# Research Methods Ultimate Quiz Exam!

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| Written by Jess_lambo
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Jess_lambo
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 169
Questions: 24 | Attempts: 79

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• 1.

### What experimental design is depicted in this graph?

• A.

Multiple Baseline Design

• B.

Reversal Design

• C.

Alternating Treatment Design

• D.

Changing Criteria Design

B. Reversal Design
Explanation
The graph in question shows a clear pattern of baseline data, followed by the implementation of an intervention, and then a subsequent return to baseline conditions. This pattern of alternating between baseline and intervention phases is characteristic of a Reversal Design. In this design, the researcher systematically introduces and withdraws the intervention to determine its effect on the dependent variable. This allows for a cause-and-effect relationship to be established between the intervention and the observed changes in the dependent variable.

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• 2.

### What are the three components of a good operational definition?

• A.

Clear, objective, complete

• B.

Complete, objective, concise

• C.

Clear, complete, subjective

• D.

Objective, detailed, relevant

A. Clear, objective, complete
Explanation
A good operational definition should be clear, meaning that it is easily understood and leaves no room for ambiguity. It should also be objective, meaning that it is based on facts and evidence rather than personal opinions or biases. Lastly, it should be complete, meaning that it includes all the necessary information and details to accurately define the concept or variable being measured.

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• 3.

### What type of graph is this?

• A.

Cumulative Record

• B.

Scatterplot

• C.

Bar Graph

• D.

Line Graph

B. Scatterplot
Explanation
This graph is a scatterplot because it displays individual data points as dots on a graph. Scatterplots are used to show the relationship between two variables and determine if there is a correlation between them. In this type of graph, each dot represents a data point, and the position of the dot on the graph corresponds to the values of the two variables being compared.

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• 4.

### What is the total duration IOA for this set of data?

• A.

59.8%

• B.

60%

• C.

76%

• D.

80%

D. 80%
Explanation
The total duration IOA for this set of data is 80%. This is because the question is asking for the total duration IOA, which means the sum of all the individual durations. In this case, the durations are given as percentages, so we add up 59.8%, 60%, 76%, and 80% to get a total of 275.8%. However, since the total cannot exceed 100%, we take the maximum value of 80% as the answer.

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• 5.

### What design is depicted in this graph?

• A.

Multiple baseline design

• B.

Alternating treatment design

• C.

Changing criterion design

• D.

Reversal Design

C. Changing criterion design
Explanation
The correct answer is Changing criterion design. This design involves systematically and gradually changing the criteria for success in order to shape behavior towards a desired goal. It is often used in educational or therapeutic settings to teach new skills or modify existing behaviors. In this design, multiple criterion phases are implemented, each with a different set of criteria, allowing for comparison and analysis of the effects of the changing criteria on behavior.

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• 6.

### What 3 elements of an intervention can be assessed for social validity?

• A.

Goals, procedures, outcome

• B.

Aims, behaviour, results

• C.

Both A and B

• D.

None of the above

A. Goals, procedures, outcome
Explanation
The correct answer is "Goals, procedures, outcome". Social validity refers to the extent to which an intervention is perceived as important, acceptable, and effective by the individuals involved. In order to assess social validity, it is necessary to evaluate the goals of the intervention, the procedures used to implement it, and the outcomes achieved. This ensures that the intervention aligns with the needs and values of the individuals it is intended to benefit.

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• 7.

### What is the term for the variables that you manipulate in your study?

• A.

Discriminative stimulus

• B.

Dependent variable

• C.

Functional variable

• D.

Independent variable

D. Independent variable
Explanation
The term for the variables that you manipulate in your study is the independent variable. This variable is manipulated or controlled by the researcher in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The independent variable is the presumed cause or predictor variable in the study.

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• 8.

• A.

69%

• B.

50%

• C.

80%

• D.

81%

C. 80%
• 9.

### What experimental design is depicted in this graph?

• A.

Reversal design

• B.

ABCD design

• C.

None

• D.

Changing criterion design

C. None
Explanation
The question asks about the experimental design depicted in the graph, and the correct answer is "None." This suggests that the graph does not represent any specific experimental design. Without additional information or context, it is not possible to determine the experimental design from the graph alone.

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• 10.

### When a specified change in the DV can reliably be produced by specific manipulation of the IV and is unlikely to be due to other, extraneous factors it is called a...

• A.

Trend

• B.

Functional relation

• C.

Stimulus control

• D.

None of the above

B. Functional relation
Explanation
A functional relation refers to a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV). In this context, when a specified change in the DV can consistently and predictably be produced by manipulating the IV, and when it is unlikely to be influenced by other factors, it is considered a functional relation. This means that the IV has a direct impact on the DV, and the observed changes in the DV can be attributed to the manipulation of the IV rather than any other external factors.

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• 11.

### The extent to which the observed and measured data matches the true value of that event in nature is called...

• A.

Treatment integrity

• B.

IOA

• C.

Accuracy

• D.

Validity

C. Accuracy
Explanation
Accuracy refers to the extent to which the observed and measured data matches the true value of an event in nature. It is a measure of how close the collected data is to the actual value. In other words, accuracy determines the correctness and precision of the data collected. It is an important factor in research and measurement as it ensures the reliability and validity of the findings.

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• 12.

### Omission Error is...

• A.

A treatment integrity error where additional procedures are implemented that were outlined in the protocol

• B.

A treatment integrity error where additional procedures are implemented that are not outlined in the protocol

• C.

A treatment integrity error where components of the protocol are implemented as dictated by the protocol

• D.

A treatment integrity error where components of the protocol are not implemented as dictated by the protocol

D.  A treatment integrity error where components of the protocol are not implemented as dictated by the protocol
Explanation
Omission Error is a treatment integrity error where components of the protocol are not implemented as dictated by the protocol. This means that certain procedures or steps that are supposed to be followed according to the protocol are not carried out, leading to a deviation from the intended treatment. This error can result in a lack of consistency and accuracy in the treatment being administered, potentially impacting its effectiveness.

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• 13.

### Recording tangible items or environmental effects that result from a behavior is called

• A.

Anecdotal reports

• B.

Permanent products

• C.

Outcome recording

• D.

Both B and C

B. Permanent products
Explanation
Permanent products refers to recording tangible items or environmental effects that result from a behavior. This can include physical artifacts or observable outcomes that are produced as a result of a specific behavior. Anecdotal reports, on the other hand, involve recording subjective descriptions or narratives of behavior. Outcome recording is a broader term that encompasses both permanent products and anecdotal reports. Therefore, the correct answer is permanent products.

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• 14.

### In partial-interval recording ...

• A.

At the end of the interval you record if behaviour occurred at any time during the interval

• B.

You recored whether the behaviour is occurring only at the end of the interval

• C.

At the end of the interval you record if behaviour has occurred throughout the entire interval

• D.

None of the above

A. At the end of the interval you record if behaviour occurred at any time during the interval
Explanation
In partial-interval recording, the observer records whether the behavior occurred at any time during the interval. This means that even if the behavior occurred only once during the interval, it would still be recorded as present. The focus is on whether the behavior happened at all, rather than how often or for how long it occurred. This method is useful for capturing the occurrence of behaviors that may be brief or sporadic. It provides a more conservative estimate of behavior frequency compared to other recording methods.

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• 15.

### What is one benefit of using an alternating treatments design?

• A.

Can easily compare interventions

• B.

You don't need to reverse the baseline

• C.

You immediately begin the intervention

• D.

A, B, and C

D. A, B, and C
Explanation
The alternating treatments design allows for easy comparison of interventions because it involves alternating between different interventions within the same study. This design eliminates the need to reverse the baseline, which saves time and resources. Additionally, by immediately beginning the intervention, the design allows for quicker assessment of its effectiveness. Therefore, all of the options A, B, and C are benefits of using an alternating treatments design.

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• 16.

### Is obtained by combining time with a tally of the number of occurrences of a behavior.

• A.

Duration

• B.

Rate

• C.

Latency

• D.

Count

• E.

None

B. Rate
Explanation
Rate is the correct answer because it refers to the measurement obtained by combining time with a tally of the number of occurrences of a behavior. Rate is a commonly used term in statistics and research to describe the frequency or speed at which a behavior or event occurs over a specific period of time. It is calculated by dividing the count of occurrences by the duration of time in which they occur. Therefore, rate accurately represents the given description.

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• 17.

### Which is the procedure for whole interval recording?

• A.

Record behaviour when it occurs throughout the full interval

• B.

Record behaviour if it occurs at least once during the interval

• C.

Record behaviour if it is occuring at the end of the interval

• D.

None

A. Record behaviour when it occurs throughout the full interval
Explanation
The correct answer is to record behavior when it occurs throughout the full interval. This means that the observer will continuously monitor the behavior during the entire time interval and record each instance of the behavior that occurs. This method provides a more accurate representation of the behavior pattern as it takes into account the entire duration of the interval.

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• 18.

### If an individual is being assessed for the same behavior at school, at home, and at a play facility, what type of multiple baselines is being employed?

• A.

Multiple baseline across behaviours

• B.

Multiple baseline across individuals

• C.

Multiple baseline across settings

• D.

This is not a multiple baseline design

C. Multiple baseline across settings
Explanation
Multiple baseline across settings is being employed when an individual is being assessed for the same behavior at school, at home, and at a play facility. This design allows for the evaluation of the behavior in different environments to determine if the intervention is effective across various settings. It helps to establish a functional relationship between the intervention and the behavior by demonstrating that the behavior changes only when the intervention is implemented in each setting.

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• 19.

### What is meant when a component in a treatment package is necessary?

• A.

It is specified by the analyst as necessary

• B.

It is effective alone

• C.

It is specified by the individual

• D.

It is needed for a treatment to be effective

D. It is needed for a treatment to be effective
Explanation
When a component in a treatment package is described as necessary, it means that it is required for the treatment to be effective. This suggests that without this specific component, the treatment would not produce the desired results. The effectiveness of the treatment relies on the inclusion of this particular component, indicating its importance in the overall treatment plan.

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• 20.

### What is meant by a component in a treatment package being described as sufficient?

• A.

The stakeholder likes it

• B.

It is needed for a treatment to be effective

• C.

It is effective alone

• D.

A component can't be described as sufficient

C. It is effective alone
Explanation
A component in a treatment package being described as sufficient means that it is effective on its own. This implies that the component is capable of producing the desired outcome without the need for additional components or interventions. It suggests that the component is able to stand alone and achieve the desired result, making it an essential and effective part of the treatment package.

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• 21.

### What is the following graph showing?

• A.

Both components are sufficient

• B.

Both components are necessary

• C.

Neither component is necessary

• D.

Neither component is sufficient

B. Both components are necessary
Explanation
The graph is showing that both components are necessary. This means that in order to achieve the desired outcome or result, both components must be present and cannot be omitted.

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• 22.

### Jess, a behaviour analyst, wants to assess treatment integrity for an intervention in place for Lotte. Jess wants to calculate component treatment integrity, how would she do this?

• A.

Divide total number of components performed 100% correctly by total number of components

• B.

Divide number of correct responses by number of correct and incorrect responses

• C.

Divide agreements over agreements and disagreements

• D.

There is no such thing as component treatment integrity

A. Divide total number of components performed 100% correctly by total number of components
Explanation
To calculate component treatment integrity, Jess would divide the total number of components performed 100% correctly by the total number of components. This calculation would give her the percentage of components that were executed correctly, providing an assessment of treatment integrity for the intervention in place for Lotte.

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• 23.

### Which of the following is an example of a commission error?

• A.

Delivery of reinforcer independent of behaviour

• B.

Delivery of reinforcers following incorrect response

• C.

Providing easier demands following behaviour

• D.

All of the above

• E.

None of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
An example of a commission error is when reinforcers are delivered following an incorrect response. This means that the individual is being rewarded for making a mistake or giving an incorrect answer. Another example is when easier demands are provided following behavior. This means that the individual is being given a break or a less challenging task as a result of their behavior, which may reinforce unwanted behaviors. Finally, the delivery of reinforcers independent of behavior is also a commission error. This means that the individual is being rewarded without any specific behavior or response being required, which can lead to reinforcement of undesired behaviors.

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• 24.

### Which of the following is an example of an omission error?

• A.

Failure to provide a prompt

• B.

Failure to provide the item specified in a Mand

• C.

Failure to ignore a problem behaviour

• D.

All of the above

• E.

None of the above