Correlative links do not necessarily imply causation.
Cause-and-effect argument doesn't happen in comparative politics.
Negative correlation necessarily negates association.
Only positive correlation is explanatory.
Two or more cases have different outcomes.
Two or more cases have similar outcomes.
Two or more cases have similar hypotheses.
Two or more cases have different independent variables.
An individual's opinion on a subject
An abstract idea that we attempt to define and measure
A theory in science that has been tested and vetted
An indisputable fact
None of the above
The outcomes should be similar
All variables in the analysis are similar
The outcomes should differ
All variables in the analysis are constant
Establish the validity of the evidence presented
Point to evidence that does not support a conventional version of a given theory
Demonstrate the logical limitations of a given theory
Demonstrate the link between hypotheses and theory
Which societies are the most democratic?
Isn't American democracy the best in the world?
Isn't French democracy the best in the world?
Shouldn't all societies be democratic?
Why did the New World colonies revolt against the British?
When did the British colonize the New World?
Why did the British unfairly tax the New World colonies?
Why did the British colonize the New World?
When did the Iranian Revolution happen?
Why did the Iranian Revolution not lead to liberal democracy?
Why did the Iranian Revolution happen?
Why was the Iranian Revolution unlike the Russian Revolution in some key respects?
Operationalization guarantees an unbiased study.
Operationalization organizes concepts on the basis of their specificity or generalit
Operationalization allows for researchers to see many sides to the story.
Operationalization makes a concept measureable.
The Somali state is a weak state
Revolutions are more likely to happen when there are opportunities to organize and express dissent.
Comparative politics is a dynamic field
The National Rifle Association has a high mobilization capacity.
Theories require real world support
Theories are general explanations of empirical phenomena
Theories are typically backed by facts and evidence
Theories are usually inductive
A theory says that institutional quality predicts economic growth, but a study argues that this can't be true because institutional quality is far too vague of an idea
A theory says that institutional quality predicts economic growth, but a study finds that by standard measures of institutional quality, there is no independent effect once you control for resource endowments and international ties
A theory says that institutional quality predicts economic growth, but a study argues that all cultures are so different that we cannot compare them.
A theory says that institutional quality predicts economic growth, but a study argues that this is unknown since we don't know which kinds of institutions might be importan
They provide little insight to the study or its results.
They do not fit the predicted pattern
They result from deductive reasoning
They specifically deal with the study of social deviants in a society
Hypotheses are less hypothetical than theories
Hypotheses are more quantitative than theories
Hypotheses are less intuitive than theories
Hypotheses are more speculative than theories
A theory says that increasing economic growth leads to the decline of religion, but a study says that data on the United States are hard to reconcile with this idea
A theory says that increasing economic growth leads to the decline of religion, but a study says that the idea of “the decline of religion” is not sufficiently specific for the theory to carry much weight
A theory says that economic growth leads to the decline of religion, but a study shows the effect disappears when you control for literacy and educational levels the effect disappears
None of these are valid because the theory linking economic growth to religious decline is immune to theoretical critique
Strong belief in the argument
Emphatic elocution of the argument
Loud voices to state the argument
Evidence to support the argument
Policy creation, regulation, law enforcement
Head of state, head of government, representative of the people
Parliamentary, presidential, municipal
Decision-making, law enforcement, representation
Executive, legislative, judicial