Psychology Research Methods Exam 1

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Psychology Research Methods Exam 1

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
  • 2. 
    The first prospective study examing smoking and lung cancer, conducted in 1954, found that smokers were 10 times more likely than non-smokers to develop lung cancer. Identify the one condition for inferring causation that this study did not address.
  • 3. 
    Identify two types of reliability.
  • 4. 
  • 5. 
    • Below is a display of 100 scores on a measure of perceived group diversity. Higher scores indicate greater perceived diversity. The lowest possible score is 0; the highest is 20.  
    19 000 3 18 0022455669 10 17 011566688888888 15 16 1224556699 10 15 124555666889 12 14 011145567999 12 13 0011266899 10 12 0024456688 10 11 01248 5 10 00689 5   9 06 2   8 8 1   7 4 1   6 0 1   5 1 1   4 2 1   3 0   2 0 1
    1. What is this type of display called?
    2. Is this distribution symmetric or asymmetric?
    3. Is this distribution positively skewed, negatively skewed, or normal?
    4. How many individuals have scores of 13.9?
    5. What is the modal score?
    6. What is the median?
    7. Is the mean of this distribution higher than, lower than, or equal to the median?
    8. What is the range of perceived diversity scores?
  • 6. 
    The term variable may best be defined as a:
    • A. 

      Numerical value assigned to an observation.

    • B. 

      Single number that allows one to summarize, analyze, or evaluate a group of observations.

    • C. 

      Label assigned to an observation.

    • D. 

      Property of an event that can assume any of a range of values.

  • 7. 
    A researcher records the amount of light it takes to detect a small visual stimulus in a dark room. Luminance is the variable being measured and may be thought of here as physical energy. What level of measurement is most likely involved in making this observation?
    • A. 

      Interval

    • B. 

      Ordinal

    • C. 

      Ratio

    • D. 

      Nominal

  • 8. 
    Random error refers to change in the measurement of a variable that can be attributed to:
    • A. 

      Chance

    • B. 

      The amount of time between measurements

    • C. 

      Systematic error

    • D. 

      Confounding

  • 9. 
    Face validity is:
    • A. 

      Lacking in the Rorschach test

    • B. 

      More of a public relations question than a scientific one

    • C. 

      Unrelated to a test's actual validity

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 10. 
    The Kuder-Richardson-20 is a measure of:
    • A. 

      Validity

    • B. 

      Internal validity

    • C. 

      Internal consistency

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

  • 11. 
    If an investigator were to define aggression in terms of the frequency and intensity of shock administered to another person, he or she would have used:
    • A. 

      Rationalism

    • B. 

      A scientific technique

    • C. 

      Converging operations

    • D. 

      An operational definition

  • 12. 
    Regression to the mean can occur when:
    • A. 

      A person scores extremely low on one test scores closer to the mean at a second testing

    • B. 

      Scores on two measures are not perfectly correlated

    • C. 

      Subjects are selected because they scored extremely high on a pretest measure

    • D. 

      A and c

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 13. 
    If people who drop out of a study are systematically different from those who remain, which of the following is a threat to internal validity?
    • A. 

      History

    • B. 

      Testing

    • C. 

      Selection

    • D. 

      Maturation

    • E. 

      Mortality

  • 14. 
    If a measure is not __________, then it cannot be __________.
    • A. 

      Valid, internally consistent

    • B. 

      Valid, reliable

    • C. 

      Reliable, valid

    • D. 

      A and b

  • 15. 
    Friedman and his colleagues (1980) showed that their ACT measure of expressiveness was, as expected, highly correlated with measures of exhibition and extraversion. These results provide evidence of the measure's _______ validity.
    • A. 

      Consistent

    • B. 

      Content

    • C. 

      External

    • D. 

      Convergent

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is used to maximize the external validity of a study?
    • A. 

      Systematic replication

    • B. 

      Direct replication

    • C. 

      Random assignment of subjects to conditions

    • D. 

      Random selection of subjects from the population of interest

    • E. 

      B and d

  • 17. 
    The extent to which a research design is sufficiently precise or powerful enough to detect relationships among the operationalized constructs is known as:
    • A. 

      Statistical conclusion validity

    • B. 

      Internal validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Type I error

    • E. 

      Type II error

  • 18. 
    In a study of emotional distress, an experimenter randomly assigns subjects to either see a violent film first and then read a transcript of a violent incident, or read the transcript first and then see the film. Which of the following strategies was used to control for order effects?
    • A. 

      Balanced Latin square

    • B. 

      Latin square

    • C. 

      Counterbalancing

    • D. 

      Matching

    • E. 

      Subjects as own control

  • 19. 
    In a study of emotional distress, an experimenter randomly assigns subjects to either see a violent film first and then read a transcript of a violent incident, or read the transcript first and then see the film. Film versus transcript is a(n):
    • A. 

      Extraneous variable

    • B. 

      Between-subjects variable

    • C. 

      Within-subjects variable

    • D. 

      Dependent variable

  • 20. 
    In a study of emotional distress, an experimenter randomly assigns subjects to either see a violent film first and then read a transcript of a violent incident, or read the transcript first and then see the film. Order is a:
    • A. 

      Repeated measures variable

    • B. 

      Between-subjects variable

    • C. 

      Within-subjects variable

    • D. 

      Dependent variable

  • 21. 
    If an experimenter is not interested in examining the effects of age in an experiment, she might control for age by:
    • A. 

      Including only those subjects who are 30 years old

    • B. 

      Randomly assigning subjects of all ages to the treatment and control conditions

    • C. 

      Not asking subjects how old they are

    • D. 

      A and b

    • E. 

      B and c

  • 22. 
    Subtle cues in a laboratory study which subjects can use to guide their behavior are known as:
    • A. 

      Signaling cues

    • B. 

      Performance indicators

    • C. 

      Demand characteristics

    • D. 

      Measurement expectancies

  • 23. 
    A student complains that his psychology test was unfair and, "Did not cover the material!" In other words, he is complaining that the test lacks:
    • A. 

      Power

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Internal validity

    • D. 

      Content validity

  • 24. 
    There are trade-offs associated with each research strategy. For example, in order to maximize control, laboratory experiments often sacrifice:
    • A. 

      Power of the independent variable to affect the dependent variable

    • B. 

      Realism

    • C. 

      External validity

    • D. 

      B and c

  • 25. 
    Which of the following is not a major role of a theory?
    • A. 

      Guide new research

    • B. 

      To explain laws

    • C. 

      To organize knowledge

    • D. 

      To describe behavior

    • E. 

      To predict new laws

  • 26. 
    The term power refers to:
    • A. 

      The probability of finding a significant difference when a difference does not exist in the population

    • B. 

      The probability of committing a Type II error

    • C. 

      The probability of finding a significant difference when a difference exists in the population

    • D. 

      The probability that a statistical test will account for unexplained variability

  • 27. 
    Which of the following is a disadvantage of a matched-pairs design?
    • A. 

      Pretesting may increase demand characteristics.

    • B. 

      Members of each pair cannot be randomly assigned to conditions.

    • C. 

      Power is often increased.

    • D. 

      Causal conclusions cannot be drawn.

  • 28. 
    An advantage of using subjects as their own controls is that:
    • A. 

      Sequence effects are minimized

    • B. 

      Power is generally higher than in a between-subjects design

    • C. 

      Subjects' suspicions about the purpose of the experiment are generally minimized

    • D. 

      Order effects are minimized

    • E. 

      A and d

  • 29. 
    Those differences between subjects that cannot be controlled (for example, gender and race) are known as:
    • A. 

      Experimental variables

    • B. 

      Organismic variables

    • C. 

      Control variables

    • D. 

      Subject variables

  • 30. 
    Which one of the following terms least belongs with the others?
    • A. 

      Y-axis

    • B. 

      Independent variable values

    • C. 

      X-axis

    • D. 

      Horizontal

  • 31. 
    Which one of the following would be best for conveying the shape of the frequency distribution of 250 test scores?
    • A. 

      Rank-order distribution

    • B. 

      Histogram

    • C. 

      Cumulative frequency distribution

    • D. 

      Ungrouped frequency distribution

  • 32. 
    Scattergrams represent data commonly analyzed by which statistic?
    • A. 

      Chi-square

    • B. 

      Analysis of variance

    • C. 

      Correlation coefficient

    • D. 

      T-test

  • 33. 
    A bar graph should be used when the:
    • A. 

      Dependent variable is a discrete variable

    • B. 

      Independent variable is a discrete variable

    • C. 

      Dependent variable is a continuous variable

    • D. 

      Independent variable is a continuous variable

  • 34. 
    Laboratory research, as opposed to field research, is:
    • A. 

      Generally preferred because it is easier to achieve control.

    • B. 

      The only way to achieve satisfactory experimental control.

    • C. 

      Required by government funding agencies.

    • D. 

      Better because participants expect formal settings.

  • 35. 
    Subjects may be used as their own control when:
    • A. 

      A within-subjects condition is not possible.

    • B. 

      There are likely to be sequence effects.

    • C. 

      Experiencing one condition is unlikely to influence the response to another.

    • D. 

      Using statistical control is impossible.

  • 36. 
    What is the main purpose of matching?
    • A. 

      To control for order effects

    • B. 

      To control for sequence effects

    • C. 

      To reduce initial differences between the experimental and control groups on the dependent variable

    • D. 

      To reduce the amount of variability among subjects within each treatment group

    • E. 

      B and d

  • 37. 
    Statistical control is:
    • A. 

      Generally preferable to experimental control.

    • B. 

      A way of equating subjects on paper that are actually not equal.

    • C. 

      The same as randomization.

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 38. 
    Which one of the following is not a good specific strategy for achieving control in research?
    • A. 

      Building nuisance variables into the experiment.

    • B. 

      Using subjects as their own control.

    • C. 

      Using statistical controls.

    • D. 

      Making designs more complex.

  • 39. 
    The threat of confounding is particularly serious in research using:
    • A. 

      True experiments

    • B. 

      Randomization

    • C. 

      Assignment of subjects to conditions

    • D. 

      Subject variables

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 40. 
    If a researcher finds a result in a laboratory setting but not in a real world setting, the finding:
    • A. 

      Lacks internal validity

    • B. 

      Lacks statistical validity

    • C. 

      Lacks ecological validity

    • D. 

      Cannot be published

  • 41. 
    When a researcher asks the question, "Have subjects been pre-selected so as to represent the extremes on the variable of interest?", she is concerned with which one of the following potential threats to internal validity?
    • A. 

      Regression effect

    • B. 

      Subject selection

    • C. 

      Testing effect

    • D. 

      Maturation

  • 42. 
    When a researcher asks the question, "Was the subject dropout rate during the course of the study equal over the various conditions or more pronounced in certain treatment groups?", she is concerned with which one of the following potential confounds?
    • A. 

      Random error

    • B. 

      History (events outside the laboratory)

    • C. 

      Regression

    • D. 

      Morality

  • 43. 
    Role demands are a source of:
    • A. 

      Subject bias

    • B. 

      Selection bias

    • C. 

      Experimenter bias

    • D. 

      Evaluation bias

  • 44. 
    Accepting the information in an instructor's lecture without examining the book or asking about the source of the ideas is an example of which way of knowing about behavior?
    • A. 

      Logic

    • B. 

      Intuition

    • C. 

      Authority

    • D. 

      Science

  • 45. 
    The suggestion to take an aspirin to relieve a headache would be considered ________ while ________ would be concerned with the reason that the aspirin works.
    • A. 

      Law, theory

    • B. 

      Parsimonious, excessive

    • C. 

      Technology, science

    • D. 

      Science, technology

  • 46. 
    A law may best be defined as a statement that certain events:
    • A. 

      Are regularly associated with each other.

    • B. 

      Occur regularly.

    • C. 

      Are caused by preceding events.

    • D. 

      Explain one or more events.

  • 47. 
    Which is not a way to judge a good theory? How well it:
    • A. 

      Predicts new laws

    • B. 

      Explains existing laws

    • C. 

      Guides research

    • D. 

      Agrees with common sense

  • 48. 
    The idea that scientific progress does not proceed in a straightforward manner, but rather consists of normal science, followed by shifts to other ways of thinking, is Kuhn's concept of a ________.
    • A. 

      Law

    • B. 

      Paradigm

    • C. 

      Theory

    • D. 

      Hypothesis

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Categorical

  • 50. 
    • A. 

      Ratio

    • B. 

      Interval

    • C. 

      Nominal

    • D. 

      Ordinal

  • 51. 
    Although the general public does still go to see shows on Broadway, their reluctance to see new and unfamiliar shows is a potential threat to the vitality of the theater. One indicator of a show's performance is how long it plays on Broadway. For the shows playing during the week of June 5, 2011, information was collected regarding how long each show was on Broadway and its attendance during the week. Are weeks (the length of time the show was on Broadway) quantitative or categorical?
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Categorical

  • 52. 
    • A. 

      Nominal

    • B. 

      Ordinal

    • C. 

      Interval

    • D. 

      Ratio

  • 53. 
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Categorical

  • 54. 
    • A. 

      Nominal

    • B. 

      Ordinal

    • C. 

      Interval

    • D. 

      Ratio

  • 55. 
    Although the general public does still go to see shows on Broadway, their reluctance to see new and unfamiliar shows is a potential threat to the vitality of the theater. One indicator of a show's performance is how long it plays on Broadway. For the shows playing during the week of June 5, 2011, information was collected regarding how long each show was on Broadway and its attendance during the week. Identify the best graph for illustrating the following question: Is there a relationship between a show's attendance and its "staying power"?
    • A. 

      Frequency histogram

    • B. 

      Scatterplot

    • C. 

      Bar graph

    • D. 

      Line graph

  • 56. 
    Which situation(s) illustrate the use of a nominal scale of measurement?
    • A. 

      The management of a company counts the number of employees in each division.

    • B. 

      Consumers rate the pleasant taste of foods on a scale of 1-9.

    • C. 

      Employees of a company are classified as management or line workers.

    • D. 

      Companies are ranked according to their amount of sales.

  • 57. 
    • A. 

      The management of a company counts the number of employees in each division.

    • B. 

      Consumers rate the pleasant taste of foods on a scale of 1-9.

    • C. 

      Employees of a company are classified as management or line workers.

    • D. 

      Companies are ranked according to their amount of sales.

  • 58. 
    • A. 

      A researcher records how many seconds it takes a rate to react to a shock.

    • B. 

      A teacher records the number of absences for each student during the semester.

    • C. 

      A nurse records a patients temperature in Celsius.

    • D. 

      A researcher records the amount of light it takes to detect a small visual stimulus in a dark room.

  • 59. 
    • A. 

      A researcher records how many seconds it takes a rate to react to a shock.

    • B. 

      A teacher records the number of absences for each student during the semester.

    • C. 

      A nurse records a patients temperature in Celsius.

    • D. 

      A researcher records the amount of light it takes to detect a small visual stimulus in a dark room.

  • 60. 
    The "Humane Attitude Scale for Children" has been criticized for evaluating attitudes towards dogs and cats only, while ignoring all other pets and all wild animals. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 61. 
    Scores on the "Humane Attitude Scale for Children" are not merely the result of temporary attitudes, but rather the scores seem to be consistent on different occasions for the same people. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 62. 
    Children who hate animals (according to a teacher rating scale) actually score low on the "Humane Attitude Scale for Children", and children who love animals score high on it. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 63. 
    It has been shown that the "Humane Attitude Scale for Children" measures attitudes towards animals and not merely memorized information about animals. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 64. 
    The Vockell-Campbell Test of Racquetball Proficiency can be used to predict quite accurately how well a player will do in racquetball tournaments. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 65. 
    The Vockell-Campbell Test of Racquetball Proficiency does not correlate highly with performance on the Solon Test of Racquetball Proficiency. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 66. 
    The Vockell-Campbell Test of Racquetball Proficiency samples only a few skills rather than the huge number of skills needed to play racquetball. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 67. 
    The Vockell-Campbell Test of Racquetball Proficiency does indeed measure an ability which could be called "racquetball proficiency." This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 68. 
    Differences tasks on The Vockell-Campbell Test of Racquetball Proficiency all seem to measure the same thing ("racquetball proficiency"). This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 69. 
    When take on two different occasions by the same person, the scores on The Vockell-Campbell Test of Racquetball Proficiency are about the same. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Criterion validity

    • C. 

      Construct validity

    • D. 

      Test-retest reliability

    • E. 

      Internal consistency reliability

  • 70. 
    Good scientists always prefer the simplest explanation possible to account for a given phenomenomn. What is this principle or characteristic of science called?
  • 71. 
    List a method that researchers use to minimize demand characteristics.