Developmental Psychology Midterm Quiz Part 1

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Developmental Psychology Midterm Quiz Part 1 - Quiz

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY QUIZ. QUESTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM BOOK "HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 11TH EDITION" BY DIANE E. PAPALIA, SALLY WENDKOS OLDS AND RUTH DUSKIN FELDMAN. This quiz covers chapters 1 and 2.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the term for the stage in Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development when a child develops the ability to think logically, solve problems, and understand abstract concepts?

    • A.

      Sensorimotor stage 

    • B.

      Preoperational stage 

    • C.

      Concrete operational stage 

    • D.

      Formal operational stage

    Correct Answer
    D. Formal operational stage
    Explanation
    The stage in Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development when a child develops the ability to think logically, solve problems, and understand abstract concepts is known as the Formal operational stage. This stage typically begins around age 12 and continues into adulthood. It is characterized by the emergence of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning, allowing individuals to systematically plan, hypothesize, and deduce conclusions.

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  • 2. 

    The goals of human development do not include:

    • A.

      Observe

    • B.

      Predict

    • C.

      Intervene

    • D.

      Describe

    Correct Answer
    A. Observe
    Explanation
    The goals of human development involve various aspects such as predicting, intervening, and describing human behavior and development. However, the goal of simply observing human behavior is not included in the goals of human development. While observation is an important part of the research process, it is not a specific goal in itself. The other options, predict, intervene, and describe, are all goals that are relevant to understanding and advancing human development.

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  • 3. 

    Growth of the body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills and health are parts of ______________    _________________.

    Correct Answer
    physical development
    Explanation
    The growth of the body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health all contribute to physical development. This refers to the changes and advancements in the body's structure, function, and abilities. Physical development encompasses various aspects such as height and weight gain, the development of fine and gross motor skills, improvements in sensory perception and coordination, and overall health and well-being.

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  • 4. 

    A concept or practice that may appear natural and obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an invention of a particular culture or society is defined as:

    • A.

      Psychosocial development

    • B.

      Psychosocial development

    • C.

      Social construct

    • D.

      Individual differences

    Correct Answer
    C. Social construct
    Explanation
    A social construct refers to a concept or practice that is believed to be natural and obvious by a particular culture or society, but is actually an invention of that culture or society. It is a product of human interaction and is not inherent or universally true. Social constructs can include ideas about gender, race, beauty, and many other aspects of society. These constructs shape our understanding of the world and influence our behavior and beliefs, but they are not fixed or objective truths.

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  • 5. 

    ______________: Inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the biological parents

    • A.

      Maturation

    • B.

      Enviornments

    • C.

      Culture

    • D.

      Heredity

    Correct Answer
    D. Heredity
    Explanation
    Heredity refers to the inborn traits or characteristics that are passed down from biological parents to their offspring. These traits can include physical features, such as eye color or height, as well as genetic predispositions to certain diseases or conditions. Through the process of genetic inheritance, individuals receive a combination of genes from both their mother and father, which contribute to their unique genetic makeup. Heredity plays a significant role in shaping an individual's physical appearance, as well as their susceptibility to certain health conditions, making it the correct answer in this context.

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  • 6. 

    The harm done by poverty may be indirect, through its impact on parent's emotional state and parenting practices and on the home enviornment. This is an example of ___________________

    • A.

      Culture

    • B.

      Race

    • C.

      Risk factors

    • D.

      Punishment

    Correct Answer
    C. Risk factors
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that poverty can have negative effects on parents' emotional well-being and parenting practices, as well as the overall home environment. These negative factors can contribute to various risks for children's development and well-being. Therefore, the given statement is an example of how poverty can be considered a risk factor in understanding the harmful consequences it can have on individuals and families.

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  • 7. 

    An example of a normative influence would be a death of a parent when the child is a teenager.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the example given does not represent a normative influence. Normative influences refer to social pressures or expectations that influence an individual's behavior or beliefs. The death of a parent, although a significant event, is not a normative influence as it does not involve social pressures or expectations.

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  • 8. 

    ________________  _________________ are unusual events that havea  major impact on individual lives because they disturb the expected sequence of the life cycle.

    Correct Answer
    nonnormative
    non normative
    nonnormative influence
    non normative influence
    Explanation
    Nonnormative events are unusual events that have a major impact on individual lives because they disturb the expected sequence of the life cycle. These events are not part of the normal or expected experiences that most individuals go through. They can include things like the death of a loved one, a natural disaster, or winning the lottery. Nonnormative events can have a significant influence on a person's life trajectory and can shape their development and future outcomes.

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  • 9. 

    What is a cohort?

    • A.

      Overgeneralization about an ethnic or cultural group that obscures differences within the group

    • B.

      Instinctive form of learning

    • C.

      A group of people strongly influenced by a major historical event during their formative period

    • D.

      A group of people born at about the same time

    Correct Answer
    D. A group of people born at about the same time
    Explanation
    A cohort refers to a group of people who are born around the same time. This means that individuals within a cohort would typically be of a similar age and share similar experiences and historical events during their formative years. The other options provided in the question do not accurately define what a cohort is.

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  • 10. 

    What is a specific time when a given event or its absence has a specific impact on development?

    Correct Answer
    critical period
    Explanation
    A critical period refers to a specific time during development when a particular event or the absence of it has a significant impact on the overall development of an individual. This period is characterized by heightened sensitivity and vulnerability, where experiences and stimuli have a lasting effect on the individual's growth and development. It is a crucial window of opportunity that, if missed or not properly utilized, can result in long-term consequences or difficulties in certain aspects of development.

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  • 11. 

    Times in development when a person is particularly open to certain kinds of experiences

    Correct Answer
    sensitive period
    sensitive periods
    Explanation
    A sensitive period refers to a specific time during development when an individual is more receptive and responsive to certain types of experiences. It is a window of opportunity where the brain is more plastic and can easily acquire certain skills or knowledge. These periods are critical for the development of various abilities such as language acquisition, social skills, and motor coordination. Multiple sensitive periods exist throughout a person's life, each corresponding to different aspects of development. During these periods, individuals are more likely to learn and retain information, making it an optimal time for targeted interventions or learning experiences.

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  • 12. 

    In Balte's life span developmental approach, some periods of life are more important than others

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Balte's life span developmental approach, all periods of life are considered equally important. This approach emphasizes that development occurs throughout the entire lifespan and that each stage has its own unique characteristics and challenges. Therefore, the statement that some periods of life are more important than others is not consistent with Balte's approach.

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  • 13. 

    Which ones are a part of Baltes's developmental approach

    • A.

      Development is lifelong, development is multidimensional, development is multidirectional, relative influences of biology and culture shift over the life span, development involves changing resource allocations, development shows plasticity, development is influenced by the historical and cultural context

    • B.

      Development is lifelong, development is multifunctional, development has sensitive and critical periods, development involves keeping resource allocations, development shows plasticity, development is normative and nonnormative, development is multidirectional

    • C.

      All of the above

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Development is lifelong, development is multidimensional, development is multidirectional, relative influences of biology and culture shift over the life span, development involves changing resource allocations, development shows plasticity, development is influenced by the historical and cultural context
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes all of the elements mentioned in Baltes's developmental approach. This approach emphasizes that development is a lifelong process, involving multiple dimensions and directions. It also recognizes that the relative influences of biology and culture change over time, and that development involves changing resource allocations. Additionally, it highlights the plasticity of development and its influence by historical and cultural contexts. Therefore, the correct answer encompasses all of these aspects.

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  • 14. 

    The reactive model, or ______________  __________________ basically says that you have no control over your responses to stimuli. Human development is predictable.

    Correct Answer
    mechanistic model
    Explanation
    The mechanistic model suggests that human responses to stimuli are predetermined and predictable, implying that individuals have no control over their reactions. This perspective views human development as a result of external factors and deterministic processes, where individuals are seen as passive recipients of stimuli rather than active agents shaping their own development.

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  • 15. 

    The active model, or _______ _______, states that human development is internally initiated.

    Correct Answer
    organismic model
    Explanation
    The active model, or organismic model, suggests that human development is internally initiated. This means that individuals play an active role in their own development, rather than being passive recipients of external influences. The organismic model emphasizes the importance of individual characteristics, such as genetics and personal experiences, in shaping development. It highlights the dynamic and interactive nature of human development, where individuals actively engage with their environment and make choices that influence their growth and progress.

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  • 16. 

    Which is not one of the 5 learning perspectives?

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Learning

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Evolutionary

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The question asks for the learning perspective that is not one of the five mentioned options. The options listed are psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, and evolutionary. Since "none of the above" is the correct answer, it means that all of the options listed are actually learning perspectives. Therefore, the correct answer implies that all of the options mentioned (psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, and evolutionary) are learning perspectives.

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  • 17. 

    When looking at the psychoanalytic learning perspective, two important theorists are

    • A.

      Pavlov and skinner

    • B.

      Freud and erikson

    • C.

      Vygotsky and piaget

    • D.

      Bandura and bowlby

    • E.

      Bronfenbrenner and watson

    Correct Answer
    B. Freud and erikson
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Freud and Erikson. The psychoanalytic learning perspective focuses on the influence of unconscious thoughts, desires, and early childhood experiences on behavior. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are two important theorists in this perspective. Freud developed psychoanalysis, which emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind and the importance of early childhood experiences in shaping personality. Erikson expanded on Freud's theories and proposed a psychosocial development theory, which emphasizes the role of social and cultural factors in shaping personality development throughout the lifespan.

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  • 18. 

    Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory states that human development occurs through interaction between a developing person and five surrounding, interlocking contextual systems of influences, from microsystem to chronosystem.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory proposes that human development is influenced by various interrelated systems, including the microsystem (immediate environment), mesosystem (interactions between different microsystems), exosystem (settings that indirectly affect development), macrosystem (cultural values and societal norms), and chronosystem (changes over time). This theory emphasizes the importance of considering multiple environmental factors in understanding human development. Therefore, the statement that Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory states that human development occurs through interaction between a developing person and five surrounding, interlocking contextual systems of influences, from microsystem to chronosystem is true.

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  • 19. 

    According to Freud, a person who had too strict potty training may be fixated at the ______ stage.

    Correct Answer
    anal
    Explanation
    According to Freud's psychosexual stages of development, the anal stage occurs during the ages of 18 months to 3 years. During this stage, a child's focus and pleasure is centered around the elimination and retention of bodily waste. If a person had overly strict potty training during this stage, it may result in fixation at the anal stage. This fixation can lead to personality traits such as excessive orderliness, cleanliness, and control, or on the contrary, a tendency towards messiness and disorganization.

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  • 20. 

    Babies whose needs are not met during the ______ stage may grow up to become nail biters or smokers.

    Correct Answer
    oral
    Explanation
    During the oral stage of development, which occurs from birth to around 18 months, babies derive pleasure and satisfaction from oral activities such as sucking and biting. If their needs for oral gratification are not adequately met during this stage, they may develop oral fixations that persist into adulthood. This can manifest as behaviors such as nail biting or smoking, as these activities provide oral stimulation and temporary relief from anxiety or tension.

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  • 21. 

    Which perspective maintains that development results from a long-lasting change in behavior based on experiences or adaptations to the environment?

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Learning

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Contextual

    • E.

      Sociobiological

    Correct Answer
    B. Learning
    Explanation
    The learning perspective maintains that development results from a long-lasting change in behavior based on experiences or adaptations to the environment. This perspective emphasizes the role of conditioning, reinforcement, and observation in shaping behavior and development. It suggests that individuals learn and acquire new behaviors through interactions with their environment and the consequences of their actions. This perspective also highlights the importance of social and environmental factors in influencing behavior and development.

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  • 22. 

    Which perspective views human development as being shaped by unconscious forces?

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Learning

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Contextual

    • E.

      Evolutionary

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychoanalytic
    Explanation
    The psychoanalytic perspective views human development as being shaped by unconscious forces. This perspective, developed by Sigmund Freud, suggests that early childhood experiences and unconscious desires greatly influence our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. It emphasizes the importance of the unconscious mind, including repressed memories and unresolved conflicts, in shaping our development. This perspective also highlights the role of defense mechanisms, such as repression and projection, in protecting the individual from anxiety and maintaining psychological stability. Overall, the psychoanalytic perspective focuses on the inner workings of the mind and the influence of unconscious processes on human development.

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  • 23. 

    Learning based on association of behavior with its consequences is operant conditioning

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is a type of learning that focuses on the association between behavior and its consequences. It suggests that behavior can be modified through reinforcement or punishment. This means that if a behavior is followed by a positive consequence, it is more likely to be repeated in the future, while if it is followed by a negative consequence, it is less likely to be repeated. Therefore, the statement that learning based on association of behavior with its consequences is operant conditioning is true.

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  • 24. 

    Learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response is operant conidtioning

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    this is classical conditioning

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  • 25. 

    The _______  ________ focuses on thought processes and the behavior that reflects those processes

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic perspective

    • B.

      Learning perspective

    • C.

      Cognitive perspective

    • D.

      Contextual perspective

    • E.

      Evolutionary perspective

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognitive perspective
    Explanation
    The cognitive perspective focuses on thought processes and the behavior that reflects those processes. This perspective emphasizes the importance of mental processes such as perception, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making in understanding human behavior. It suggests that our thoughts and interpretations of events influence our behavior and how we perceive and interact with the world. This perspective also emphasizes the role of information processing, attention, and problem-solving strategies in shaping behavior.

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  • 26. 

    Piaget's term for organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations

    • A.

      Organization

    • B.

      Schemes

    • C.

      Adaptation

    • D.

      Assimilation

    • E.

      Accommodation

    Correct Answer
    B. Schemes
    Explanation
    Piaget's term for organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations is referred to as "schemes". Schemes are mental structures that individuals use to organize their knowledge and understand the world around them. These schemes help individuals make sense of new information and experiences by categorizing and organizing them into existing cognitive frameworks. Through the process of assimilation and accommodation, individuals modify and adapt their schemes to incorporate new information and experiences, leading to cognitive development.

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  • 27. 

    Scaffolding is

    • A.

      A process by which children acquire cognitive skills as a part of their inuction into a way of life

    • B.

      Flowcharts that analyze the specific steps people go through in gathering, storing, retrieving, and using information

    • C.

      A word that means "nearby"

    • D.

      Term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help

    • E.

      Temporary support to help a child master a task

    Correct Answer
    E. Temporary support to help a child master a task
    Explanation
    *found on the top of page 33.*

    a. is the definition for collaborative process
    b. definition of computational models
    c. another term from proximal
    d. definition for zone of proximal development (ZPD)

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  • 28. 

    View of human development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context.

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Learning

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Contextual

    • E.

      Evolutionary

    Correct Answer
    D. Contextual
    Explanation
    The contextual view of human development recognizes that individuals cannot be understood in isolation from their social environment. It emphasizes the importance of considering the cultural, historical, and social factors that shape an individual's development. This perspective acknowledges that people's behaviors, thoughts, and emotions are influenced by the social context in which they live and interact with others. It highlights the reciprocal relationship between individuals and their environment, suggesting that both influence and are influenced by each other.

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  • 29. 

    What are the five levels of environmental influence, from intimate to broad?

    • A.

      Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem

    • B.

      Exosystem, microsystem,chronosystem, macrosystem, mesosystem

    • C.

      Chronosystem, mesosystem, microsystem, exosystem, macrosystem

    • D.

      Microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, chronosystem

    Correct Answer
    A. Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
    Explanation
    The correct answer is microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem. This answer is correct because it follows the correct order of the five levels of environmental influence. The microsystem refers to the immediate environment that directly influences an individual, such as family and friends. The mesosystem includes the interactions between different microsystems, such as the relationship between school and family. The exosystem refers to the external settings that indirectly impact an individual, such as the parent's workplace. The macrosystem encompasses the broader cultural and societal influences. Lastly, the chronosystem recognizes the impact of time and historical events on an individual's development.

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  • 30. 

    The two most common research strategies used to study development are _________ and ______ studies (separate your answer w/ commas and don't use the word "and")

    Correct Answer
    cross-sectional, longitudinal
    longitudinal, cross-sectional
    Explanation
    The two most common research strategies used to study development are cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Cross-sectional studies involve collecting data from different age groups at the same time, allowing researchers to compare different age groups and identify developmental trends. Longitudinal studies, on the other hand, involve collecting data from the same individuals over an extended period of time, providing insights into individual developmental trajectories and changes over time. Both strategies are valuable in understanding development from different perspectives and complement each other in providing a comprehensive understanding of human development.

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