Survey and questionnaire data
Any data can be considered quantitative.
Only written material that respondents provide in response to open-ended items.
Any sort of data that can be summarized with numbers.
Text, pictures, videos, sound recordings.
Survey and questionnaire data.
The type of judgment that is used to make meaning of the data, and how the data are manipulated.
The research questions that can be addressed using each of the types of data.
The topics about which the data are being collected.
The respondents providing the data.
There really is no difference.
It is not possible to convert qualitative data into quantitative data.
If qualitative data are converted into quantitative data, validity always suffers.
Researchers often will often use quantitative data so that they avoid any subjective or qualitative judgments.
A researcher who converts qualitative data into quantitative data is ensuring that the validity of the research will be improved.
Although some data are collected quantitatively, there are many qualitative judgments that go into how those responses are collected.
(lowest) nominal-->ordinal-->interval-->ratio (highest)
(lowest) interval-->nominal-->ordinal-->ratio (highest)
(lowest) ratio-->interval-->ordinal-->nominal (highest)
(lowest) interval-->ordinal-->nominal-->ratio (highest)
(lowest) nominal-->ratio-->interval-->nominal (highest)
The process by which the data will be analyzed.
How correct the data are relative to what they are supposed to describe.
Whether the right kind of data are collected for the research question to be answered.
The theoretical idea or concept that is being described or analyzed in the process of research.
The term "construct" has no set meaning in research.
How meaningful it is to generalize based on the research.
How well the researcher did what was planned.
The accuracy of the measures used.
The same as "reliability".
How well the researcher explains what she/he means by the key terms used in the research.