Psych 202 Study Guide

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Psych 202 Study Guide - Quiz


Psychology 202 Keystone College


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is Biosocial?

    • A.

      The study of people

    • B.

      How we physically change

    • C.

      How we mentally change

    • D.

      The study of how we interact with people

    Correct Answer
    B. How we physically change
    Explanation
    Biosocial refers to the study of how we physically change. This field of study focuses on understanding the biological and physiological processes that occur in our bodies as we grow and develop. It explores the various factors that influence our physical development, such as genetics, hormones, nutrition, and environmental factors. By studying biosocial changes, researchers can gain insights into the physical aspects of human growth and the impact they have on our overall well-being.

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  • 2. 

    What is cognitive?

    • A.

      The study of the unconscious

    • B.

      The study of the conscious

    • C.

      Brian ability changes

    • D.

      The study of dreams

    Correct Answer
    C. Brian ability changes
  • 3. 

    What is Psychosocial

    • A.

      The study of the criminally insane in society

    • B.

      The study of dreams

    • C.

      The study of the unconscious

    • D.

      The study of the conscious

    • E.

      Feelings/emotions

    Correct Answer
    E. Feelings/emotions
    Explanation
    Psychosocial refers to the study of the interplay between psychological factors (such as thoughts, emotions, and behaviors) and social factors (such as relationships, culture, and society). It focuses on understanding how these factors influence and shape an individual's feelings, emotions, and overall well-being. Therefore, the answer "Feelings/emotions" aligns with the concept of psychosocial as it encompasses the study of these aspects within the context of psychological and social factors.

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  • 4. 

    What is anedotal info?

    • A.

      Passed on knowledge

    • B.

      Opinions

    • C.

      Fictional knowledge

    • D.

      Nonfictional knowledge

    • E.

      Passed on info from one person, who knows a person, etc..

    Correct Answer
    E. Passed on info from one person, who knows a person, etc..
    Explanation
    Anecdotal info refers to information that is passed on from one person to another, often through a chain of individuals who have heard the information. This type of information is based on personal accounts or experiences, rather than on factual evidence or research. It may not be reliable or accurate as it can be influenced by biases, misunderstandings, or exaggerations. Therefore, anecdotal information should be taken with caution and verified through more reliable sources before considering it as true or valid.

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  • 5. 

    What is the goal of studying development?

  • 6. 

    What is empiricism?

  • 7. 

    What is a theory?

  • 8. 

    What are the 5 types of theories?

  • 9. 

    What is associated with the Freudian theory? (may be more than 1 answer)

    • A.

      Behaviorism

    • B.

      ID, ego, superego

    • C.

      Children's development requires scaffolding

    • D.

      Development stages

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. ID, ego, superego
    D. Development stages
    Explanation
    The Freudian theory is associated with the concepts of ID, ego, and superego, which are the three components of the human psyche according to Sigmund Freud. These components represent different aspects of the human mind and their interactions. Additionally, the Freudian theory also emphasizes the importance of development stages in understanding human behavior and personality.

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  • 10. 

    What is the freudian theory?

  • 11. 

    What are the stages of development in the Freudian theory in the correct order

    • A.

      Anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital

    • B.

      Phallic, oral, anal, latency, genital,

    • C.

      Anal, genital, phallic, latency, oral

    • D.

      Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

    Correct Answer
    D. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
    Explanation
    The stages of development in the Freudian theory are believed to occur in a specific order. According to Freud, the first stage is the oral stage, where the focus of pleasure is on the mouth. This is followed by the anal stage, where the focus shifts to the anus and the child begins to learn about control and independence. The third stage is the phallic stage, where the child becomes aware of their own gender and develops sexual feelings. After that comes the latency stage, where sexual feelings are repressed and the child focuses on developing social and intellectual skills. Finally, the genital stage occurs during adolescence and adulthood, where sexual interests are reawakened and mature relationships are formed.

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  • 12. 

    How many stages are in the Erik Erikson psychosocial theory?

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      8

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      10

    Correct Answer
    C. 8
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory consists of eight stages that span across an individual's lifespan. Each stage represents a developmental challenge that individuals must successfully navigate to achieve healthy psychological and social development. These stages include trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair.

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  • 13. 

    What is the Erik Erikson theory?

  • 14. 

    Who is the founder of classical conditioning?

    • A.

      Watson & Crick

    • B.

      B.F. Skinner

    • C.

      Freud

    • D.

      Watson & Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    D. Watson & Pavlov
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a theory in psychology that explains how learning occurs through the association of stimuli. Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, is widely regarded as the founder of classical conditioning. He conducted experiments with dogs, where he conditioned them to associate the sound of a bell with the arrival of food, causing them to salivate even when the food was not present. John B. Watson, an American psychologist, also made significant contributions to the field of behaviorism, but he is not considered the founder of classical conditioning.

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  • 15. 

    Who is the founder of operant conditioning?

    • A.

      Watson & Crick

    • B.

      B.F. Skinner

    • C.

      Freud

    • D.

      Watson & Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    B. B.F. Skinner
    Explanation
    B.F. Skinner is the founder of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a learning process that involves strengthening or weakening behavior through positive or negative reinforcement. Skinner conducted extensive research on this topic and developed the concept of operant conditioning. He believed that behavior is influenced by its consequences, and through his experiments with animals, he demonstrated how reinforcement can shape behavior. Skinner's work has had a significant impact on the field of psychology and continues to be influential in understanding human behavior.

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  • 16. 

    What is the theory behind operant conditioning?

    Correct Answer
    Behavior is reinforced by environment
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is a theory that suggests that behavior is strengthened or reinforced by the consequences that follow it. In other words, when a behavior is followed by a positive or rewarding consequence, it is more likely to be repeated in the future. On the other hand, if a behavior is followed by a negative consequence or is not reinforced at all, it is less likely to be repeated. This theory emphasizes the role of the environment in shaping and influencing behavior.

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  • 17. 

    Who is famous for social learning/modeling?

    • A.

      B.F. Skinner

    • B.

      Watson & Pavlov

    • C.

      Bondura

    • D.

      Freud

    Correct Answer
    C. Bondura
    Explanation
    Albert Bandura is famous for social learning/modeling. He is a renowned psychologist known for his social cognitive theory, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning and the influence of social factors on behavior. Bandura's research demonstrated that individuals learn by observing others and imitating their behavior. He conducted the famous Bobo doll experiment, where children observed aggressive behavior and then imitated it. Bandura's work has had a significant impact on understanding how social learning occurs and has influenced various fields such as education, psychology, and communication.

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  • 18. 

    What is the theory behind Piaget's cognitive theory?

  • 19. 

    Who is famous for the zone of proximal development?

    • A.

      Vygotsky

    • B.

      Pavlov

    • C.

      Skinner

    • D.

      Freud

    • E.

      Gerboski

    Correct Answer
    A. Vygotsky
    Explanation
    Vygotsky is famous for the concept of the zone of proximal development. This theory suggests that a child's learning and development are influenced by their interactions with more knowledgeable individuals, such as teachers or peers. The zone of proximal development refers to the gap between what a child can do independently and what they can achieve with guidance and support. Vygotsky believed that learning should occur within this zone, as it promotes cognitive growth and the acquisition of new skills.

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  • 20. 

    What is the theory behind proximal development?

  • 21. 

    What is the theory behind epignetic systems?

  • 22. 

    Developmental study is a science?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Developmental study is not a science. It is a field of study that focuses on understanding the processes and changes that occur in individuals over their lifespan. While it may involve scientific methods and research, it is not considered a science in and of itself. Developmental study draws on various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, biology, and anthropology to gain insights into how individuals grow, learn, and develop.

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  • 23. 

    Empirical is:

    • A.

      Based on monopolization

    • B.

      Based on architectural designs

    • C.

      Based on many facts and data

    Correct Answer
    C. Based on many facts and data
    Explanation
    Empirical refers to a method or approach that is based on many facts and data. It involves gathering information through observation, experimentation, or experience, and drawing conclusions based on the evidence collected. This approach relies on concrete evidence rather than speculation or theory. By using empirical methods, researchers can make objective and reliable claims about the phenomena they are studying. This approach is widely accepted in scientific disciplines as it emphasizes the importance of evidence-based reasoning and supports the development of accurate and valid conclusions.

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  • 24. 

    Dynamic-systems theory includes the following:

    • A.

      View of human development is always changing

    • B.

      How human development should be studied

    • C.

      Every aspect of life is influenced by society and environment

    • D.

      Each change effects all the others

    • E.

      Emotional and physical attributes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. View of human development is always changing
    C. Every aspect of life is influenced by society and environment
    D. Each change effects all the others
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes three key components of dynamic-systems theory. Firstly, it states that the view of human development is always changing, suggesting that our understanding of how individuals develop evolves over time. Secondly, it emphasizes that every aspect of life is influenced by society and the environment, highlighting the importance of external factors in shaping human development. Lastly, it asserts that each change affects all the others, implying that changes in one aspect of development can have ripple effects on other areas.

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  • 25. 

    Bioecological Systems approach was created by

    • A.

      Bronsteen

    • B.

      Veenace

    • C.

      Bronfenbrenner

    Correct Answer
    C. Bronfenbrenner
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bronfenbrenner. Bronfenbrenner is the creator of the Bioecological Systems approach. This approach emphasizes the importance of understanding the interactions between individuals and their environment in order to fully understand human development. Bronfenbrenner's theory suggests that development is influenced by multiple levels of systems, including the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. These systems interact and influence each other, shaping an individual's development.

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  • 26. 

    Microsystems are:

    • A.

      Immediate surroundings

    • B.

      Local institutes

    • C.

      Historical conditions

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Immediate surroundings
    Explanation
    Microsystems refer to the immediate surroundings or environment in which an individual operates. This includes the people, places, and activities that directly impact a person's daily life. It can include things like family, friends, school, workplace, and community. Microsystems play a crucial role in shaping an individual's development, behavior, and overall well-being. They provide the immediate context in which individuals interact and experience their daily lives. Local institutes and historical conditions may also influence a person's microsystem, but they are not the same as microsystems themselves.

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  • 27. 

    Exosystems are:

    • A.

      Immediate surroundings

    • B.

      Local institutes

    • C.

      Historical conditions

    • D.

      External systems

    Correct Answer
    B. Local institutes
    Explanation
    Exosystems refer to the external systems that influence an individual's development. In this context, local institutes can be considered as part of the exosystem as they are external entities that have an impact on an individual's immediate surroundings. These local institutes could include schools, community organizations, or other institutions that play a role in shaping a person's environment and experiences.

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  • 28. 

    SES is:

    • A.

      Social Class

    • B.

      Sexy Erection Secretion

    • C.

      Famiy Guy

    Correct Answer
    A. Social Class
  • 29. 

    Cross-sectional research compares

    • A.

      1 person from another

    • B.

      People who differ in opinions, but have the same religion

    • C.

      Study of people of different race

    • D.

      Study of people of different gender

    • E.

      Study of people who differ in age, but are similar in other important characteristics

    Correct Answer
    E. Study of people who differ in age, but are similar in other important characteristics
    Explanation
    Cross-sectional research involves studying a group of people who differ in age but share similar important characteristics. This type of research allows researchers to examine how different age groups may vary in certain factors while controlling for other variables. By comparing individuals of different ages but with similar traits, researchers can gain insights into the effects of age on various outcomes. This method helps to eliminate confounding variables and provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between age and other important characteristics being studied.

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  • 30. 

    Quantitive research can be expressed with scales or ranks

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Quantitative research involves the collection and analysis of numerical data. This type of research often utilizes scales or ranks to measure and quantify variables. Scales can be used to assign numerical values to different levels or categories of a variable, while ranks involve ordering or ranking items based on their characteristics or attributes. Therefore, it is accurate to say that quantitative research can be expressed with scales or ranks.

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  • 31. 

    What are the 5 characteristics of development?

    Correct Answer
    multidirectional Multicontextual Multicultural Multidisciplinary- Plasticity- Traits can be altered
    Explanation
    The 5 characteristics of development are multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plasticity. Development is multidirectional because it involves both growth and decline in various aspects of life. It is multicontextual because it occurs within multiple contexts such as family, school, and society. Development is also multicultural as it is influenced by cultural factors and varies across different cultures. Furthermore, it is multidisciplinary because it draws on knowledge from various fields such as psychology, biology, and sociology. Lastly, development exhibits plasticity, meaning that traits can be altered and individuals can change and adapt throughout their lifespan.

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  • 32. 

    Every aspect of life is: (multi)

    Correct Answer
    multidirectional
    Explanation
    The term "multidirectional" suggests that every aspect of life can move or develop in multiple directions. This implies that there are various possibilities, choices, and paths that can be taken in different areas of life. It indicates that life is not limited to a single direction or outcome, but rather offers a range of potential paths and opportunities for growth and change.

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  • 33. 

    Behaviorism, psychoanalytic, and cognitive theory are all grand theories?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because behaviorism, psychoanalytic, and cognitive theory are all considered grand theories in the field of psychology. Grand theories are comprehensive and overarching frameworks that attempt to explain various aspects of human behavior and mental processes. Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior and the role of reinforcement, psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the unconscious mind and childhood experiences, while cognitive theory explores how individuals process information and think. These theories have had a significant impact on the development of psychology as a discipline and have influenced various areas of research and practice.

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  • 34. 

    The grand theory of human development that holds irrational, unconscious drives, and motives underlie human behavior.

    Correct Answer
    Psychoanalytic theory
    Explanation
    Psychoanalytic theory is a grand theory of human development that explains human behavior by emphasizing the influence of irrational, unconscious drives, and motives. This theory, developed by Sigmund Freud, suggests that individuals are driven by unconscious desires and conflicts that shape their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. According to this theory, early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind play a significant role in shaping an individual's personality and behavior throughout their lifespan. Psychoanalytic theory also highlights the importance of unconscious processes, such as defense mechanisms, in understanding human behavior.

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  • 35. 

    The grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior is:

    Correct Answer
    behaviorism
    Explanation
    Behaviorism is the correct answer because it is a grand theory of human development that focuses on studying observable behavior. This theory suggests that behavior is shaped by the environment and that individuals learn through reinforcement and punishment. Behaviorists believe that human development can be understood by examining the external factors that influence behavior rather than internal thoughts or feelings. Therefore, behaviorism is the appropriate choice for a theory that emphasizes the study of observable behavior in human development.

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  • 36. 

    Who used condition with dogs salivation to prove his point?

    Correct Answer
    Pavlov
    Explanation
    Pavlov used the condition with dogs' salivation to prove his point. He conducted experiments where he paired the sound of a bell with the presentation of food to the dogs. Eventually, the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the bell alone, even without the presence of food. This demonstrated that a conditioned response can be elicited by a neutral stimulus (the bell) when it is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus (food). Pavlov's research laid the foundation for the understanding of classical conditioning in psychology.

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  • 37. 

    The grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time is: Also influenced by attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

    Correct Answer
    Cognitive
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cognitive because the question is asking for the grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. Cognitive development theory, proposed by psychologists such as Jean Piaget, emphasizes the development of thinking processes, including perception, memory, language, and problem-solving abilities. It suggests that individuals go through different stages of cognitive development as they grow and mature, and that these changes in thinking patterns greatly influence their overall development.

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  • 38. 

    In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because of existing thought processes is:

    Correct Answer
    Cognitive equilibrium
    Explanation
    Cognitive equilibrium refers to a state of mental balance where individuals are not confused because their existing thought processes are aligned and consistent. This state occurs when new information or experiences are assimilated into existing cognitive structures, allowing individuals to maintain a sense of stability and coherence in their understanding of the world. It is a concept proposed by Jean Piaget, a prominent figure in cognitive development theory, highlighting the importance of balance between assimilation and accommodation for effective learning and cognitive growth.

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  • 39. 

    The zone surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.

    Correct Answer
    Zone of proximal development
    Explanation
    The zone of proximal development refers to the range of tasks or skills that a learner is capable of completing with the guidance or assistance of a more knowledgeable person. It encompasses the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot yet master independently. This concept emphasizes the importance of providing appropriate support and scaffolding to help learners progress and develop their abilities.

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  • 40. 

    The pituitary gland regulates:

    Correct Answer
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland regulates the production and release of hormones in the body. It is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the functions of other endocrine glands in the body. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland help to regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, and various other bodily functions.

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  • 41. 

    The secular trend refers to:

    Correct Answer
    The earlier and greater growth of children due to better nutrition and medicare.
    Explanation
    The secular trend refers to the long-term and consistent increase in the physical growth and development of children, which can be attributed to improved nutrition and healthcare. This means that children are growing taller and reaching puberty earlier compared to previous generations. The availability of better nutrition and healthcare has contributed to this positive trend, leading to enhanced overall growth and development in children.

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