Exploring Research Methods Quiz

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 1372

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Exploring Research Methods Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A good research plan, according to Leedy and Ormrod (2010), includes:
    • A. 

      Specific procedures and data sources, but does not lock the researcher into an analysis plan.

    • B. 

      Initial procedures and key data sources, but is also open to modification as the project progresses.

    • C. 

      A specific plan regarding data sources and analyses, although information regarding the specific research sample is best left open.

    • D. 

      Includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and analysis plan.

  • 2. 
    The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part), in chronological order:
    • A. 

      Pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature, collect the data.

    • B. 

      B. clearly state the research question, collect data, review the literature, write up the findings.

    • C. 

      Review the literature, identify a question, collect data, analyze data.

    • D. 

      Pose a hypothesis, collect data, analyze data, review the literature.

  • 3. 
    When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, universality refers to the fact that:
    • A. 

      The research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.

    • B. 

      Another researcher in the same field, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results

    • C. 

      A well-designed research project could be carried out by any competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.

    • D. 

      The phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

  • 4. 
    When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that:
    • A. 

      The research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.

    • B. 

      Another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.

    • C. 

      A well-designed research project could be carried out by a specific individual conducting research in the same field.

    • D. 

      The phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

  • 5. 
    Three of the following accurately characterize data.  Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data?
    • A. 

      Data may be elusive.

    • B. 

      Data can be volatile.

    • C. 

      Data are ever changing.

    • D. 

      Data reveal truth.

  • 6. 
    Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years.  During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community.  For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes:
    • A. 

      Primary data.

    • B. 

      Secondary data.

    • C. 

      Informal data.

    • D. 

      Nonempirical data.

  • 7. 
    Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver.  Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving.  For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:
    • A. 

      Hearsay data.

    • B. 

      Secondary data.

    • C. 

      Informal data

    • D. 

      Primary data.

  • 8. 
    Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning.  He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items.  Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
    • A. 

      Construct validity

    • B. 

      Content validity

    • C. 

      Criterion validity

    • D. 

      Face validity

  • 9. 
    A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity.  She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
    • A. 

      Predictive validity

    • B. 

      Content validity

    • C. 

      Criterion validity

    • D. 

      Face validity

  • 10. 
    A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism.  To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire.  Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire.  This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
    • A. 

      Criterion validity

    • B. 

      Content validity

    • C. 

      Face validity

    • D. 

      Predictive validity

  • 11. 
    Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children.  Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session.  They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar.  This is an example of ______ reliability.
    • A. 

      Interrater

    • B. 

      Internal consistency

    • C. 

      Equivalent form

    • D. 

      Test–retest

  • 12. 
    Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation.  He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine.  Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine.  This is an indication of good ______ reliability.
    • A. 

      Interrater

    • B. 

      Internal consistency

    • C. 

      Equivalent form

    • D. 

      Test–retest

  • 13. 
    Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens.  She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May.  By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
    • A. 

      Interrater

    • B. 

      Internal consistency

    • C. 

      Equivalent form

    • D. 

      Test–retest

  • 14. 
    Three of the following are associated with quantitative research methods.  Which one is NOT?
    • A. 

      The purpose is to explain or predict.

    • B. 

      It is assumed that the findings will generalize to similar others.

    • C. 

      Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and interpretation.

    • D. 

      Statistical analyses are the primary source of findings.

  • 15. 
    Three of the following are associated with qualitative research methods.  Which one is NOT?
    • A. 

      The purpose is to describe or explain.

    • B. 

      No data are gathered as part of this approach.

    • C. 

      Textual data are gathered from a small number of participants.

    • D. 

      The study is context bound.

  • 16. 
    Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study.  Which one is NOT?
    • A. 

      Conduct the study in a controlled laboratory setting.

    • B. 

      Conduct a double-blind experiment.

    • C. 

      Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.

    • D. 

      Build in opportunities for triangulation.

  • 17. 
    Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study.  Which one is NOT?
    • A. 

      Conduct the study in a real-life setting.

    • B. 

      Assure that you have a representative sample.

    • C. 

      Replicate the study under a variety of relevant conditions.

    • D. 

      Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

  • 18. 
    Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility or dependability of a qualitative study.  Which one is NOT?
    • A. 

      End extensive time in the field studying the phenomenon of interest.

    • B. 

      Acquire rich and detailed descriptions of the phenomena being studied.

    • C. 

      Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study.

    • D. 

      Ask participants to comment on the conclusions being drawn from the study.

  • 19. 
    The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies:
    • A. 

      To legal minors (children under the age of 18), but not adults.

    • B. 

      Only in cases where it is specifically requested by the participant.

    • C. 

      To all persons under almost all conditions.

    • D. 

      Only in cases where participants divulge information that is potentially illegal.

  • 20. 
    The altering of data is allowable:
    • A. 

      When it is clear that the participant marked a response in error.

    • B. 

      When the researcher suspects a participant of being careless.

    • C. 

      When the researcher suspects a participant of misunderstanding the question.

    • D. 

      Under no circumstances.

  • 21. 
    Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair.  Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes.  She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly.  Does Dr. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

    • C. 

      Only if the study is accepted for publication

  • 22. 
    Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair.  She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students.  Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure.  You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Qualitative

  • 23. 
    Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t.  Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not?  Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.”  You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______
    • A. 

      Quantitative

    • B. 

      Qualitative

  • 24. 
    Physical measurements should be expressed in
    • A. 

      Metric units.

    • B. 

      Traditional nonmetric units.

    • C. 

      Units of the original measurement.

    • D. 

      Physical units.

  • 25. 
    When writing a report of original research, the sections should reflect the
    • A. 

      Order of importance.

    • B. 

      Relation to each other.

    • C. 

      Stages of the research process.

    • D. 

      None of the above.

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