Radiography Protection & Radiobiology

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Radiography Protection & Radiobiology - Quiz

In this quiz on radiography, we’ll look at some of the proper safety protocols when using X-rays, which come with a lot of harmful radiation if you’re not careful. What do you know about the practice?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Ionizing radiation is dangerous because it is capable of producing ions or charged particles, such as: Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ionizing radiation is dangerous because it has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, creating ions or charged particles. These ions can cause damage to living cells and genetic material, leading to various health effects such as radiation sickness, cancer, and genetic mutations. Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays are all types of ionizing radiation that can pose a risk to human health. Therefore, the statement that ionizing radiation is dangerous because it is capable of producing ions or charged particles is true.

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  • 2. 

    What are two sources of ionizing radiation?

    • A.

      Natural Made Radiation

    • B.

      Human made Radiation

    • C.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Natural Made Radiation
    B. Human made Radiation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Natural Made Radiation and Human made Radiation. Ionizing radiation can come from both natural sources, such as cosmic rays and radioactive materials in the earth's crust, as well as human-made sources, including X-rays, nuclear power plants, and nuclear weapons. Both types of radiation have the ability to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, creating ions and potentially causing damage to living organisms.

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  • 3. 

    What are examples of ionizing radiaton?

    • A.

      Cosmic Radiation

    • B.

      Natural occurring substances on Earth

    • C.

      Natural in air

    • D.

      Internal Radiation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cosmic Radiation
    B. Natural occurring substances on Earth
    C. Natural in air
    D. Internal Radiation
    Explanation
    Ionizing radiation refers to radiation that possesses enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, thereby ionizing them. Cosmic radiation, which originates from outer space, is one example of ionizing radiation. Natural occurring substances on Earth, such as uranium and radon, also emit ionizing radiation. Additionally, ionizing radiation can be found naturally in the air. Lastly, internal radiation refers to ionizing radiation that is emitted from radioactive materials present within the human body.

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  • 4. 

    What are Human made sources of ionizing radiation?

    • A.

      Medical & Dental

    • B.

      Nuclear Industry

    • C.

      Radionuclides

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Medical & Dental
    B. Nuclear Industry
    C. Radionuclides
    Explanation
    Human-made sources of ionizing radiation include medical and dental procedures, the nuclear industry, and the use of radionuclides. Medical and dental procedures involve the use of X-rays and other imaging techniques that emit ionizing radiation. The nuclear industry includes activities such as nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear waste disposal, all of which involve the production and release of ionizing radiation. Radionuclides are radioactive materials that are used in various industries, such as medicine, research, and manufacturing, and can emit ionizing radiation. These sources pose potential health risks and require proper safety measures to protect individuals from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation.

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  • 5. 

    What are the two types of cells?

    • A.

      Somatic- Perform all body functions

    • B.

      Brain

    • C.

      Germ- Reproductive

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Somatic- Perform all body functions
    C. Germ- Reproductive
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Somatic and Germ cells. Somatic cells are responsible for performing all body functions, while germ cells are involved in reproduction.

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  • 6. 

    What are the most radiosensitive cells?

    • A.

      Basal cells of skin

    • B.

      Crypt cells of small intestine

    • C.

      Germ cells

    • D.

      Brain cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Basal cells of skin
    B. Crypt cells of small intestine
    C. Germ cells
    D. Brain cells
    Explanation
    The most radiosensitive cells are those that are rapidly dividing and have a high metabolic rate. Basal cells of the skin, crypt cells of the small intestine, and germ cells are all examples of cells that fit this description. These cells are constantly dividing and replacing old or damaged cells, making them more susceptible to the damaging effects of radiation. Brain cells, on the other hand, have a lower metabolic rate and do not divide as frequently, making them less sensitive to radiation.

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  • 7. 

    The cells that are resistant to radiation are Nerve, Muscle, and Brain cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Certain cells in the body, such as nerve, muscle, and brain cells, are known to be resistant to radiation. This means that they are less likely to be damaged or affected by radiation exposure compared to other types of cells. This resistance can be attributed to various factors, including their unique structure and function. Therefore, the statement that these cells are resistant to radiation is true.

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  • 8. 

    What are the areas of the body that are most sensitive to radiation?

    • A.

      Eyes, Skin, and Heart

    • B.

      Stomach and Intestines

    • C.

      Reproductive Organs and the Brain

    • D.

      Lens of the Eye, Thyroid, and Gonads

    Correct Answer
    D. Lens of the Eye, Thyroid, and Gonads
    Explanation
    The areas of the body that are most sensitive to radiation are the lens of the eye, thyroid, and gonads. These organs are particularly vulnerable to radiation exposure because they have a high concentration of rapidly dividing cells, which are more susceptible to damage caused by radiation. The lens of the eye can be affected by even low doses of radiation, leading to cataracts. The thyroid is sensitive to radiation and can develop thyroid cancer as a result of exposure. The gonads, which include the testes in males and ovaries in females, are responsible for reproductive functions and can be damaged by radiation, leading to infertility or genetic mutations.

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  • 9. 

    Deterministic effects develop soon after exposure; Run for a short, but rather severe course

    • A.

      Late or Stochastic Effects

    • B.

      Early or Acute Effects

    • C.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. None of the above
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that the correct answer is "None of the above." The explanation for this is that deterministic effects, which are caused by a high dose of radiation, occur soon after exposure and have a short but severe course. On the other hand, late or stochastic effects develop over a longer period of time and are not directly related to the dose of radiation. Early or acute effects are also not the correct answer as they do not accurately describe the characteristics mentioned in the statement.

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  • 10. 

    Examples: Cataract formation, Carcinogenesis, and Genetic Effects are from?

    • A.

      Acute Effects

    • B.

      Somatic / Late Effects

    • C.

      Scatter Radiation

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Somatic / Late Effects
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Somatic / Late Effects. Somatic effects refer to the effects that are seen in the exposed individual during their lifetime, such as cancer or other non-cancer diseases. Late effects specifically refer to the effects that occur after a long latency period, often years or decades after exposure. These effects can include the development of tumors, genetic mutations, or other health issues. Therefore, somatic/late effects are the most appropriate category for cataract formation, carcinogenesis, and genetic effects.

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  • 11. 

    What is the annual dose limit?

    Correct Answer
    5 rem or 50 mSv
    Explanation
    The annual dose limit refers to the maximum amount of radiation exposure that an individual can receive in a year without experiencing harmful effects. In this case, the annual dose limit is stated as either 5 rem or 50 mSv. Rem (roentgen equivalent man) and mSv (millisievert) are units of measurement used to quantify radiation exposure. The answer indicates that the annual dose limit is either 5 rem or 50 mSv, suggesting that both units are acceptable and can be used interchangeably in this context.

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  • 12. 

    What is the general population annual dose of radiation?

    • A.

      5 rem or 50 mSv

    • B.

      10 rem or 100 mSv

    • C.

      .1 rem or 1 mSv

    • D.

      .5 rem or 5 mSv

    Correct Answer
    D. .5 rem or 5 mSv
    Explanation
    The general population annual dose of radiation is typically measured in rem or mSv. The correct answer is .5 rem or 5 mSv, which means that on average, the general population is exposed to a radiation dose of 0.5 rem or 5 mSv per year. This dose is considered relatively low and is mainly due to natural background radiation sources such as cosmic rays and radon gas. It is important to monitor and limit exposure to radiation to ensure the safety and well-being of the population.

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  • 13. 

    What does ALARA stand for?

    Correct Answer
    As Low As Reasonably Achievable
    Explanation
    ALARA stands for "As Low As Reasonably Achievable." This acronym is commonly used in the field of radiation protection and safety. It suggests that efforts should be made to minimize radiation exposure to the lowest level possible, taking into account factors such as technology, economics, and social considerations. The principle of ALARA aims to strike a balance between the benefits of radiation use and the potential risks, ensuring that radiation exposure is kept at the lowest reasonable level without compromising the intended outcome.

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  • 14. 

    What are the Cardinal Principles of Protection that are used to minimize patient exposure?

    • A.

      Time

    • B.

      Distance

    • C.

      Shielding

    • D.

      Quality

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Time
    B. Distance
    C. Shielding
    Explanation
    The Cardinal Principles of Protection that are used to minimize patient exposure are time, distance, and shielding. Time refers to reducing the amount of time spent in close proximity to a radiation source. Distance involves increasing the distance between the patient and the source of radiation. Shielding refers to using barriers, such as lead aprons or walls, to block or absorb radiation. These principles are essential in ensuring the safety of patients by minimizing their exposure to harmful radiation.

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  • 15. 

    Where does Primary Radiation generated in an x-ray room come from?

    • A.

      Patient

    • B.

      Scatter

    • C.

      Protective Housing

    • D.

      X-ray tube that exits from collimator

    Correct Answer
    D. X-ray tube that exits from collimator
    Explanation
    Primary radiation in an x-ray room is generated by the x-ray tube that exits from the collimator. The x-ray tube produces a focused beam of radiation that is directed towards the patient. This primary radiation is the main source of x-rays used for imaging purposes. The scatter radiation, on the other hand, is the secondary radiation that is produced when the primary radiation interacts with the patient's body and other objects in the room. The protective housing is designed to contain the radiation and prevent leakage, but it is not the source of primary radiation.

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  • 16. 

    Where does Scatter Radiation generated in an x-ray room come from?

    • A.

      X-ray tube from collimator

    • B.

      Protective housing

    • C.

      Patient

    • D.

      Direct Contact under beam

    Correct Answer
    C. Patient
    Explanation
    Scatter radiation in an x-ray room is generated from the patient. When an x-ray beam passes through the patient's body, it interacts with the tissues and produces scattered radiation. This scattered radiation can then travel in various directions, including towards the x-ray technician and other individuals in the room. Therefore, the patient is the source of scatter radiation in an x-ray room.

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  • 17. 

    Where does Leakage radiation generated from an x-ray room come from?

    • A.

      X-ray tube from collimator

    • B.

      Patient

    • C.

      Direct Contact under beam

    • D.

      Protective Housing

    Correct Answer
    D. Protective Housing
    Explanation
    Leakage radiation is generated from an x-ray room and it comes from the protective housing. The protective housing is designed to contain the x-ray tube and prevent the leakage of radiation. However, a small amount of radiation may still escape from the housing due to factors such as wear and tear or manufacturing defects. This leakage radiation can pose a potential risk to individuals in the vicinity of the x-ray room, which is why regular inspections and maintenance of the protective housing are necessary to ensure safety.

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  • 18. 

    You should stand at least 2m or 6ft from a patient at 90deg?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Standing at least 2m or 6ft from a patient at a 90-degree angle is recommended for maintaining a safe distance and reducing the risk of exposure to any potential infectious diseases or bodily fluids. This distance helps to minimize the spread of respiratory droplets and maintain a safe zone for healthcare providers and patients. Therefore, the statement "True" is correct in this context.

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  • 19. 

    Measures Exposure Levels

    Correct Answer
    Radiation Monitor
    Explanation
    A radiation monitor is a device used to measure exposure levels of radiation. It is designed to detect and measure the amount of radiation present in a particular environment. This can be useful in various settings such as nuclear power plants, hospitals, and laboratories where there is a need to monitor radiation levels for safety purposes. The radiation monitor typically consists of a detector that can detect different types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, and gamma rays, and provide accurate measurements of the radiation levels.

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  • 20. 

    Contains crystals that absorb a portion of the energy they receive from radiation exposure.

    • A.

      RSO

    • B.

      OSL

    • C.

      TLD

    • D.

      Film Badge

    Correct Answer
    C. TLD
    Explanation
    TLD stands for Thermoluminescent Dosimeter, which is a type of radiation dosimeter. It contains crystals that have the ability to absorb some of the energy they receive from radiation exposure. When the crystals are heated, they release this stored energy in the form of light, which can be measured to determine the amount of radiation the individual has been exposed to. TLDs are commonly used in various industries to monitor radiation levels and ensure the safety of workers.

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  • 21. 

    What are some ways to reduce radiation?

    • A.

      Use beam limitation devices (collimators)

    • B.

      Use a higher KVp and LOWER mAs

    • C.

      Immobilize patients to eliminate voluntary motion

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Use beam limitation devices (collimators)
    B. Use a higher KVp and LOWER mAs
    C. Immobilize patients to eliminate voluntary motion
    Explanation
    Using beam limitation devices (collimators) helps reduce radiation by restricting the size of the radiation beam, thereby reducing the area of the body exposed to radiation. Using a higher KVp (kilovoltage peak) and lower mAs (milliamperes seconds) also reduces radiation as it allows for a higher quality X-ray image with less radiation dose. Immobilizing patients eliminates voluntary motion, ensuring that the X-ray image is clear and reducing the need for repeat exposures that would increase radiation dose.

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  • 22. 

    What are SHORT TERM effects of radiation? (Somatic)

    • A.

      Nausea

    • B.

      Fatigue

    • C.

      Loss of Hair

    • D.

      Fever

    • E.

      Blood Disorders

    • F.

      Intestinal Disorders

    • G.

      Redness of Skin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Nausea
    B. Fatigue
    C. Loss of Hair
    D. Fever
    E. Blood Disorders
    F. Intestinal Disorders
    G. Redness of Skin
    Explanation
    Exposure to radiation can have various short-term effects on the body. These effects include nausea, fatigue, loss of hair, fever, blood disorders, intestinal disorders, and redness of the skin. Nausea and fatigue are common symptoms experienced by individuals exposed to radiation. Loss of hair is also a common occurrence due to the damage caused to the hair follicles. Fever can occur as a result of the body's immune response to radiation exposure. Radiation can also affect blood cells, leading to blood disorders. Intestinal disorders may arise due to the damage caused to the digestive system. Redness of the skin is a visible effect of radiation exposure on the skin cells.

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  • 23. 

    What are LONG TERM soamtic effects of radiation?

    • A.

      Cancer

    • B.

      Birth defects

    • C.

      Teretogenesis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cancer
    B. Birth defects
    C. Teretogenesis
    Explanation
    The long-term somatic effects of radiation include cancer, birth defects, and teratogenesis. Exposure to radiation can cause damage to DNA, leading to the development of cancerous cells. It can also result in birth defects, such as abnormalities in the structure or function of organs or body parts in newborns. Teratogenesis refers to the process of abnormal development of an embryo or fetus, which can occur as a result of radiation exposure. These long-term effects highlight the potential dangers of radiation and the importance of minimizing exposure to protect human health.

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