Radiobiology Final Review

50 Questions | Total Attempts: 1401

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Radiobiology Final Review

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is the most abundant compound in the human body?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Lipid

    • C. 

      Nucleic Acid

    • D. 

      Protein

    • E. 

      Water

  • 2. 
    Which cellular salt is found predominantly outside the cell?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Lipid

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Sodium

    • E. 

      Water

  • 3. 
    Which of the following cell compounds is the basic building block of cells and tissues?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Lipid

    • C. 

      Nucleic acid

    • D. 

      Protein

    • E. 

      Water

  • 4. 
    Enzymes are an example of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Lipid

    • C. 

      Nucleic Acid

    • D. 

      Protein

    • E. 

      Water

  • 5. 
    Which of the following organelles catabolize nutrients through oxidation?
    • A. 

      ER

    • B. 

      Golgi complex

    • C. 

      Lysosome

    • D. 

      Mitochrondria

    • E. 

      Ribosome

  • 6. 
    Which of the following binds with adenine?
    • A. 

      Cytosine

    • B. 

      Guanine

    • C. 

      Thymine

  • 7. 
    What is another term for a diploid number of chromosomes in somatic cells?
    • A. 

      Haploid

    • B. 

      N

    • C. 

      2n

    • D. 

      3n

    • E. 

      4n

  • 8. 
    Which of the following components of DNA bind the sugars to each other?
    • A. 

      Adenine

    • B. 

      Cytosine

    • C. 

      Phosphoric acid

    • D. 

      Purine

    • E. 

      Pyrimidine

  • 9. 
    During which stage of mitosis do the chromatids migrate along the spindle to opposing poles of the cell?
    • A. 

      Anaphase

    • B. 

      Interphase

    • C. 

      Telophase

    • D. 

      Metaphase

    • E. 

      Prophase

  • 10. 
    The synthesis of DNA occurs during which of the following stages?
    • A. 

      Anaphase

    • B. 

      Interphase

    • C. 

      Metaphase

    • D. 

      Prophase

    • E. 

      Telophase

  • 11. 
    Meiosis occurs in which type of cells?
    • A. 

      Chromosomes

    • B. 

      Germ

    • C. 

      Parenchymal

    • D. 

      Somatic

    • E. 

      Stromal

  • 12. 
    Which of the following can be defined as when any type of radiation deposits its energy directly in the critical target?
    • A. 

      Radiolysis

    • B. 

      Direct action

    • C. 

      Indirect action

    • D. 

      Isotonic effect

    • E. 

      Elastic effect

  • 13. 
    Which of the following stage of the cell cycle immediately precedes mitosis?
    • A. 

      G0

    • B. 

      G1

    • C. 

      G2

    • D. 

      G3

    • E. 

      M

  • 14. 
    What is represented by the following chemical formula:  H0 + OH0 ------->H2O
    • A. 

      Recombination of the free radicals producing no damage

    • B. 

      Free radicals combining to form a new molecule that can be damaging to the cell

    • C. 

      Free radicals reacting with normal molecules to form a new damaged structure

    • D. 

      Free radicals reacting with macro molecules producing no damage

    • E. 

      Destabilization of water

  • 15. 
    Indirect actions comprise what percentage of interactions within cells?
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      25

    • C. 

      50

    • D. 

      75

    • E. 

      95

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is an example of a low LET radiation?
    • A. 

      Beta particles

    • B. 

      Gamma rays

    • C. 

      X-rays

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is true about high LET radiations?
    • A. 

      Large mass

    • B. 

      No charge

    • C. 

      No mass

    • D. 

      Travel fast

    • E. 

      Sparsely ionizing

  • 18. 
    Which of the following keVs is the comparison unit utilized to calculate RBE?
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      200

    • C. 

      250

    • D. 

      300

    • E. 

      350

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is a frame shift mutation?
    • A. 

      Base damage

    • B. 

      Cross linking

    • C. 

      Double strand breaks

    • D. 

      Point mutations

    • E. 

      Single strand breaks

  • 20. 
    Which of the following terms means gross structural changes in a chromosome after irradiation?
    • A. 

      Aberrations

    • B. 

      Anomalies

    • C. 

      Lesions

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 21. 
    What percentage of single chromosome breaks are believed to heal by restitution?
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      25

    • C. 

      50

    • D. 

      75

    • E. 

      95

  • 22. 
    Which of the following aberrations occur after DNA replication?
    • A. 

      Chromosome

    • B. 

      Chromatid

  • 23. 
    Which type of mutation is more common with low LET radiations?
    • A. 

      Frame

    • B. 

      Point

    • C. 

      Ring formation

    • D. 

      Translocation

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 24. 
    An acentric fragment of DNA lacks which of the following?
    • A. 

      Centromere

    • B. 

      Chromatids

    • C. 

      Chromosomes

    • D. 

      Purine

    • E. 

      Pyrimidine

  • 25. 
    The absorption of radiation by a water molecule results in the production of an ion pair.  Which of the following represents an ion pair?
    • A. 

      HOH, HOH+

    • B. 

      HOH-, HOH

    • C. 

      HOH+, HOH-

    • D. 

      HOH, e-

    • E. 

      HOH+, e-

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