# Chapter 1: Research Methods In Psychology (Grivas)

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There are various ways in which one can use to collect data when it comes to psychology. The most common method is through descriptive research methods where one gets to observe the sample of the population they are targeting and the event linking them. Take up the quiz below based on chapter one where we covered Research Methods In Psychology (grivas) in preparation for the unit 3 final exam and see how high you score.

• 1.

### A random sample of VCE students in a school could be achieved by selecting

• A.

Students whose VCE candidate number ends with an even number.

• B.

Students who walk to school.

• C.

Every tenth student walking out of a VCE assembly.

• D.

All students who are enrolled in three or more science studies.

A. Students whose VCE candidate number ends with an even number.
Explanation
Selecting students whose VCE candidate number ends with an even number would provide a random sample of VCE students in a school. This method ensures that all students have an equal chance of being selected, as the candidate number is unrelated to any other factors such as their academic performance or personal characteristics. This approach eliminates bias and allows for a representative sample of VCE students to be obtained.

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• 2.

### Operationalising the variables for an experimental research hypothesis would involve

• A.

Ensuring the variables operate in a strictly controlled experiment.

• B.

Deciding on the importance of all the experimental variables.

• C.

Describing the independent and dependent variables in terms of how they will be observed, manipulated and measured.

• D.

Providing detailed descriptions of all independent and dependent variables.

C. Describing the independent and dependent variables in terms of how they will be observed, manipulated and measured.
Explanation
The correct answer is describing the independent and dependent variables in terms of how they will be observed, manipulated and measured. This involves providing a detailed explanation of how the variables will be observed, manipulated, and measured in the experiment. By doing so, researchers can ensure that the variables are operationalized effectively and that the experiment is conducted in a controlled and systematic manner. This step is crucial in experimental research as it helps to establish the validity and reliability of the study.

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• 3.

### In an experiment, strict control of extraneous and potential confounding variables

• A.

Can be achieved only in a laboratory setting.

• B.

Enables the researcher to deal with all ethical considerations.

• C.

Can be achieved only if random sampling is used.

• D.

Eliminates any explanation of the results obtained being due to a variable other than the independent variable.

D. Eliminates any explanation of the results obtained being due to a variable other than the independent variable.
Explanation
This answer is correct because strict control of extraneous and potential confounding variables ensures that any observed effects can be attributed solely to the independent variable. By eliminating the influence of other variables, the researcher can confidently conclude that any changes in the dependent variable are directly caused by the independent variable. This increases the internal validity of the experiment and strengthens the causal relationship between the variables being studied.

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• 4.

### An interview usually involves _____, whereas a questionnaire usually involves _____.

• A.

Written responses to written questions presented by the researcher; oral responses to orally presented questions

• B.

Quantitative data; qualitative data

• C.

Qualitative data; quantitative data

• D.

Oral responses to orally presented questions; written responses to written questions presented by the researcher

D. Oral responses to orally presented questions; written responses to written questions presented by the researcher
Explanation
An interview usually involves oral responses to orally presented questions, while a questionnaire usually involves written responses to written questions presented by the researcher.

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• 5.

### In an experiment

• A.

The dependent variable is manipulated.

• B.

The independent variable is always introduced into the control condition.

• C.

The dependent variable is held constant.

• D.

The independent variable is manipulated.

D. The independent variable is manipulated.
Explanation
In an experiment, the independent variable is manipulated. This means that the researcher deliberately changes or controls the independent variable to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the variable that is measured or observed to determine the outcome of the experiment. By manipulating the independent variable, researchers can study the cause-and-effect relationship between variables and draw conclusions about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

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• 6.

### A statistically significant difference in the mean scores of groups in an experiment suggests that

• A.

The role of chance is at an acceptable level.

• B.

The results should be rejected by the researcher.

• C.

Chance has played no role.

• D.

The level of probability is high.

A. The role of chance is at an acceptable level.
Explanation
A statistically significant difference in the mean scores of groups in an experiment suggests that the role of chance is at an acceptable level. This means that the difference in scores is unlikely to have occurred purely by chance, and there is a high level of confidence that the results are due to the variables being studied rather than random variation.

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• 7.

### Random allocation and random sampling

• A.

Are avoided by researchers as they are haphazard procedures.

• B.

Differ in that random allocation is used to place participants in groups and random sampling is used to select participants for a study.

• C.

Differ in that random sampling is used to place participants in groups and random allocation is used to select participants for a study.

• D.

Are both used to select participants for an experiment.

B. Differ in that random allocation is used to place participants in groups and random sampling is used to select participants for a study.
Explanation
Random allocation and random sampling differ in their purpose and procedure. Random allocation is used to place participants in different groups or conditions in an experiment, ensuring that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group. This helps to minimize bias and ensure that the groups are comparable. On the other hand, random sampling is used to select participants from a larger population to be included in a study. It ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected, increasing the generalizability of the findings.

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• 8.

### In an experiment, the group that receives the treatment is called the _____ group, whereas the group that does not is called the _____ group.

• A.

Independent; dependent

• B.

Control; experimental

• C.

Dependent; independent

• D.

Experimental; control

D. Experimental; control
Explanation
In an experiment, the group that receives the treatment is called the experimental group because they are the ones who are exposed to the independent variable being tested. On the other hand, the group that does not receive the treatment is called the control group. They serve as a baseline for comparison and help to determine the effectiveness of the treatment by providing a point of reference.

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• 9.

### Which of the following p values is the strictest?

• A.

P ≤ 0.001

• B.

P ≤ 0.01

• C.

P ≤ 0.10

• D.

P ≤ 0.05

A. P ≤ 0.001
Explanation
The p value represents the level of significance in hypothesis testing. A smaller p value indicates stronger evidence against the null hypothesis. In this case, p ≤ 0.001 is the strictest because it requires the strongest evidence to reject the null hypothesis. It means that the observed data is extremely unlikely to occur by chance alone, leading to a high level of confidence in the alternative hypothesis.

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• 10.

• A.

Allocation of each member of a pair of participants, very similar in a characteristic likely to influence the dependent variable, to different groups (or conditions).

• B.

The allocation of each member of a pair of participants, very similar in a characteristic likely to influence the dependent variable, to the same group (or conditions).

• C.

Random selection of participants, then random allocation to different experimental conditions.

• D.

Random selection of participants, then random allocation to different experimental conditions, ensuring there is counterbalancing.

A. Allocation of each member of a pair of participants, very similar in a characteristic likely to influence the dependent variable, to different groups (or conditions).
Explanation
The matched-participants experimental design involves allocating each member of a pair of participants, who are very similar in a characteristic likely to influence the dependent variable, to different groups or conditions. This design is used to control for individual differences and ensure that any differences observed between the groups are due to the independent variable and not other factors. By matching participants based on a relevant characteristic, the design aims to eliminate the confounding effects of that characteristic on the dependent variable.

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• 11.

### A researcher plans their experiment so that all variables other than the IV that may impact on the DV are spread equally across all experimental conditions. This procedure is best described as

• A.

An order effect.

• B.

A matched-participants design.

• C.

Double-blind.

• D.

Counterbalancing.

D. Counterbalancing.
Explanation
Counterbalancing refers to a method used in experimental design to control for potential confounding variables. By systematically varying the order in which conditions are presented to participants, any effects of the order are balanced out across all experimental conditions. This helps ensure that any observed differences in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable rather than other extraneous factors.

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• 12.

### A researcher gives vitamin C to one group of research participants and a placebo to another group to measure the effect of vitamin C on the common cold. The frequency of colds is

• A.

The independent variable.

• B.

The dependent variable.

• C.

An extraneous variable.

• D.

A confounding variable.

B. The dependent variable.
Explanation
In this experiment, the researcher is giving vitamin C to one group and a placebo to another group to measure the effect on the common cold. The frequency of colds is the variable that is being measured and observed in response to the independent variable, which is the administration of vitamin C or placebo. Therefore, the frequency of colds is the dependent variable in this experiment.

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• 13.

### An experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a new technique for learning Greek words. One group used the learning technique and another group did not. Both groups were then given the same test of recall of Greek words. The results showed that the group using the learning technique recalled more Greek words than did the group who did not use the learning technique. In this experiment, _____ is the independent variable, whereas _____ is the dependent variable.

• A.

Number of Greek words correctly recalled; using the learning technique

• B.

Using the learning technique; number of Greek words correctly recalled

• C.

Number of Greek words learned; number of Greek words correctly recalled

• D.

Number of Greek words correctly recalled; number of Greek words learned

B. Using the learning technique; number of Greek words correctly recalled
Explanation
The independent variable in this experiment is the use of the learning technique, as it is the variable that is manipulated by the researchers. The dependent variable is the number of Greek words correctly recalled, as it is the variable that is measured and expected to be influenced by the independent variable.

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• 14.

### A researcher selects participants by randomly sampling different groups from a target population. The researcher believes that the sex and religious beliefs of participants will be influential on the results, so the researcher ensures these characteristics are proportionally represented in the sample. This type of sampling procedure is best described as

• A.

Biased sampling

• B.

Stratified-random sampling.

• C.

Random sampling.

• D.

Stratified sampling.

B. Stratified-random sampling.
Explanation
The correct answer is stratified-random sampling. This is because the researcher is intentionally selecting participants from different groups within the target population (stratified sampling) and doing so randomly (random sampling). By ensuring that the characteristics of sex and religious beliefs are proportionally represented in the sample, the researcher is reducing potential biases and increasing the generalizability of the results.

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• 15.

### A statistical test was carried out on the results obtained for the experiment described in question 13. The statistical test showed that the difference in scores between the two groups was significant (p < 0.05). The result for this statistical test indicates that

• A.

The difference between the number of words correctly recalled is due to chance.

• B.

There is a 95% chance that the learning technique works.

• C.

A difference equal to, or greater than, the difference found in this experiment is likely to occur by chance less than 5% of times the experiment is replicated.

• D.

There is a 95% chance that the learning technique does not work.

C. A difference equal to, or greater than, the difference found in this experiment is likely to occur by chance less than 5% of times the experiment is replicated.
Explanation
The statistical test result with a p-value less than 0.05 indicates that the difference in scores between the two groups is unlikely to occur by chance. This means that there is a significant difference between the number of words correctly recalled by the two groups. The answer suggests that a difference equal to or greater than the difference found in this experiment is likely to occur by chance less than 5% of the time the experiment is replicated, further supporting the conclusion that the difference is not due to chance.

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• 16.

### Ethical guidelines in psychological research are intended to ensure that

• A.

Participants are responsible for the research.

• B.

Participants can make comments on the results whenever they want to.

• C.

The rights and wellbeing of the researcher are not compromised in any way.

• D.

The rights and wellbeing of participants are not compromised in any way.

D. The rights and wellbeing of participants are not compromised in any way.
Explanation
Ethical guidelines in psychological research are put in place to prioritize the rights and wellbeing of participants. These guidelines ensure that participants are not subjected to any harm or distress during the research process. It also ensures that their privacy and confidentiality are protected. By following these ethical guidelines, researchers can conduct their studies in an ethical and responsible manner, minimizing any potential negative impact on the participants.

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• 17.

### A researcher intentionally arranged the order in which the conditions of a repeated-measures experiment were experienced. This was done to control order effects that were expected to occur. This procedure is most commonly referred to as

• A.

Biased participant selection.

• B.

Counterbalancing.

• C.

Unethical.

• D.

Biased participant allocation.

B. Counterbalancing.
Explanation
Counterbalancing is the correct answer because it refers to the intentional arrangement of the order in which conditions of a repeated-measures experiment are experienced. This is done to control order effects that may occur. Counterbalancing helps to ensure that any potential biases or confounding variables associated with the order of conditions are evenly distributed across participants, thus increasing the internal validity of the study. Biased participant selection, unethical behavior, and biased participant allocation do not accurately describe the procedure of intentionally arranging the order of conditions in a repeated-measures experiment.

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• 18.

### A generalisation of the results obtained from research involves

• A.

Determining the statistical significance of the results.

• B.

Establishing a cause–effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

• C.

Applying the findings obtained from a sample to the population.

• D.

Drawing a conclusion about whether the results support or do not support the hypothesis.

C. Applying the findings obtained from a sample to the population.
Explanation
The correct answer is "applying the findings obtained from a sample to the population." This is because generalization involves taking the results obtained from a sample and applying them to the larger population from which the sample was drawn. By doing so, researchers can make inferences and draw conclusions about the entire population based on the findings from the sample. This allows for a broader understanding of the phenomenon being studied and increases the external validity of the research.

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• 19.

### Which of the following researcher behaviours would be considered unethical?

• A.

Informing participants about the results of the experiment

• B.

Preventing a participant from leaving an experiment midway through the experiment

• C.

Checking up on the age of a participant when there is doubt that the participant may not be old enough to give informed consent

• D.

Publishing the results of the experiment without obtaining informed consent from the participants

B. Preventing a participant from leaving an experiment midway through the experiment
Explanation
Preventing a participant from leaving an experiment midway through the experiment would be considered unethical because it violates the principle of voluntary participation. Participants should have the right to withdraw from a study at any time without facing any negative consequences. It is important to respect the autonomy and well-being of participants, and coercing or preventing them from leaving goes against ethical guidelines for research.

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• 20.

### Which of the following is an example of a self-report?

• A.

Diary records kept by a person with a spider phobia on how they think and feel whenever they see a spider

• B.

The researcher’s raw data collected for their study

• C.

The researcher’s formal report on their study

• D.

The findings reported by an ethics committee on the suitability of a researcher’s experience and qualifications to undertake a proposed study

A. Diary records kept by a person with a spider phobia on how they think and feel whenever they see a spider
Explanation
Diary records kept by a person with a spider phobia on how they think and feel whenever they see a spider is an example of a self-report because it involves the individual reporting their own thoughts and feelings. This type of self-report allows the person to provide subjective information about their experiences and perceptions, which can be valuable in understanding their psychological state.

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• 21.

### The least number of participants that can be used in an experiment with a repeated-measures design is

• A.

One.

• B.

Impossible to determine.

• C.

Dependent on the possibility of an order effect.

• D.

Dependent on the availability of participants.

A. One.
Explanation
In a repeated-measures design, each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variable. Since the same participant is used for all conditions, the minimum number of participants required is one. This is because the focus is on within-subject differences rather than between-subject differences. The other options are not relevant to determining the minimum number of participants needed for this type of design.

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• 22.

### In a repeated-measures experimental design, each participant is exposed to

• A.

All conditions of the experiment.

• B.

The independent variable only.

• C.

The independent variable repeatedly.

• D.

The dependent variable repeatedly.

A. All conditions of the experiment.
Explanation
In a repeated-measures experimental design, each participant is exposed to all conditions of the experiment. This means that every participant experiences every level or variation of the independent variable. This design allows researchers to compare the effects of different conditions within the same participants, reducing individual differences and increasing the statistical power of the study. By exposing participants to all conditions, researchers can determine the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable more accurately.

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• 23.

### Before conducting an experiment, a researcher identified all potential extraneous variables expected to affect the dependent variable, then refined the design of the experiment to minimise or eliminate the influence of such variables. The researcher did this to help ensure that

• A.

A single-blind procedure could be used before interpreting the results.

• B.

A double-blind procedure could be used before interpreting the results.

• C.

Inferential statistics could be used to help interpret the results.

• D.

There would be no confounding variables.

D. There would be no confounding variables.
Explanation
The researcher identified and minimized potential extraneous variables to ensure that there would be no confounding variables. Confounding variables are variables that are not the independent variable but can affect the dependent variable, leading to inaccurate or misleading results. By eliminating or minimizing the influence of these variables, the researcher can have more confidence in the relationship between the independent and dependent variables and draw accurate conclusions from the experiment.

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• 24.

### The best technique for ensuring control over demand characteristics and experimenter effects is the use of

• A.

Inferential statistics before the experiment is conducted.

• B.

The double-blind procedure.

• C.

Inferential statistics after the experiment is conducted.

• D.

The single-blind procedure.

B. The double-blind procedure.
Explanation
The double-blind procedure is the best technique for ensuring control over demand characteristics and experimenter effects. This procedure involves both the participants and the experimenters being unaware of which group is receiving the treatment and which group is receiving the placebo. By keeping both parties blind to this information, it minimizes the potential for bias and ensures that any observed effects are truly due to the treatment being tested rather than participant or experimenter expectations.

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• 25.

### In a simple experiment, participants will be either exposed to the independent variable or not exposed to the independent variable. What type of experimental design will be used?

• A.

Single-blind

• B.

Matched-participants

• C.

Independent-groups

• D.

Repeated-measures