Research Methods Exam 1

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 336
Questions: 52 | Attempts: 336

Research Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Describe two important characteristics of the scientific method

  • 2. 

    Provide an example of (1) how social and cultural factors may influence psychologists' choice of research topics and (2) how social-cultural factors may influence society's acceptance of research findings

  • 3. 

    Describe how ethnocentric bias can be a problem in research and suggest one way in which researchers can prevent this bias

  • 4. 

    What does it mean that research is conducted in a "moral context?"

  • 5. 

    Explain why researchers are skeptical about research findings, and explain.

  • 6. 

    Identify three reasons you would give another person as to why he or she should critically evaluate the results of the research reported in the media (e.g., self-help books, televisions, magazines).

  • 7. 

    Describe the multimethod approach to research and identify its main advantage.

  • 8. 

    For each of the following characteristics, distinguish between the scientific approach and everyday approaches to knowledge: general approach and attitude, observation, concepts, reporting, instruments, measurement, and hypothesis.

  • 9. 

    Differentiate between an independent variable and a dependent variable, and provide an example of each that could be used in an experiment

  • 10. 

    What is the major advantage of using operational definitions in psychology? In what two ways has the use of operational definitions been criticized?

  • 11. 

    Distinguish between the accuracy and the precision of a measuring instrument

  • 12. 

    What is the difference between the validity of a measure and the reliability of a measure?

  • 13. 

    Identify the four goals of the scientific method and briefly describe what each goal is intended to accomplish.

  • 14. 

    Distinguish between the nomothetic approach and the idiographic approach in terms of who is studied and the nature of the generalizations that are sought

  • 15. 

    What are researchers able to do when they know that two variables are correlated?

  • 16. 

    What is the difference between basic and applied research?

  • 17. 

    Explain why researchers submit research proposals to Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) before beginning a research project, and briefly describe the functions of these committees in the research process

  • 18. 

    Explain how the risk/benefit ratio is used in making ethical decisions. What factors contribute to judging the potential benefits of a research project?

  • 19. 

    Explain why research cannot be risk free and describe the standard that researchers use to determine whether research participants are "at risk." Describe briefly how characteristics of the participants in the research can affect the assessment of risk.

  • 20. 

    Differentiate among the three possible types of risk that can be present in psychological research: physical, psychological, social. How do researchers typically safeguard against the possibility of social risk?

  • 21. 

    What are three important ethical issues raised by online research?

  • 22. 

    What information does the researcher have an ethical obligation to make clear to the participant in order to ensure the participant's informed consent? Under what conditions does the APA Ethics Code indicate that informed consent may not be necessary?

  • 23. 

    What three dimensions should researchers consider when they attempt to decide whether information is public or private?

  • 24. 

    Explain why deception may sometimes be necessary in psychological research. Describe briefly the questions researchers should ask before using deception and describe the conditions under which it is always unethical to deceive participants.

  • 25. 

    In what ways can debriefing benefit the participant? In what ways can debriefing benefit the researcher?

  • 26. 

    What ethical obligations are specified in the APA Ethics Code for researchers who use animals in their research?

  • 27. 

    What conditions are required by the APA Ethics Code before animals may be subjected to stress or pain?

  • 28. 

    Explain how researchers decide when an individual can be credited as an author of a published scientific report.

  • 29. 

    Describe the procedures an author must follow to avoid plagiarism when citing information from an original source or from a secondary source.

  • 30. 

    Briefly identify the goal of survey research and how correlations are used within survey research

  • 31. 

    What two characteristics do surveys have in common regardless of the purpose for which the survey has been done?

  • 32. 

    Explain why there is likely to be a serious threat to the interpretability of the results of a survey when a convenience sample is used.

  • 33. 

    Explain why it is not possible to conclude a sample does not represent a population simply by knowing that the response rate was 50%.

  • 34. 

    What are the major advantages and disadvantages of Internet surveys?

  • 35. 

    Describe the relationship that would need to exist among the samples in a successive independent samples design in order to be able to interpret population changes in attitudes over time.

  • 36. 

    You are interested in assessing the direction and extent of change over time in the opinions of individual respondents. Identify the survey-research design you would choose, and explain why you would make this choice.

  • 37. 

    How would you respond if someone told you that survey results were useless because people do not respond truthfully to questions on surveys?

  • 38. 

    What are the three important conditions for making a causal inference?

  • 39. 

    What does it mean when "confounding" occurs?

  • 40. 

    The ________________ is an abstract concept that refers to the ways in which questions are asked and the logic and methods used to gain answers.

    The scientific method is an abstract concept that encompasses the ways in which questions are asked and the logic and methods used to gain answers. It is a systematic approach to acquiring knowledge and understanding through observation, experimentation, and analysis. By following a series of steps, including making observations, formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments, and analyzing data, scientists are able to test and refine their understanding of the natural world. The scientific method is a fundamental tool in the field of science, allowing researchers to gather evidence, make predictions, and draw conclusions based on empirical evidence.

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  • 41. 

    The __________________ emphasizes direct observation and experimentation as a way of answering questions.

    The term "empirical approach" refers to a method of gaining knowledge or understanding through direct observation and experimentation. This approach emphasizes the importance of using evidence and data to support conclusions and answer questions. By relying on empirical evidence, researchers can gather objective information and draw reliable conclusions. This approach is commonly used in scientific research, where experiments and observations are conducted to test hypotheses and gather data.

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  • 42. 

    _________________ can occur when researchers fail to recognize when experiences and values of their own culture affect their interpretations of behavior observed in other cultures.

    Ethnocentric bias can occur when researchers are unable to recognize how their own cultural experiences and values influence their interpretations of behavior observed in other cultures. This bias can lead to a distorted understanding of cultural phenomena, as researchers may unknowingly impose their own cultural norms and beliefs onto the behaviors they are studying. It is important for researchers to be aware of and critically reflect on their own cultural biases in order to conduct objective and culturally sensitive research.

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  • 43. 

    A(n) __________ is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon. 

    A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon. It is a proposition or a statement that can be tested and potentially proven or disproven through further investigation or experimentation. A hypothesis is based on observations, prior knowledge, and logical reasoning, and it serves as a starting point for scientific research or inquiry. It helps researchers formulate predictions and design experiments to gather evidence and support or reject the hypothesis.

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  • 44. 

    The best approach to answering our questions is the ____________________--that is, searching for an answer using various research methodologies and measures of behavior.

    The best approach to answering questions is the multimethod approach, which involves using various research methodologies and measures of behavior. This means that instead of relying on just one method or measure, researchers should use a combination of different approaches to gather data and analyze behavior. By doing so, they can gain a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the subject matter. This approach allows for a more robust and reliable interpretation of research findings, as it takes into account different perspectives and methods of investigation.

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  • 45. 

    It has been suggested that _______ is the essential ingredient of science, distinguishing it from nonscientific procedures.

    Control is the essential ingredient of science, distinguishing it from nonscientific procedures. In scientific experiments, a control group is used to establish a baseline for comparison. By keeping all variables constant except for the one being tested, scientists can determine the specific effect of that variable. This allows for accurate and reliable results, ensuring that any observed changes are due to the manipulated variable and not external factors. Control is crucial in scientific inquiry as it helps to eliminate bias and increase the validity of the findings.

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  • 46. 

    In a(n) __________, scientists manipulate one or more factors and observe the effects of this manipulation on behavior.

    Scientists manipulate one or more factors and observe the effects of this manipulation on behavior in an experiment. In an experiment, researchers create controlled conditions to study the relationship between variables and determine cause and effect. This allows them to test hypotheses and draw conclusions about the behavior being studied. By manipulating the factors and observing the resulting behavior, scientists can gain insights and make discoveries in various fields of study.

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  • 47. 

    The factors that the researcher controls or manipulates in order to determine their effect on behavior are called the _____________________.

    The factors that the researcher controls or manipulates in order to determine their effect on behavior are called independent variables. Independent variables are the variables that are intentionally changed or manipulated by the researcher to observe their impact on the dependent variable, which is the behavior or outcome being measured. By controlling and manipulating the independent variables, researchers can establish cause-and-effect relationships and draw conclusions about the effects of these variables on behavior.

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  • 48. 

    The measures of behavior that are used to assess the effect (if any) of the independent variables are called ___________________.

    The measures of behavior that are used to assess the effect of the independent variables are called dependent variables. Dependent variables are the outcomes or responses that researchers are interested in studying and are expected to change as a result of manipulating the independent variables. These variables are dependent on the independent variables and are used to determine the relationship or effect between the two.

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  • 49. 

    A(n) ______________________ explains a concept solely in terms of the observable procedures used to produce and measure it.

    An operational definition is a way of explaining a concept by focusing on the observable procedures that are used to produce and measure it. It provides a clear and specific description of how a particular concept is defined and can be measured or observed. By using observable procedures, it ensures that the concept is defined in a way that can be objectively tested and replicated by others. This helps to establish a common understanding and allows for more accurate and reliable measurement of the concept.

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  • 50. 

    ________ refers to the "truthfulness" of a measure.

    Validity refers to the extent to which a measure accurately measures what it is intended to measure. It assesses the degree to which the results obtained from a measurement accurately represent the construct or concept being measured. In other words, validity determines whether a measure is measuring what it claims to measure. A valid measure provides reliable and accurate results, while an invalid measure may produce misleading or inaccurate results.

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