Population Studies & Interactions Among Living Things Practice For Proprof Exam

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Population Studies & Interactions Among Living Things Practice For Proprof Exam - Quiz

Interactions Among Living Things


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which term matches these relationships: A cape buffalo with an oxpecker (bird) on its back in Kenya. The oxpecker(bird) feeds from the supply of ticks on the buffalo, which in turn benefits from tick removal. This is called: 

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    G. Mutualism
    Explanation
    The relationship described in the question is an example of mutualism. Mutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit from each other. In this case, the oxpecker bird benefits by feeding on ticks and other parasites on the buffalo's back, while the buffalo benefits by having the ticks removed.

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  • 2. 

    Which term matches these relationships: A deer tick attaches itself to a person walking in the woods. To access blood, the tick imbeds itself into the skin of the person. In the skin, the tick transfers bacteria that causes a rash and Lyme disease, which makes the person ill.  This is called: 

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    J. Parasite/parasitism
    Explanation
    The relationship described in the question is that of a parasite and parasitism. A deer tick attaches itself to a person and feeds on their blood, transferring bacteria that causes illness. This is a classic example of a parasite, an organism that benefits at the expense of its host. The tick benefits by obtaining a blood meal, while the person is harmed by the bacteria and develops Lyme disease.

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  • 3. 

    A relationship in which one specie benefits and the other is not harmed or helped: 

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    I. Commensalism
    Explanation
    Commensalism is a type of relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped. In this relationship, one species benefits by utilizing resources or shelter provided by the other species without causing any harm. This type of interaction is often seen in nature, where one species may use another species for transportation, protection, or access to food without providing any benefit in return. The relationship is considered commensal because one species benefits while the other is unaffected.

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  • 4. 

    A relationship where one organism lives in or on another organism, causing it harm: 

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    J. Parasite/parasitism
    Explanation
    Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism, the parasite, lives in or on another organism, the host, and causes harm to the host. The parasite benefits from this relationship by obtaining nutrients or other resources from the host, while the host is negatively affected. This type of relationship is different from mutualism, where both organisms benefit, and commensalism, where one organism benefits and the other is unaffected. Predation, competition, and symbiosis are not the correct answers because they do not specifically describe a relationship where one organism lives in or on another organism and causes harm.

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  • 5. 

    If two species inhabit the same niche, one of the species will eventually die off as their is ____________ between organisms trying to survive with the same resources.

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    L. Competition
    Explanation
    Competition refers to the struggle between organisms for limited resources such as food, water, and space. When two species occupy the same niche, they are competing for the same resources, leading to intense competition. This competition can result in one of the species outcompeting the other and eventually causing the extinction of the weaker species. Therefore, competition is the factor that determines which species will survive and which will die off in a situation where two species inhabit the same niche.

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  • 6. 

    Over time the characteristics that have helped individuals survive are inherited by their offspring. These are: 

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    D. Adaptations
    Explanation
    Adaptations are inherited characteristics that have helped individuals survive over time. These traits allow organisms to better survive and reproduce in their environment. Through natural selection, individuals with beneficial adaptations are more likely to pass on these traits to their offspring, increasing the overall fitness of the population. This process leads to the gradual accumulation of adaptations in a population over generations.

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  • 7. 

    The characteristic of an individual that makes it better suited for its environment:

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural selection
    Explanation
    Natural selection is the process by which certain traits or characteristics become more common in a population over time because they provide a survival or reproductive advantage. Individuals with traits that are better suited to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation. This leads to the gradual evolution of populations that are better adapted to their specific environment. Therefore, natural selection is the characteristic that makes an individual better suited for its environment.

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  • 8. 

    The organism that benefits from living in or on another: 

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Mutualism

    • H.

      Niche

    • I.

      Commensalism

    • J.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • K.

      Host

    • L.

      Competition

    Correct Answer
    J. Parasite/parasitism
    Explanation
    Parasite/parasitism refers to an organism that benefits from living in or on another organism. It obtains nutrients and shelter from the host organism, often at the expense of the host's health or survival. This relationship is considered parasitic because the parasite benefits while the host is harmed.

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  • 9. 

    The organism that does the killing of another is the:

    • A.

      Commensalism

    • B.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • C.

      Host

    • D.

      Competition

    • E.

      Mutualism

    • F.

      Niche

    • G.

      Prey

    • H.

      Predator

    • I.

      Adaptations

    • J.

      Predation

    • K.

      Symbiosis

    • L.

      Natural selection

    Correct Answer
    H. Predator
    Explanation
    A predator is an organism that hunts and kills other organisms for food. This is in contrast to prey, which is the organism being hunted and killed. Predators have adaptations that allow them to capture and consume their prey, such as sharp teeth or claws, speed, and stealth. They play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems by controlling populations of prey species.

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  • 10. 

    The organism that is caused harm as other organism lives in or on it:

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Natural selection

    • H.

      Commensalism

    • I.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • J.

      Host

    • K.

      Competition

    • L.

      Mutualism

    Correct Answer
    J. Host
    Explanation
    A host is an organism that is harmed by another organism that lives in or on it. In this relationship, the organism causing harm is known as a parasite. The parasite benefits from the host by using its resources for survival and reproduction, while the host is negatively affected and may experience damage or disease. This interaction is an example of parasitism, where one organism benefits at the expense of another.

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  • 11. 

    The organism that is killed is the:

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Natural selection

    • H.

      Commensalism

    • I.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • J.

      Host

    • K.

      Competition

    • L.

      Mutualism

    Correct Answer
    B. Prey
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Prey". In ecology, prey refers to an organism that is hunted, killed, and consumed by another organism, known as the predator. This relationship is a fundamental aspect of the food chain and is essential for maintaining the balance of ecosystems. The prey species may have adaptations that help them evade predators, but ultimately, they are the ones being killed in this predator-prey interaction.

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  • 12. 

    The relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species: 

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Natural selection

    • H.

      Commensalism

    • I.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • J.

      Host

    • K.

      Competition

    • L.

      Mutualism

    Correct Answer
    F. Symbiosis
    Explanation
    Symbiosis is the correct answer because it refers to a relationship between two different species that benefits at least one of the species involved. In symbiotic relationships, the organisms may live closely together or even depend on each other for survival. This can include mutualistic relationships where both species benefit, commensalism where one species benefits and the other is unaffected, or parasitism where one species benefits at the expense of the other.

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  • 13. 

    The relationship that benefits both species: 

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Natural selection

    • H.

      Commensalism

    • I.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • J.

      Host

    • K.

      Competition

    • L.

      Mutualism

    Correct Answer
    L. Mutualism
    Explanation
    Mutualism refers to a relationship between two species in which both species benefit. This type of relationship is characterized by cooperation and mutual dependence. Both species provide resources or services to each other, resulting in a mutual advantage. This can include things like mutual protection, pollination, or the sharing of nutrients. In mutualistic relationships, both species have evolved to rely on each other for survival and reproduction.

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  • 14. 

    The role of an organism in its habitat: 

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Natural selection

    • H.

      Commensalism

    • I.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • J.

      Host

    • K.

      Competition

    • L.

      Mutualism

    Correct Answer
    A. Niche
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Niche". A niche refers to the specific role or position that an organism has within its habitat. It includes the interactions and relationships that the organism has with other species, as well as its physical and biological requirements. The niche of an organism determines its behavior, diet, habitat preference, and other aspects of its life. Understanding the niche of an organism is important for understanding how it fits into its ecosystem and how it contributes to the overall functioning of the ecosystem.

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  • 15. 

    What is it when one organism kills another organism for food energy: 

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Prey

    • C.

      Predator

    • D.

      Adaptations

    • E.

      Predation

    • F.

      Symbiosis

    • G.

      Natural selection

    • H.

      Commensalism

    • I.

      Parasite/parasitism

    • J.

      Host

    • K.

      Competition

    • L.

      Mutualism

    Correct Answer
    E. Predation
    Explanation
    Predation is the act of one organism killing another organism for food energy. This process involves a predator hunting and capturing its prey. The predator benefits by obtaining energy and nutrients from the prey, while the prey is killed and consumed. Predation is a common ecological interaction that helps regulate population sizes and maintain balance in ecosystems.

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  • 16. 

    Which of these relationships is the best example of parasitism?

    • A.

      A bat pollinating a saguaro cactus

    • B.

      An oyster crab living off the algae on it's host oyster

    • C.

      A flea living on cat blood

    • D.

      Ants protecting a tree that produce its only food

    Correct Answer
    C. A flea living on cat blood
    Explanation
    A flea living on cat blood is the best example of parasitism. In this relationship, the flea benefits by feeding on the cat's blood, while the cat is harmed by the flea's presence and potential diseases it may transmit. The flea relies on the cat for its survival and reproduction, while the cat does not benefit from the flea's presence. This is a classic example of a parasitic relationship, where one organism benefits at the expense of another.

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  • 17. 

    Why are there fewer organisms at the top of the food chain?

    • A.

      There are usually few organisms at the top because there is a limited amount of energy available at that level of a food web.

    • B.

      There are usually few organisms at the top because the organisms at the top of the food chain care for their young longer than organisms lower on the food chain.

    • C.

      There are usually few organisms at the top because the organisms at the top of the food chain consume are omnivores that consume diverse kinds of organisms that are lower on the food chain.

    • D.

      There are usually few organisms at the top because the organisms at the top of the food chain are scavengers consuming what other organisms have left behind.

    Correct Answer
    A. There are usually few organisms at the top because there is a limited amount of energy available at that level of a food web.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that there is a limited amount of energy available at the top of the food chain. This is because energy is lost as it moves up the food chain through processes such as respiration, heat loss, and waste production. As a result, there is less energy available to support a large number of organisms at higher trophic levels.

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  • 18. 

    All of the following are examples of limiting factors for populations except:

    • A.

      Space

    • B.

      Food

    • C.

      Emigration

    • D.

      Weather

    Correct Answer
    C. Emigration
    Explanation
    Emigration is not a limiting factor for populations because it refers to individuals leaving a population, which actually helps to decrease population size and alleviate limiting factors such as competition for resources. In contrast, space, food, and weather can all be limiting factors that affect population growth and survival.

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  • 19. 

    An environmental factor that causes a population to decrease is a ____________.

    • A.

      Direct observation

    • B.

      Limiting factor

    • C.

      Birth rate

    • D.

      Population

    • E.

      Indirect observation

    • F.

      Death rate

    • G.

      Population density

    • H.

      Carrying capacity

    • I.

      Estimate

    • J.

      Emigration

    • K.

      Ecology

    • L.

      Mark and recapture

    • M.

      Immigration

    • N.

      Space

    • O.

      Food

    • P.

      Sample

    • Q.

      Weather

    • R.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    B. Limiting factor
    Explanation
    A limiting factor refers to any factor that restricts the growth, abundance, or distribution of a population within an ecosystem. It can be a physical, chemical, or biological factor that limits the availability of resources or creates unfavorable conditions for the population. In this case, a limiting factor can cause a population to decrease by reducing the availability of essential resources such as food, water, or space, or by creating unfavorable conditions such as extreme weather or limited habitat.

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  • 20. 

    Changes in population may occur when a group moves into a population. This is called:

    • A.

      Direct observation

    • B.

      Limiting factor

    • C.

      Birth rate

    • D.

      Population

    • E.

      Indirect observation

    • F.

      Death rate

    • G.

      Population density

    • H.

      Carrying capacity

    • I.

      Estimate

    • J.

      Emigration

    • K.

      Ecology

    • L.

      Mark and recapture

    • M.

      Immigration

    • N.

      Space

    • O.

      Food

    • P.

      Sample

    • Q.

      Weather

    • R.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    M. Immigration
    Explanation
    Immigration refers to the movement of individuals into a population. It is one of the factors that can cause changes in population size. When individuals from a different group or area move into a population, it can increase the population size. Therefore, immigration is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 21. 

    If the death rate in a population is greater than the birth rate:

    • A.

      The population will generally decrease.

    • B.

      The population will remain the same.

    • C.

      The population will increase.

    • D.

      The birth rate will rise.

    Correct Answer
    A. The population will generally decrease.
    Explanation
    If the death rate in a population is greater than the birth rate, it means that more individuals are dying than being born. This leads to a decrease in the overall population size over time. With fewer births and more deaths, the population cannot sustain itself and will gradually decline. Therefore, the correct answer is that the population will generally decrease.

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  • 22. 

    Identify this method of estimating populations:  Red wolves are tagged, released and checked systematically.

    • A.

      Direct observation

    • B.

      Limiting factor

    • C.

      Birth rate

    • D.

      Population

    • E.

      Indirect observation

    • F.

      Death rate

    • G.

      Population density

    • H.

      Carrying capacity

    • I.

      Estimate

    • J.

      Emigration

    • K.

      Ecology

    • L.

      Mark and recapture

    • M.

      Immigration

    • N.

      Space

    • O.

      Food

    • P.

      Sample

    • Q.

      Weather

    • R.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    L. Mark and recapture
    Explanation
    The method described in the question, where red wolves are tagged, released, and checked systematically, is known as mark and recapture. This method involves marking a sample of individuals, releasing them back into the population, and then recapturing a second sample at a later time. By comparing the number of marked individuals in the second sample to the total number of individuals captured, scientists can estimate the population size. This method relies on the assumption that the proportion of marked individuals in the second sample is representative of the entire population.

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  • 23. 

    When might an ecologist use indirect observation to estimate a population?

    • A.

      Indirect observation may be used when a population is small or difficult to find.

    • B.

      Indirect observation may be used when a population is located in a remote area that the scientist cannot get to.

    • C.

      Indirect observation may be used to mark and recapture organisms.

    • D.

      Indirect observation may be used for sampling.

    Correct Answer
    A. Indirect observation may be used when a population is small or difficult to find.
    Explanation
    Indirect observation may be used when a population is small or difficult to find. This method allows the ecologist to gather information about the population without directly observing the individuals. It can be challenging to locate and count individuals in small or elusive populations, so indirect observation techniques such as using remote cameras or analyzing signs of presence (like tracks or droppings) can provide valuable data. By using indirect observation, the ecologist can estimate the population size and study the behavior and ecology of these hard-to-find species.

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  • 24. 

    What does the basic formula for mark and recapture mean?

    • A.

      The population sample equals the number marked multiplied by the sum of the unmarked and recaptured divided by the number recaptured

    • B.

      The population sample equals the number marked minus the sum of the unmarked and recaptured divided by the number recaptured.

    • C.

      The population sample equals the number marked divided by the number recaptured

    • D.

      The population sample equals the number unmarked plus the recaptured divided by the number recaptured

    Correct Answer
    A. The population sample equals the number marked multiplied by the sum of the unmarked and recaptured divided by the number recaptured
    Explanation
    The basic formula for mark and recapture means that the population sample is determined by multiplying the number of marked individuals by the sum of the unmarked and recaptured individuals, and then dividing that by the number of recaptured individuals.

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  • 25. 

    One method of estimating population size is to count the number of organisms in a small area _________ and then apply multiples of that area to the larger area.

    • A.

      Direct observation

    • B.

      Limiting factor

    • C.

      Birth rate

    • D.

      Population

    • E.

      Indirect observation

    • F.

      Death rate

    • G.

      Population density

    • H.

      Carrying capacity

    • I.

      Estimate

    • J.

      Emigration

    • K.

      Ecology

    • L.

      Mark and recapture

    • M.

      Immigration

    • N.

      Space

    • O.

      Food

    • P.

      Sample

    • Q.

      Weather

    • R.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    P. Sample
    Explanation
    One method of estimating population size is to count the number of organisms in a small area (sample) and then apply multiples of that area to the larger area. This allows for a representative estimate of the population size in the larger area based on the observed sample.

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  • 26. 

    A mouse, raccoon and hawk are all members of the same:

    • A.

      Species

    • B.

      Niche

    • C.

      Community

    • D.

      Population

    Correct Answer
    C. Community
    Explanation
    A community refers to a group of different species living in the same area and interacting with each other. In this case, the mouse, raccoon, and hawk are all different species that coexist in the same environment and have various interactions with each other. Therefore, they are all members of the same community.

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  • 27. 

    All of the following are examples of limiting factors except:

    • A.

      Time

    • B.

      Food & water

    • C.

      Space

    • D.

      Weather

    Correct Answer
    A. Time
    Explanation
    The given options, food & water, space, and weather, are all examples of limiting factors as they can restrict the growth and survival of organisms in an ecosystem. However, time is not considered a limiting factor in this context as it does not directly impact the availability of resources or the ability of organisms to thrive.

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  • 28. 

    What is a sampling estimate?

    • A.

      A sampling estimate is an approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions.

    • B.

      The practice of mark and recapture.

    • C.

      Uses mathematical formulas to estimate the total population.

    • D.

      A direct count of the organisms in a population.

    Correct Answer
    A. A sampling estimate is an approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions.
    Explanation
    A sampling estimate is an approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions. This means that it is not an exact measurement, but rather a calculated value that takes into account certain assumptions about the population being studied. It is commonly used in research and statistics to estimate population parameters, such as the mean or proportion, based on a sample of the population. The accuracy of the sampling estimate depends on the quality of the assumptions made and the representativeness of the sample.

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  • 29. 

    The number of individuals in an area of a specific size:

    • A.

      Direct observation

    • B.

      Limiting factor

    • C.

      Birth rate

    • D.

      Population

    • E.

      Indirect observation

    • F.

      Death rate

    • G.

      Population density

    • H.

      Carrying capacity

    • I.

      Estimate

    • J.

      Emigration

    • K.

      Ecology

    • L.

      Mark and recapture

    • M.

      Immigration

    • N.

      Space

    • O.

      Food

    • P.

      Sample

    • Q.

      Weather

    • R.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    G. Population density
    Explanation
    Population density refers to the number of individuals in a specific area of a given size. It is a measure of how crowded or dense a population is in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Population density is calculated by dividing the total number of individuals in a population by the area they occupy. This measure helps scientists understand the distribution and abundance of a species within a given area and can provide insights into ecological patterns and processes.

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  • 30. 

    When groups leave or are separated from their organism population to pursue a need, it is called:

    • A.

      Direct observation

    • B.

      Limiting factor

    • C.

      Birth rate

    • D.

      Population

    • E.

      Indirect observation

    • F.

      Death rate

    • G.

      Population density

    • H.

      Carrying capacity

    • I.

      Estimate

    • J.

      Emigration

    • K.

      Ecology

    • L.

      Mark and recapture

    • M.

      Immigration

    • N.

      Space

    • O.

      Food

    • P.

      Sample

    • Q.

      Weather

    • R.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    J. Emigration
    Explanation
    Emigration refers to the movement of individuals or groups out of a population or organism population. When groups leave or are separated from their population to pursue a need, such as finding better resources or suitable habitats, it is considered emigration. This process can affect the population dynamics and distribution of organisms within an ecosystem.

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