Research Methods Exam 1

52 Questions | Total Attempts: 99

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Research Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Describe two important characteristics of the scientific method
  • 2. 
    Provide an example of (1) how social and cultural factors may influence psychologists' choice of research topics and (2) how social-cultural factors may influence society's acceptance of research findings
  • 3. 
    Describe how ethnocentric bias can be a problem in research and suggest one way in which researchers can prevent this bias
  • 4. 
    What does it mean that research is conducted in a "moral context?"
  • 5. 
    Explain why researchers are skeptical about research findings, and explain.
  • 6. 
    Identify three reasons you would give another person as to why he or she should critically evaluate the results of the research reported in the media (e.g., self-help books, televisions, magazines).
  • 7. 
    Describe the multimethod approach to research and identify its main advantage.
  • 8. 
    For each of the following characteristics, distinguish between the scientific approach and everyday approaches to knowledge: general approach and attitude, observation, concepts, reporting, instruments, measurement, and hypothesis.
  • 9. 
    Differentiate between an independent variable and a dependent variable, and provide an example of each that could be used in an experiment
  • 10. 
    What is the major advantage of using operational definitions in psychology? In what two ways has the use of operational definitions been criticized?
  • 11. 
    Distinguish between the accuracy and the precision of a measuring instrument
  • 12. 
    What is the difference between the validity of a measure and the reliability of a measure?
  • 13. 
    Identify the four goals of the scientific method and briefly describe what each goal is intended to accomplish.
  • 14. 
    Distinguish between the nomothetic approach and the idiographic approach in terms of who is studied and the nature of the generalizations that are sought
  • 15. 
    What are researchers able to do when they know that two variables are correlated?
  • 16. 
    What is the difference between basic and applied research?
  • 17. 
    Explain why researchers submit research proposals to Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) before beginning a research project, and briefly describe the functions of these committees in the research process
  • 18. 
    Explain how the risk/benefit ratio is used in making ethical decisions. What factors contribute to judging the potential benefits of a research project?
  • 19. 
    Explain why research cannot be risk free and describe the standard that researchers use to determine whether research participants are "at risk." Describe briefly how characteristics of the participants in the research can affect the assessment of risk.
  • 20. 
    Differentiate among the three possible types of risk that can be present in psychological research: physical, psychological, social. How do researchers typically safeguard against the possibility of social risk?
  • 21. 
    What are three important ethical issues raised by online research?
  • 22. 
    What information does the researcher have an ethical obligation to make clear to the participant in order to ensure the participant's informed consent? Under what conditions does the APA Ethics Code indicate that informed consent may not be necessary?
  • 23. 
    What three dimensions should researchers consider when they attempt to decide whether information is public or private?
  • 24. 
    Explain why deception may sometimes be necessary in psychological research. Describe briefly the questions researchers should ask before using deception and describe the conditions under which it is always unethical to deceive participants.
  • 25. 
    In what ways can debriefing benefit the participant? In what ways can debriefing benefit the researcher?
  • 26. 
    What ethical obligations are specified in the APA Ethics Code for researchers who use animals in their research?
  • 27. 
    What conditions are required by the APA Ethics Code before animals may be subjected to stress or pain?
  • 28. 
    Explain how researchers decide when an individual can be credited as an author of a published scientific report.
  • 29. 
    Describe the procedures an author must follow to avoid plagiarism when citing information from an original source or from a secondary source.
  • 30. 
    Briefly identify the goal of survey research and how correlations are used within survey research
  • 31. 
    What two characteristics do surveys have in common regardless of the purpose for which the survey has been done?
  • 32. 
    Explain why there is likely to be a serious threat to the interpretability of the results of a survey when a convenience sample is used.
  • 33. 
    Explain why it is not possible to conclude a sample does not represent a population simply by knowing that the response rate was 50%.
  • 34. 
    What are the major advantages and disadvantages of Internet surveys?
  • 35. 
    Describe the relationship that would need to exist among the samples in a successive independent samples design in order to be able to interpret population changes in attitudes over time.
  • 36. 
    You are interested in assessing the direction and extent of change over time in the opinions of individual respondents. Identify the survey-research design you would choose, and explain why you would make this choice.
  • 37. 
    How would you respond if someone told you that survey results were useless because people do not respond truthfully to questions on surveys?
  • 38. 
    The ________________ is an abstract concept that refers to the ways in which questions are asked and the logic and methods used to gain answers.
  • 39. 
    The __________________ emphasizes direct observation and experimentation as a way of answering questions.
  • 40. 
    _________________ can occur when researchers fail to recognize when experiences and values of their own culture affect their interpretations of behavior observed in other cultures.
  • 41. 
    A(n) __________ is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon. 
  • 42. 
    The best approach to answering our questions is the ____________________--that is, searching for an answer using various research methodologies and measures of behavior.
  • 43. 
    It has been suggested that _______ is the essential ingredient of science, distinguishing it from nonscientific procedures.
  • 44. 
    In a(n) __________, scientists manipulate one or more factors and observe the effects of this manipulation on behavior.
  • 45. 
    The factors that the researcher controls or manipulates in order to determine their effect on behavior are called the _____________________.
  • 46. 
    The measures of behavior that are used to assess the effect (if any) of the independent variables are called ___________________.
  • 47. 
    A(n) ______________________ explains a concept solely in terms of the observable procedures used to produce and measure it.
  • 48. 
    ________ refers to the "truthfulness" of a measure.
  • 49. 
    The ___________ of a measurement is indicated by its consistency.
  • 50. 
    A ___________ exists when two different measures of the same people, events, or things vary together.
  • 51. 
    What are the three important conditions for making a causal inference?
  • 52. 
    What does it mean when "confounding" occurs?