Psych 135 UCLA Social Psych Shapiro Ch. 5/6

26 Questions

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Psych 135 midterm! chapters 5 and 6


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The ABC model of attitudes
  • 2. 
    Attitudes 
    • A. 

      A positive of negative evaluation of people, objects, issues or ideas

    • B. 

      The way you present yourself becomes who you are

    • C. 

      We look at how we're acting to understand how we feel about something

  • 3. 
    When our cognitive system is out of balance there is an uncomfortable tension, to remove this tension, we will have to change something in the system (IE: if Papa is pro-daughter and anti- boyfriend there is inconsistency that will need to be changed either by become anti-daughter or pro-boyfriend) 
  • 4. 
    Cognitive dissonance theory
    • A. 

      Change attitudes so that these attitudes are now consistent with their behavior

    • B. 

      Festinger's; when one cognition is inconsistent with another cognitions (or behavior or self-view), the resulting discomfort motivates us to find a way to restore cognitive balance or consistency

    • C. 

      Change cognitions about their behavior (maybe someday I will)

    • D. 

      Acquire new information (to make these attitudes more consistent) - maybe it's natural to like people who are more attractive (can't help it)

    • E. 

      Minimize the importance of the inconsistency

  • 5. 
    Dissonance
    • A. 

      Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one's behavior when external justification is "insufficient"

    • B. 

      A behavior that is inconsistent with an existing attitude; when performed he/she often attempts to reconcile these inconsistencies by justifying the action

    • C. 

      The unpleasant state of psychological arousal resulting from an inconsistency within one's important attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors

  • 6. 
    Knox and Inkster (1968)
    • A. 

      Just seconds after placing a bet, gamblers are more confident their horse will win

    • B. 

      The conflict one feels between the knowledge that one has made a decision and the possibility that the decision may be wrong

    • C. 

      RESPONSIBILITY IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT

  • 7. 
    Severity of initiation 
    • A. 

      Increases positive attitudes towards the person doing the initiating - the worst the initiation is, the more attitudes you must reconcile, MUST feel positive about the organization if you'll go through initiation

    • B. 

      If I ask you to do a favor for me, more successful in getting them to like you because there is a need to reconcile that they've done you a favor, new attitude "I like you more"

  • 8. 
    A change of an attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message
  • 9. 
    Central route to persuasion 
    • A. 

      Involved being persuaded in a manner that is not based on strength of the arguments. often rely on environmental characteristics of the message, like the perceived credibility of the course, quality of the way in which it is presented, that attractiveness of the source, or the catchy slogan IE voting for a candidate because they went to the same school as you did (takes a lot less thought)

    • B. 

      Involves being persuaded by the arguments of the message IE after hearing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you found the candidate's argument to be strong

    • C. 

      Only works in the lab under highly controlled conditions and even then the effects are weak and not very specific

  • 10. 
    1. who says it (communicator)2. what is said (message)3. how is it said (means of communication)4. to who is it said (audience)
  • 11. 
    Sleeper effect 
    • A. 

      More attractive = more persuasive

    • B. 

      Source credibility - expertise and trustworthiness flips us to autopilot with cues to their intelligence

    • C. 

      A delayed impact for a message, forget who said what and from where, no info about credibility of the source BUT can have a changed attitude

    • D. 

      Whether we believe the communicator has an ulterior motive

  • 12. 
    Message repetition 
    • A. 

      The initial response to the message/produce must be neutral or positive *but too much can be harmful

    • B. 

      Being scared into doing something, but not too much fear or the threat will cause people to turn away/ignore,

    • C. 

      It must increase the person's perceived vulnerability - the person watching the ad must think that they are vulnerable to the fears they are marketing

    • D. 

      Must suggest a clear path to prevention (response efficacy)

    • E. 

      Must suggest easy enactment of the prevention behavior (self-efficacy)

  • 13. 
    Two-sided messages 
    • A. 

      Works best when going in front of an audience that already agrees with you (just the pro's)

    • B. 

      When Avis advertises themselves as number 2 - makes them seem more honest; works best when going in front of an audience that is mixed

    • C. 

      What comes first and last tends to be very powerful

  • 14. 
    Age - early 20's most targeted, most willing to be persuadedGender - ads are geared toward specific gendersInvolvement - can decide whether to advertise peripherally or centrally (effects how much attention is paid to arguments) Culture - individualist vs. collectivist 
  • 15. 
    Reactance
    • A. 

      If you let people PRACTICE combating persuasion attempts they will be better at defeating it

    • B. 

      By giving people a heads up, allows people to develop counter arguments to resist persuasion attempts

    • C. 

      If it seems they're trying to manipulate, we do exactly the opposite

    • D. 

      Develop an ad that targets the original ad (Joe Camel vs. Joe Chemo) parasite that hops onto the original ad and poisons it

  • 16. 
    Compliance
    • A. 

      Changing behaviors as a result of a direct request

    • B. 

      Changing behaviors in a response to a direct order from an authority

    • C. 

      Changing private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message

    • D. 

      Changing behaviors or opinions to match behaviors or opinions of others

  • 17. 
    We conform to CHOOSE CORRECTLY (informational social influence) 
    • A. 

      Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance

    • B. 

      Conformity that results from accepting evidence about reality provided by other people, so other people like them

    • C. 

      Group size, similarity, unanimity, cohesion, status, public response, no prior commitment

  • 18. 
    Our evaluation of a given stimulus changed as a function of the simultaneous or prior consideration of another stimulus (IE Kerry called Bush a "good debater" to get people's expectations up making Bush look much worse and Kerry mush  better) BLANK effect
  • 19. 
    Disrupt-then-reframe technique
    • A. 

      "That's Not All" strategy

    • B. 

      An influence target's focus and ability to think critically is disrupted, leading the target to be more susceptible to persuasion

    • C. 

      Observed 6 social psychological principles exploited by compliance professionals

  • 20. 
    Principle: commitment/consistency Heuristic: stick with your commitments, be consistent
    • A. 

      Increasing commitments a little bit at a time

    • B. 

      When a salesman "throws the low ball" an attractive offer is made, that offer is accepted, but then the attractiveness of the offer is reduced by additional costs or a reduction of positive features. Nonetheless, people tend to persist in their original decision to accept the offer.

    • C. 

      The foot in the door technique: in this tactic, a small request (that is designed to gain 100% compliance) is followed by a large request (the target request)

    • D. 

      Gaining a commitment to an arrangement, then making the arrangement unavailable or unappealing and offering a more costly alternative - works by getting people to commit to a general course of action

    • E. 

      Assign the target a trait label, seek compliance with a label-consistent request legitimizing small favors

  • 21. 
    Public, Active, Voluntary are what BLANK should be
  • 22. 
    Principle: Social Validation 
    • A. 

      Heuristic: when in doubt, go with the majority opinion; related to the goal of being accurate Exploited: long lines into bars

    • B. 

      Heuristic: if someone helps you, it pays to return the favor; related to goal of gaining social approval Exploited: "free gifts"

    • C. 

      A multiple request tactic, the initial request is so large that no one agrees to it, the second (target) request is smaller by comparison

  • 23. 
    Principle: scarcity 
    • A. 

      Heuristic: if a friend or someone else in your "ingroup" asks for a favor, it pays to say yes CUES: similarity, attractiveness, seems like a friend

    • B. 

      Deadline technique "this deal holds for today only!"

    • C. 

      Heuristic: scarce resources tend to be worth more Exploitations: limited number tactic "last one in stock"

    • D. 

      Heuristic: it pays to follow the suggestions of a legit authority

  • 24. 
    Theory of planned behavior 
    • A. 

      A person's perception of how difficult it is to perform the behavior in question

    • B. 

      A person's perception that important others would approve of disapprove of the behavior in question

    • C. 

      States that the best predictor of a behavior is one's behavioral intention, which is influenced by one's attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior, and one's perceived control over the behavior

    • D. 

      Measurement that does not change a subject's responses while recording them, often done in secret opposite to negate the effects of self report

  • 25. 
    Social influence
    • A. 

      A change in overt behavior caused by real or imagined pressure from others

    • B. 

      A research approach in which the researcher infiltrates the setting to be studied and observes its workings from within

    • C. 

      The capacity to influence that flows from one's presumed wisdom or knowledge

    • D. 

      An interpersonal way to locate and validate the correct choice

  • 26. 
    Reactance theory 
    • A. 

      Anything that connects an individual's identity more closely to a position or course of action

    • B. 

      Brehm's theory that we react against threats to our freedoms by reasserting those freedoms often by doing the opposite of what we are being pressured to do