Physical Science Chapter 18

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Chapters Of Physical Science Quizzes & Trivia

Physical Science. Yes.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Increasing temperature increases disorder and entropy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of particles also increases, causing them to move more rapidly. This increased movement leads to a greater number of possible microstates, or arrangements, that the particles can occupy. Since entropy is a measure of the number of possible microstates, an increase in temperature results in an increase in disorder and entropy. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 2. 

    Irreversible processes are always spontaneous and occur on their own without any intervention. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Irreversible processes are not always spontaneous. Spontaneous processes are those that occur naturally without the need for external intervention, while irreversible processes are those that cannot be reversed to their original state. While some irreversible processes may be spontaneous, not all of them are. Some irreversible processes may require external intervention or energy input to occur. Therefore, the statement that irreversible processes are always spontaneous is false.

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  • 3. 

    From our current understanding, sometime in the future engineers will design a car that is completely efficient (a car that creates no additional disorder in the universe). 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that engineers will design a car in the future that is completely efficient and creates no additional disorder in the universe. However, this statement is not supported by any evidence or scientific understanding. It is currently not possible to create a car that is completely efficient and does not contribute to disorder in the universe, as all forms of energy conversion result in some level of waste or entropy. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 4. 

    Gravitational potential energy is a more ordered form of energy than electrical potential energy. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gravitational potential energy refers to the energy an object possesses due to its position in a gravitational field. It is a more ordered form of energy because it is directly related to the height or distance an object is from the source of gravity. In contrast, electrical potential energy is the energy associated with the position of charged particles in an electric field. While both forms of potential energy are important, gravitational potential energy is considered more ordered because it is easier to quantify and calculate.

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  • 5. 

    A salt shaker and a pepper shaker get knocked off the table and break on the floor. Separating the salt and pepper can be considered an irreversible process. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When the salt shaker and pepper shaker break on the floor, it is almost impossible to separate the salt and pepper completely. Even if one tries to pick up the larger pieces of each shaker, there will still be tiny fragments of both salt and pepper mixed together. Therefore, the process of separating the salt and pepper becomes irreversible, making the statement true.

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  • 6. 

    An ice cube melts in a warm glass of water. This is an example of an ______ process. 

    Correct Answer
    irreversible
    Explanation
    When an ice cube melts in a warm glass of water, it undergoes an irreversible process. This is because the melting of the ice cube is a spontaneous process that cannot be reversed by simply cooling the water. Once the ice cube has melted, it cannot return to its solid state without external intervention such as freezing the water. Therefore, the process of ice melting in a warm glass of water is irreversible.

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  • 7. 

    Complete conversion of one energy form to another energy form takes place only if the energy converts to a __________ energy form. 

    Correct Answer
    lower
    Explanation
    When energy is converted from one form to another, it is not possible for the converted energy to have a higher energy form than the original energy. Therefore, the only possibility is for the energy to convert to a lower energy form. This is because energy is always conserved and cannot be created or destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another.

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  • 8. 

    The universe is the combination of a(n) _______ plus its _________. 

    Correct Answer
    system, surroundings
    Explanation
    The universe can be viewed as a system, which refers to a specific portion or component, and its surroundings, which encompass everything outside of that system. In this context, the universe is considered the system, as it is the specific portion being referred to, and its surroundings encompass everything else that exists beyond the universe.

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  • 9. 

    Everything outside what we have defined to be the system. 

    Correct Answer
    Surroundings
    Explanation
    The term "surroundings" refers to everything outside of the defined system. In this context, the system is a specific area or object that is being studied or analyzed. The surroundings encompass everything that is not a part of this system. It includes the environment, other objects, and any external factors that may have an influence on the system. By understanding the surroundings, we can better understand how the system interacts with its environment and how external factors may affect its behavior.

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  • 10. 

    A process that goes in only one direction; its effects cannot be undone. Most processes that occur in nature are this way. 

    Correct Answer
    Irreversible process
    Explanation
    An irreversible process is a process that only goes in one direction and cannot be reversed. In nature, most processes are irreversible, meaning that once they occur, their effects cannot be undone. This is because irreversible processes involve a loss of energy or an increase in entropy, making it impossible to return to the initial state. Examples of irreversible processes include the expansion of a gas into a vacuum or the burning of a piece of wood.

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  • 11. 

    A process that goes both forward and backward at the same time. 

    Correct Answer
    Reversible process
    Explanation
    A reversible process refers to a process that can be reversed and retraced step by step, with no net change in the system or its surroundings. It means that the process can go both forward and backward at the same time, without any energy loss. In a reversible process, the system remains in thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the entire process, allowing for the complete restoration of the initial state. This is in contrast to an irreversible process, where there is a net change in the system and its surroundings, and it cannot be reversed without energy loss.

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  • 12. 

    A small piece of the world around which we mentally draw a box and upon which we focus our attention. 

    Correct Answer
    System
    Explanation
    The given explanation describes a small piece of the world that is mentally isolated and focused upon. This suggests the concept of a system, which is a set of interconnected elements that work together to achieve a specific purpose. In this case, the small piece of the world represents a subsystem within a larger system.

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  • 13. 

    A quantitative measure of disorder. It increases as the disorder increases. 

    Correct Answer
    Entropy
    Explanation
    Entropy is a quantitative measure of disorder. It is a concept used in thermodynamics and information theory to describe the randomness or uncertainty in a system. As disorder increases, the entropy also increases. In other words, when there is more randomness or less predictability in a system, the entropy value is higher. Therefore, the given statement correctly defines entropy as a measure that increases with increasing disorder.

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  • 14. 

    Disorder in the universe increases or stays the same any time a process occurs. 

    Correct Answer
    The Law of Increasing Disorder
    Explanation
    The Law of Increasing Disorder states that disorder in the universe always increases or remains the same whenever a process occurs. This means that natural processes tend to lead to a more disordered state, or an increase in entropy. This is because there are more ways for a system to be disordered than ordered, and the probability of a system becoming more disordered is much higher. This law is a fundamental principle in thermodynamics and is supported by observations and experiments.

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  • 15. 

    Overall disorder remains unchanged in 

    • A.

      Reversible processes

    • B.

      Chemical processes

    • C.

      Mechanical processes

    • D.

      Irreversible processes

    Correct Answer
    A. Reversible processes
    Explanation
    In reversible processes, the overall disorder remains unchanged because the system can return to its initial state by reversing the process. This means that the arrangement of particles and energy distribution in the system remains the same throughout the process. In contrast, irreversible processes result in an increase in overall disorder as the system cannot return to its original state. Chemical and mechanical processes can be reversible or irreversible depending on the conditions and nature of the process.

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  • 16. 

    If analyzing a fridge in relationship to its surroundings, what would the fridge be considered?

    • A.

      Entropy

    • B.

      Surroundings

    • C.

      System

    • D.

      Both b and c

    Correct Answer
    C. System
    Explanation
    When analyzing a fridge in relationship to its surroundings, the fridge would be considered a system. A system refers to a specific portion of the universe that is being studied or analyzed. In this case, the fridge is the specific portion of interest and is being studied in relation to its surroundings. The term "surroundings" refers to everything outside of the system, while "entropy" is a measure of disorder or randomness in a system and is not applicable to the classification of the fridge in this context.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is a reversible process?

    • A.

      A man diving into a pool

    • B.

      Water falling down Niagara Falls

    • C.

      A pendulum swinging in a frictionless environment

    • D.

      Scrambling eggs

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A pendulum swinging in a frictionless environment
    Explanation
    A pendulum swinging in a frictionless environment is a reversible process because it can swing back and forth indefinitely without any loss of energy. In a frictionless environment, there are no external forces acting on the pendulum to slow it down or stop it. Therefore, the motion of the pendulum can be reversed at any point, making it a reversible process.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following processes is closest to an ideal reversible process?

    • A.

      A golf ball falls into med and sticks there

    • B.

      Water evaporates from a glass sitting on the kitchen table

    • C.

      A book sliding on a horizontal table comes to rest because of friction

    • D.

      A ripe peach rots in the Sun

    • E.

      An ice cube changes shape while floating in a glass of water at 0 degrees C

    Correct Answer
    E. An ice cube changes shape while floating in a glass of water at 0 degrees C
    Explanation
    An ice cube changing shape while floating in a glass of water at 0 degrees C is closest to an ideal reversible process because it involves a phase change (solid to liquid) without any energy loss or gain. The process is reversible because the ice cube can change back to its original shape (solid) if the temperature decreases again. This process is also isothermal, meaning the temperature remains constant throughout the phase change, which is a characteristic of an ideal reversible process.

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  • 19. 

    An auto engine cannot convert all of its fuels chemical potential energy into macroscopic kinetic energy because

    • A.

      Energy would not be conserved

    • B.

      Energy would be conserved

    • C.

      Mass would not be conserved

    • D.

      Disorder would be decreased

    Correct Answer
    D. Disorder would be decreased
    Explanation
    An auto engine cannot convert all of its fuel's chemical potential energy into macroscopic kinetic energy because if the disorder is decreased, it would violate the second law of thermodynamics. The second law states that in any energy transformation, the overall entropy or disorder of the system and its surroundings must increase or remain constant. Therefore, if the disorder were to decrease, it would contradict this fundamental principle.

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  • 20. 

    The Law of Increasing Disorder places limits on the efficiency of energy conversion. Which of the following is allowed?

    • A.

      100% conversion of ambient temperature thermal energy to kinetic energy

    • B.

      100% conversion of chemical potential energy to kinetic energy

    • C.

      100% conversion of sunlight to kinetic energy

    • D.

      100% conversion of electricity to ambient temperature thermal energy

    • E.

      100% conversion of ambient temperature thermal energy to chemical potential energy

    Correct Answer
    D. 100% conversion of electricity to ambient temperature thermal energy
    Explanation
    The Law of Increasing Disorder states that the entropy (disorder) of a closed system tends to increase over time. This means that it is not possible to have 100% conversion of energy from one form to another without any loss or increase in disorder. In the case of converting electricity to ambient temperature thermal energy, it is possible to achieve a high level of efficiency, approaching 100%, as there is no increase in disorder in this conversion process. Therefore, 100% conversion of electricity to ambient temperature thermal energy is allowed according to the Law of Increasing Disorder.

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  • 21. 

    Of the quantities listed, the one associated with the most disorder is

    • A.

      Chemical potential energy

    • B.

      Gravitational potential energy

    • C.

      Macroscopic kinetic energy

    • D.

      Nuclear potential energy

    • E.

      Thermal energy in a glass of water

    Correct Answer
    E. Thermal energy in a glass of water
    Explanation
    Thermal energy in a glass of water is associated with the most disorder because it is a measure of the random motion of particles within the water. The particles in the water are constantly moving and colliding with each other, resulting in a high degree of disorder. In contrast, the other quantities listed (chemical potential energy, gravitational potential energy, macroscopic kinetic energy, and nuclear potential energy) are more ordered and have more specific forms of energy associated with them.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 24, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Julierass311
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