Students whose VCE candidate number ends with an even number.
Students who walk to school.
Every tenth student walking out of a VCE assembly.
All students who are enrolled in three or more science studies.
Ensuring the variables operate in a strictly controlled experiment.
Deciding on the importance of all the experimental variables.
Describing the independent and dependent variables in terms of how they will be observed, manipulated and measured.
Providing detailed descriptions of all independent and dependent variables.
Can be achieved only in a laboratory setting.
Enables the researcher to deal with all ethical considerations.
Can be achieved only if random sampling is used.
Eliminates any explanation of the results obtained being due to a variable other than the independent variable.
Written responses to written questions presented by the researcher; oral responses to orally presented questions
Quantitative data; qualitative data
Qualitative data; quantitative data
Oral responses to orally presented questions; written responses to written questions presented by the researcher
The dependent variable is manipulated.
The independent variable is always introduced into the control condition.
The dependent variable is held constant.
The independent variable is manipulated.
The role of chance is at an acceptable level.
The results should be rejected by the researcher.
Chance has played no role.
The level of probability is high.
Are avoided by researchers as they are haphazard procedures.
Differ in that random allocation is used to place participants in groups and random sampling is used to select participants for a study.
Differ in that random sampling is used to place participants in groups and random allocation is used to select participants for a study.
Are both used to select participants for an experiment.
P ≤ 0.001
P ≤ 0.01
P ≤ 0.10
P ≤ 0.05
Allocation of each member of a pair of participants, very similar in a characteristic likely to influence the dependent variable, to different groups (or conditions).
The allocation of each member of a pair of participants, very similar in a characteristic likely to influence the dependent variable, to the same group (or conditions).
Random selection of participants, then random allocation to different experimental conditions.
Random selection of participants, then random allocation to different experimental conditions, ensuring there is counterbalancing.
An order effect.
A matched-participants design.
The independent variable.
The dependent variable.
An extraneous variable.
A confounding variable.
Number of Greek words correctly recalled; using the learning technique
Using the learning technique; number of Greek words correctly recalled
Number of Greek words learned; number of Greek words correctly recalled
Number of Greek words correctly recalled; number of Greek words learned
The difference between the number of words correctly recalled is due to chance.
There is a 95% chance that the learning technique works.
A difference equal to, or greater than, the difference found in this experiment is likely to occur by chance less than 5% of times the experiment is replicated.
There is a 95% chance that the learning technique does not work.
Participants are responsible for the research.
Participants can make comments on the results whenever they want to.
The rights and wellbeing of the researcher are not compromised in any way.
The rights and wellbeing of participants are not compromised in any way.
Biased participant selection.
Biased participant allocation.
Determining the statistical significance of the results.
Establishing a cause–effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
Applying the findings obtained from a sample to the population.
Drawing a conclusion about whether the results support or do not support the hypothesis.
Informing participants about the results of the experiment
Preventing a participant from leaving an experiment midway through the experiment
Checking up on the age of a participant when there is doubt that the participant may not be old enough to give informed consent
Publishing the results of the experiment without obtaining informed consent from the participants
Diary records kept by a person with a spider phobia on how they think and feel whenever they see a spider
The researcher’s raw data collected for their study
The researcher’s formal report on their study
The findings reported by an ethics committee on the suitability of a researcher’s experience and qualifications to undertake a proposed study
Impossible to determine.
Dependent on the possibility of an order effect.
Dependent on the availability of participants.
All conditions of the experiment.
The independent variable only.
The independent variable repeatedly.
The dependent variable repeatedly.
A single-blind procedure could be used before interpreting the results.
A double-blind procedure could be used before interpreting the results.
Inferential statistics could be used to help interpret the results.
There would be no confounding variables.
Inferential statistics before the experiment is conducted.
The double-blind procedure.
Inferential statistics after the experiment is conducted.
The single-blind procedure.