Psychology Research Methods Exam 1

71 Questions | Total Attempts: 463

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Psychology Research Methods Exam 1

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
  • 2. 
    The first prospective study examing smoking and lung cancer, conducted in 1954, found that smokers were 10 times more likely than non-smokers to develop lung cancer. Identify the one condition for inferring causation that this study did not address.
  • 3. 
    Identify two types of reliability.
  • 4. 
  • 5. 
    • Below is a display of 100 scores on a measure of perceived group diversity. Higher scores indicate greater perceived diversity. The lowest possible score is 0; the highest is 20.  
    19 000 3 18 0022455669 10 17 011566688888888 15 16 1224556699 10 15 124555666889 12 14 011145567999 12 13 0011266899 10 12 0024456688 10 11 01248 5 10 00689 5   9 06 2   8 8 1   7 4 1   6 0 1   5 1 1   4 2 1   3 0   2 0 1
    1. What is this type of display called?
    2. Is this distribution symmetric or asymmetric?
    3. Is this distribution positively skewed, negatively skewed, or normal?
    4. How many individuals have scores of 13.9?
    5. What is the modal score?
    6. What is the median?
    7. Is the mean of this distribution higher than, lower than, or equal to the median?
    8. What is the range of perceived diversity scores?
  • 6. 
    The term variable may best be defined as a:
    • A. 

      Numerical value assigned to an observation.

    • B. 

      Single number that allows one to summarize, analyze, or evaluate a group of observations.

    • C. 

      Label assigned to an observation.

    • D. 

      Property of an event that can assume any of a range of values.

  • 7. 
    A researcher records the amount of light it takes to detect a small visual stimulus in a dark room. Luminance is the variable being measured and may be thought of here as physical energy. What level of measurement is most likely involved in making this observation?
    • A. 

      Interval

    • B. 

      Ordinal

    • C. 

      Ratio

    • D. 

      Nominal

  • 8. 
    Random error refers to change in the measurement of a variable that can be attributed to:
    • A. 

      Chance

    • B. 

      The amount of time between measurements

    • C. 

      Systematic error

    • D. 

      Confounding

  • 9. 
    Face validity is:
    • A. 

      Lacking in the Rorschach test

    • B. 

      More of a public relations question than a scientific one

    • C. 

      Unrelated to a test's actual validity

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 10. 
    The Kuder-Richardson-20 is a measure of:
    • A. 

      Validity

    • B. 

      Internal validity

    • C. 

      Internal consistency

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

  • 11. 
    If an investigator were to define aggression in terms of the frequency and intensity of shock administered to another person, he or she would have used:
    • A. 

      Rationalism

    • B. 

      A scientific technique

    • C. 

      Converging operations

    • D. 

      An operational definition

  • 12. 
    Regression to the mean can occur when:
    • A. 

      A person scores extremely low on one test scores closer to the mean at a second testing

    • B. 

      Scores on two measures are not perfectly correlated

    • C. 

      Subjects are selected because they scored extremely high on a pretest measure

    • D. 

      A and c

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 13. 
    If people who drop out of a study are systematically different from those who remain, which of the following is a threat to internal validity?
    • A. 

      History

    • B. 

      Testing

    • C. 

      Selection

    • D. 

      Maturation

    • E. 

      Mortality

  • 14. 
    If a measure is not __________, then it cannot be __________.
    • A. 

      Valid, internally consistent

    • B. 

      Valid, reliable

    • C. 

      Reliable, valid

    • D. 

      A and b

  • 15. 
    Friedman and his colleagues (1980) showed that their ACT measure of expressiveness was, as expected, highly correlated with measures of exhibition and extraversion. These results provide evidence of the measure's _______ validity.
    • A. 

      Consistent

    • B. 

      Content

    • C. 

      External

    • D. 

      Convergent

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is used to maximize the external validity of a study?
    • A. 

      Systematic replication

    • B. 

      Direct replication

    • C. 

      Random assignment of subjects to conditions

    • D. 

      Random selection of subjects from the population of interest

    • E. 

      B and d

  • 17. 
    The extent to which a research design is sufficiently precise or powerful enough to detect relationships among the operationalized constructs is known as:
    • A. 

      Statistical conclusion validity

    • B. 

      Internal validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Type I error

    • E. 

      Type II error

  • 18. 
    In a study of emotional distress, an experimenter randomly assigns subjects to either see a violent film first and then read a transcript of a violent incident, or read the transcript first and then see the film. Which of the following strategies was used to control for order effects?
    • A. 

      Balanced Latin square

    • B. 

      Latin square

    • C. 

      Counterbalancing

    • D. 

      Matching

    • E. 

      Subjects as own control

  • 19. 
    In a study of emotional distress, an experimenter randomly assigns subjects to either see a violent film first and then read a transcript of a violent incident, or read the transcript first and then see the film. Film versus transcript is a(n):
    • A. 

      Extraneous variable

    • B. 

      Between-subjects variable

    • C. 

      Within-subjects variable

    • D. 

      Dependent variable

  • 20. 
    In a study of emotional distress, an experimenter randomly assigns subjects to either see a violent film first and then read a transcript of a violent incident, or read the transcript first and then see the film. Order is a:
    • A. 

      Repeated measures variable

    • B. 

      Between-subjects variable

    • C. 

      Within-subjects variable

    • D. 

      Dependent variable

  • 21. 
    If an experimenter is not interested in examining the effects of age in an experiment, she might control for age by:
    • A. 

      Including only those subjects who are 30 years old

    • B. 

      Randomly assigning subjects of all ages to the treatment and control conditions

    • C. 

      Not asking subjects how old they are

    • D. 

      A and b

    • E. 

      B and c

  • 22. 
    Subtle cues in a laboratory study which subjects can use to guide their behavior are known as:
    • A. 

      Signaling cues

    • B. 

      Performance indicators

    • C. 

      Demand characteristics

    • D. 

      Measurement expectancies

  • 23. 
    A student complains that his psychology test was unfair and, "Did not cover the material!" In other words, he is complaining that the test lacks:
    • A. 

      Power

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Internal validity

    • D. 

      Content validity

  • 24. 
    There are trade-offs associated with each research strategy. For example, in order to maximize control, laboratory experiments often sacrifice:
    • A. 

      Power of the independent variable to affect the dependent variable

    • B. 

      Realism

    • C. 

      External validity

    • D. 

      B and c

  • 25. 
    Which of the following is not a major role of a theory?
    • A. 

      Guide new research

    • B. 

      To explain laws

    • C. 

      To organize knowledge

    • D. 

      To describe behavior

    • E. 

      To predict new laws