# A Quiz On The Fundamentals Of Thermodynamics

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Questions on heat and thermodynamics for Principles of Engineering

## Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Questions and Answers

• 1.

### Which of the below is not a type of heat transfer?

• A.

Conduction

• B.

• C.

Expansion

• D.

Convection

C. Expansion
Explanation
Expansion is not a type of heat transfer. Heat transfer refers to the movement of thermal energy from one object or substance to another. Conduction, radiation, and convection are the three main types of heat transfer. Conduction occurs when heat is transferred through direct contact between objects or substances. Radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves. Convection involves the transfer of heat through the movement of fluids or gases. Expansion, on the other hand, refers to the increase in size or volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature, but it does not involve the transfer of heat from one object to another.

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• 2.

### All matter is composed of particles that are in constant, random motion.  Because of this motion, the particles have ? energy.

kinetic
Explanation
The given correct answer for this question is "kinetic". This is because the explanation states that all matter is composed of particles that are in constant, random motion. The motion of these particles is referred to as kinetic energy. Therefore, the particles have kinetic energy.

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• 3.

### The quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared to a standard is ? and it is related to the average kinetic energy of a substance.

temperature
Explanation
Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared to a standard. It is related to the average kinetic energy of a substance. Temperature is a measure of the intensity of heat and determines the direction of heat flow between two objects. It is commonly measured using various scales such as Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Kelvin. The higher the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance, indicating a hotter state. Conversely, lower temperatures indicate a colder state with lower average kinetic energy.

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• 4.

### The temperature scale that assigns 0 degrees to the freezing point of water and 100 degrees to the boiling point of water is the ? scale.

Celsius
Explanation
The temperature scale that assigns 0 degrees to the freezing point of water and 100 degrees to the boiling point of water is known as the Celsius or Centigrade scale. Both Celsius and Centigrade scales are used interchangeably to measure temperature and are based on the freezing and boiling points of water.

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• 5.

### The SI scale of temperature used in scientific research is the ? scale.

Kelvin
Explanation
The SI scale of temperature used in scientific research is the Kelvin scale. The Kelvin scale is an absolute temperature scale where 0 Kelvin represents absolute zero, the point at which all molecular motion ceases. It is widely used in scientific research because it provides a more accurate and consistent measurement of temperature compared to other scales, such as Celsius or Fahrenheit. Additionally, the Kelvin scale is directly proportional to the kinetic energy of particles, making it ideal for scientific calculations and experiments.

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• 6.

### If two objects are at the same temperature, the particles in both substances have the same ? kinetic energy.

average
Explanation
Temperature is related to the AVERAGE kinetic energy of the particles, since the particles will have a broad range of kinetic energies.

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• 7.

### Nearly all forms of matter ? when heated due to the fact that the particles will move faster and tend to move farther apart, on the average.

expand
Explanation
When matter is heated, the particles within it gain energy and move faster. This increased movement causes the particles to spread out and move farther apart from each other. As a result, the volume of the matter increases, leading to expansion. This phenomenon is observed in nearly all forms of matter.

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• 8.

### Which of the following is NOT a unit of heat?

• A.

Fahrenheit

• B.

Joule

• C.

Calorie

• D.

British thermal unit

A. Fahrenheit
Explanation
Fahrenheit is a unit of temperature, not heat. Heat is typically measured in units such as joules, calories, or British thermal units (BTUs). Fahrenheit is a scale used to measure temperature, where 0 degrees Fahrenheit is the freezing point of water and 100 degrees Fahrenheit is the boiling point of water.

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• 9.

### Besides kinetic energy, molecules have rotational kinetic energy, potential energy due to forces between molecules and more.  The total of all energies inside a substance is called ? energy.

internal
Explanation
The given correct answer is "internal" energy. This is because the question states that molecules have various forms of energy such as kinetic energy, rotational kinetic energy, and potential energy. These energies are all present within the substance itself, hence they are referred to as internal energy.

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• 10.

### When heat flows from one object or substance to another it is in contact with, the substances are said to be in ? contact.

thermal
Explanation
When heat flows from one object or substance to another it is in contact with, the substances are said to be in thermal contact. This means that there is a direct transfer of thermal energy between the two objects or substances through conduction, convection, or radiation. Thermal contact allows for the equalization of temperatures between the objects or substances, leading to the establishment of thermal equilibrium.

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• 11.

### When objects are in thermal contact, heat will flow until they are at the same temperature, a condition known as ? ?

thermal equilibrium
Explanation
When objects are in thermal contact, heat will flow between them until they reach the same temperature. This is because heat naturally moves from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature in order to achieve thermal equilibrium. In thermal equilibrium, the objects have balanced out their temperatures and there is no net flow of heat between them. This condition is essential for maintaining a stable and consistent temperature in a system.

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• 12.

### A thermometer comes to thermal equilibrium with whatever it is place in, therefore a thermometer actually registers its own temperature.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
When a thermometer comes into thermal equilibrium with an object, it means that both the object and the thermometer have reached the same temperature. In this state, the thermometer is able to accurately measure and register the temperature of the object. Therefore, it is true that a thermometer registers its own temperature when it comes to thermal equilibrium with the object it is placed in.

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• 13.

### On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at ? degrees.

• A.

0

• B.

32

• C.

36

• D.

38

B. 32
Explanation
Water freezes at 32 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale. This is the freezing point of water, meaning that at this temperature, water will solidify and turn into ice.

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• 14.

### On the Fahrenheit scale, water boils at ? degrees.

• A.

212

• B.

100

• C.

180

• D.

220

A. 212
Explanation
Water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit on the Fahrenheit scale. This is the correct answer because it is a well-known fact that water boils at this temperature on the Fahrenheit scale.

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• 15.

### Two strips of different metals, permanently bonded together, will curve when heated due to the different ? rates of the metals.

expansion
Explanation
When two strips of different metals are permanently bonded together, they have different rates of expansion when heated. This means that when they are exposed to heat, one metal will expand more than the other. As a result, the bonded strips will curve due to the difference in expansion rates. This phenomenon is known as thermal expansion, where materials expand or contract in response to changes in temperature.

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• 16.

### The term for two metals bonded together that curve when heated is a ? strip.

bimetallic
Explanation
When two metals with different coefficients of thermal expansion are bonded together, they form a bimetallic strip. This strip bends or curves when heated due to the different expansion rates of the two metals. This property is used in various applications such as thermostats and temperature control devices.

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• 17.

### A device in the home that uses a bimetallic strip to turn on or to turn off the furnace is called a ?

thermostat
Explanation
A thermostat is a device in the home that uses a bimetallic strip to turn on or turn off the furnace. The bimetallic strip is made of two different metals with different expansion rates. As the temperature changes, the strip bends due to the different expansion rates of the metals. This bending action either completes or breaks an electrical circuit, which in turn controls the operation of the furnace. Thus, a thermostat is responsible for regulating the temperature in a home by turning the furnace on or off based on the desired temperature setting.

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• 18.

### Which has more internal energy, a bathtub full of cool water or a cup of hot water?

• A.

Bathtub full of cool water

• B.

Cup of hot water

A. Bathtub full of cool water
Explanation
The bathtub full of cool water has more internal energy compared to the cup of hot water. This is because the amount of water in the bathtub is significantly larger than the amount of water in the cup. Internal energy is directly proportional to the mass of the substance. Therefore, even though the cup of hot water has a higher temperature, the larger quantity of cool water in the bathtub results in a greater total internal energy.

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• 19.

### If a piece of aluminum is placed in contact with both a bathtub full of cool water and a cup of hot water, which way will heat flow?

• A.

From the cup to the bathtub

• B.

From the bathtub to the cup

A. From the cup to the bathtub
Explanation
Heat will flow from the cup of hot water to the bathtub full of cool water. This is because heat always flows from a higher temperature region to a lower temperature region. The cup of hot water has a higher temperature compared to the bathtub full of cool water, so heat will naturally transfer from the cup to the bathtub until both reach thermal equilibrium.

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• 20.

### If heat flows from a cup of hot water to a bathtub full of cool water, the water in the cup will have a loss in ? energy while the water in the tub will have an increase in ? energy.Write just one answer, it is the same for both question marks.

• A.

Thermal

• B.

Heat

• C.

Internal

C. Internal
Explanation
When heat flows from a cup of hot water to a bathtub full of cool water, both the water in the cup and the water in the tub will experience a change in their internal energy. The internal energy of a substance is the sum of its kinetic energy and potential energy at the molecular level. As heat is transferred, the molecules in the hot water gain kinetic energy and the molecules in the cool water gain potential energy. Therefore, the water in both the cup and the tub will have an increase in internal energy.

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• 21.

### If heat flows from a cup of hot water to a bathtub full of cool water, the temperature gain of the water in the tub will be ? the temperature change of the water in the cup.

• A.

The same as (but opposite sign)

• B.

Greater than (but opposite sign) than

• C.

Smaller than (but opposite sign) than

C. Smaller than (but opposite sign) than
Explanation
Conservation of energy says the amount of energy (in this case heat) transferred is the same but due to the big mass differences, the temperature change will not be the same.

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• 22.

### The transfer of heat between materials that are in direct contact is called ?

conduction
Explanation
Conduction is the transfer of heat between materials that are in direct contact with each other. When two objects with different temperatures come into contact, the hotter object transfers heat to the cooler one through direct molecular collision. This process continues until both objects reach thermal equilibrium. Conduction occurs primarily in solids and is facilitated by the movement of free electrons or vibrations of atoms within the material.

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• 23.

### Conduction takes place very easily in metals primarily because metals have very "loose" outer ? in their atoms that can drift through the metal and jostle other particles.

electrons
Explanation
Metals have a unique atomic structure where their outermost electrons are loosely bound to the nucleus. These "loose" outer electrons can easily move through the metal lattice, creating a flow of charged particles known as conduction. As they drift through the metal, these electrons can jostle other particles, transferring energy and facilitating the conduction of heat or electricity. This is why conduction occurs very easily in metals.

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• 24.

### A very poor conductor such as wood or styrofoam is known as an ? because they delay the transfer of heat.

insulator
Explanation
An insulator is a material that does not allow the easy flow of heat or electricity. Poor conductors like wood or styrofoam have a high resistance to heat transfer, meaning they delay the transfer of heat. Therefore, the correct answer is insulator.

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• 25.

### Air is a good conductor.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Air is a very poor conductor making it an insulator and any substance that traps air is a good insulator.

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• 26.

### Metals conduct both heat and cold very well.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
"Cold" is simply the absence of heat. There is no "cold" that passes through a conductor or insulator, only heat is transferred.

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• 27.

### A form of heat transfer that occurs by currents in a fluid (gas or liquid) is ?

convection
Explanation
Convection is a form of heat transfer that occurs through the movement of currents in a fluid, whether it is a gas or a liquid. In convection, the warmer regions of the fluid rise while the cooler regions sink, creating a circular flow. This process transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another, resulting in the overall transfer of heat. Therefore, convection is the correct answer for the given question.

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• 28.

### When a fluid (gas or liquid) is heated, it expands and then ?, transferring heat in the process.

rises
Explanation
When a fluid (gas or liquid) is heated, it expands due to the increase in its temperature. As the fluid expands, it becomes less dense and therefore rises. This rising motion is known as convection, and it is the primary method by which heat is transferred in fluids. The warmer, expanded fluid moves upwards, allowing cooler fluid to take its place and continue the process of heat transfer.

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• 29.

### In this type of heat transfer, energy moves but the actual particles making up the substance do not.

• A.

Convection

• B.

Conduction

B. Conduction
Explanation
Conduction is the correct answer because it is a type of heat transfer where energy is transferred through direct contact between particles. In conduction, the actual particles making up the substance do not move, but the energy is transferred from higher temperature regions to lower temperature regions. This can occur in solids, liquids, and gases, as long as there is direct contact between the particles.

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• 30.

### In this type of heat transfer, some of the particles making up the substance move from one region to another.

• A.

Conduction

• B.

Convection

B. Convection
Explanation
Convection is the correct answer because it involves the movement of particles within a substance from one region to another. This type of heat transfer occurs in fluids, such as air or water, where warmer particles rise and cooler particles sink, creating a circulation of heat. Unlike conduction, which transfers heat through direct contact between particles, convection relies on the bulk movement of particles.

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• 31.

### The type of heat transfer that can take place through a vacuum is called ?

Explanation
Heat transfer through a vacuum can only occur through radiation. Unlike conduction and convection which require a medium like solids, liquids, or gases, radiation can transfer heat through empty space. It involves the emission and absorption of electromagnetic waves, such as infrared radiation, which can travel through a vacuum. This type of heat transfer is commonly observed in situations like the Sun heating the Earth or a hot object radiating heat to its surroundings.

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• 32.

### Radiation involves electromagnetic waves that fall in the ? region.

infrared
Explanation
Radiation involves electromagnetic waves that fall in the infrared region. Infrared radiation refers to the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with longer wavelengths and lower frequencies than visible light. It is commonly associated with heat and is utilized in various applications such as thermal imaging, remote controls, and communication systems.

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• 33.

### When radiation (or radiant energy) falls upon an object, some of the energy will be absorbed and some will be reflected.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
When radiation or radiant energy falls upon an object, it interacts with the object's atoms and molecules. Some of this energy is absorbed by the object, causing its temperature to increase. The absorbed energy is converted into heat. However, not all of the energy is absorbed. Some of it is reflected back into the surrounding environment. This phenomenon is observed in various situations, such as when sunlight falls on a surface and some of it is absorbed by the object while the rest is reflected, resulting in the object's temperature rising. Therefore, the statement that some energy is absorbed and some is reflected when radiation falls upon an object is true.

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• 34.

### The first law of thermodynamics is really just a restatement of the law of conservation of ?

energy
Explanation
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or converted from one form to another. This is essentially the same principle as the law of conservation of energy, which states that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant. Therefore, the correct answer is "energy".

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• 35.

### The first law of thermodynamics can be written several different ways, one of them is:change in U = Q - W   U stands for ? ?

internal energy
Explanation
The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. In the given equation, "U" represents the internal energy of the system. Internal energy refers to the total energy of the system due to its microscopic components, such as the kinetic and potential energy of its particles. Therefore, the correct answer is "internal energy."

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• 36.

### In the equation:change in U = Q - W Q stands for ?

heat
Explanation
In the given equation, "change in U = Q - W," the variable Q represents heat. This is because heat is a form of energy transfer that can cause a change in the internal energy of a system. The equation suggests that the change in internal energy (change in U) is equal to the heat added to the system (Q) minus the work done by the system (W). Therefore, Q represents heat in this context.

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• 37.

### In the equation: change in U = Q - W W stands for ?

• A.

Work

• B.

Work done on the system

• C.

Work done by the system

• D.

Entropy

C. Work done by the system
Explanation
In the given equation, "change in U = Q - W," W represents the work done by the system. This means that the system is doing work on its surroundings, resulting in a decrease in its internal energy (U). The equation suggests that the change in internal energy is equal to the heat added to the system (Q) minus the work done by the system (W). Therefore, the correct answer is "work done by the system."

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• 38.

### A system has 30 J of heat added to it and in doing so, it does 25 J of work.  The change in internal energy will be:

• A.

+ 25 J

• B.

+ 5 J

• C.

- 5 J

• D.

- 30 J

• E.

- 25 J

B. + 5 J
Explanation
When heat is added to a system and work is done by the system, the change in internal energy is equal to the sum of the heat added and the work done. In this case, 30 J of heat is added to the system and 25 J of work is done. Therefore, the change in internal energy is 30 J + 25 J = 55 J.

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• 39.

### If the internal energy of a system increases, then the ? of the system will increase.

• A.

Heat

• B.

Work

• C.

Temperature

C. Temperature
Explanation
When the internal energy of a system increases, it means that the total energy of the system has increased. This increase in energy is typically manifested as an increase in the kinetic energy of the particles within the system. Since temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles, an increase in internal energy will result in an increase in temperature. Therefore, when the internal energy of a system increases, the temperature of the system will also increase.

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• 40.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:Heat will never of itself flow from a cold object to a hot object.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that heat will never flow spontaneously from a colder object to a hotter object. This is because heat naturally flows from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until thermal equilibrium is reached. Therefore, the statement that heat will never of itself flow from a cold object to a hot object is supported by the second law of thermodynamics.

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• 41.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:Heat can be completely changed into work.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that heat cannot be completely changed into work. This law is based on the principle of entropy, which states that in any energy transfer or transformation, the total entropy of a closed system will always increase over time. This means that some heat will always be lost or wasted in the process of converting it into work. Therefore, the statement that heat can be completely changed into work is false according to the second law of thermodynamics.

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• 42.

### What is the ideal efficiency of a heat engine that has a hot reservoir at 500 K and a cold reservoir of 200 K?

• A.

60%

• B.

50%

• C.

40%

• D.

55%

• E.

45%

A. 60%
Explanation
500-200=300, and 300/500=.60

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• 43.

### A heat engine that had no friction present could be 100% efficient.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
According to the 2nd law of thermodynamics, it is impossible for all of the heat to be changed into work.

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• 44.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:Whenever energy transforms, the total amount of energy remains constant.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
It is a true statement but it is the first law of thermodynamics that is being described here.

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• 45.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:Natural systems tend to proceed towards a state of greater order.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Replace "order" with "disorder" and it would be true!

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• 46.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:A barrel of pennies is dumped on the floor.  The pennies could all come up heads but because there are many more ways for the pennies not to all come up heads, that is more likely to happen.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that in any isolated system, the overall entropy (measure of disorder) tends to increase over time. In the given statement, the barrel of pennies being dumped on the floor represents a random arrangement of the pennies. The statement suggests that it is more likely for the pennies to not all come up heads, as there are many more ways for them to be arranged in a non-uniform manner. This aligns with the concept of increasing disorder or entropy, making the statement true.

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• 47.

### The second law of thermodynamics deals with what is most likely to happen (probability) instead of what has to happen.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that in any isolated system, the entropy (or disorder) will always tend to increase over time. This means that it is more probable for a system to become more disordered rather than becoming more ordered. Therefore, the second law of thermodynamics deals with what is most likely to happen (probability) rather than what has to happen. This makes the statement "The second law of thermodynamics deals with what is most likely to happen (probability) instead of what has to happen" true.

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• 48.

### The measure of the amount of disorder in a system is called ?

entropy
Explanation
Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder or randomness in a system. It quantifies the level of uncertainty or chaos within a system. In thermodynamics, entropy is used to describe the tendency of a system to move towards equilibrium or a state of maximum disorder. It is a fundamental concept in various scientific fields, including physics, chemistry, and information theory.

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• 49.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:For natural processes, in the long run, entropy decreases.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that in natural processes, entropy always increases or remains constant, but never decreases. This means that the statement "For natural processes, in the long run, entropy decreases" is contradictory to the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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• 50.

### The second law of thermodynamics would back up this statement:Disorganized energy can be changed to orderly usable energy only by doing work.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that the natural flow of energy is from a state of higher order to a state of lower order or disorder. This means that disorganized energy cannot spontaneously convert into orderly and usable energy without the input of external work. Therefore, the statement that disorganized energy can be changed into orderly usable energy only by doing work aligns with the second law of thermodynamics, making the answer "True".

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