic.What type of method of data collection is this? 

    • A.

      Participant observation

    • B.

      In-depth interview

    • C.

      Questionnaire

    • D.

      Focus group

    Correct Answer
    D. Focus group
    Explanation
    This is a focus group method of data collection. In a focus group, a small group of individuals are brought together to discuss a specific topic or issue. In this case, the researcher asks three groups of depressed individuals from different mental health units about how they think they are being labeled by society due to their mental health status. The focus group allows for a more interactive and dynamic discussion among the participants, providing the researcher with a deeper understanding of their perspectives and experiences.

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  • 26. 

    Setting aside one's values and perspectives during the data collection & analysis process is known as: 

    Correct Answer
    Bracketing
    Explanation
    Bracketing refers to the process of temporarily setting aside one's values and perspectives during the data collection and analysis process. It involves acknowledging and suspending personal biases and preconceived notions in order to approach the data objectively. By bracketing, researchers can minimize the impact of their own beliefs on the interpretation of the data, allowing for a more accurate and unbiased analysis.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 01, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    Zianatha
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