Physical Science Chapter 13

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The term “physical science” deals with a number of studies within the broader topic of science, including chemistry, astronomy and of course, physics itself. What do you know about the study? We’ll be the judges of that!

• 1.

Pressure in a hot tire is greater than the pressure when the tire is cold.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
When a tire is heated, the air inside it expands, causing an increase in pressure. This is due to the gas molecules inside the tire gaining more kinetic energy and colliding with the walls of the tire more frequently and with greater force. As a result, the pressure inside a hot tire is greater than the pressure when the tire is cold.

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• 2.

For a given material, the solid state has a higher internal energy than the gaseous state.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because in general, the gaseous state of a material has higher internal energy compared to the solid state. In the gaseous state, the molecules have more freedom of movement and higher kinetic energy, leading to a higher internal energy. In the solid state, the molecules are closely packed and have lower kinetic energy, resulting in a lower internal energy.

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• 3.

Molecules, even in solids, are in constant motion.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Molecules possess kinetic energy, which causes them to be in constant motion, even in solids. This motion is known as thermal motion or thermal vibration. Therefore, the statement that molecules, even in solids, are in constant motion is true.

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• 4.

The molecular model is limited in that it cannot explain the color of an object.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because the molecular model focuses on the arrangement and behavior of atoms and molecules, which primarily explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Color, on the other hand, is a perception of light that is dependent on the interaction between light and the object's surface. It is determined by factors such as the absorption, transmission, and reflection of light, which are not explained by the molecular model. Therefore, the molecular model is limited in explaining the color of an object.

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• 5.

Heat is the amount of energy associated with electrical potential energy.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is incorrect because heat is not associated with electrical potential energy. Heat is actually the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another due to a difference in temperature. Electrical potential energy, on the other hand, is the energy stored in an electric field due to the position of charged particles. These two forms of energy are distinct and not directly related to each other.

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• 6.

In the molecular model, molecules are assumed ot move according to the laws of special relativity.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because molecules do not move according to the laws of special relativity. Special relativity deals with the behavior of objects moving at speeds close to the speed of light, while the movement of molecules is governed by classical mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics. Therefore, the assumption that molecules move according to the laws of special relativity is incorrect.

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• 7.

According to Maxwell, all of the gas molecules in a balloon are traveling at the same speed.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
According to Maxwell, all of the gas molecules in a balloon are not traveling at the same speed. The kinetic theory of gases states that gas molecules have a range of speeds, with some moving faster and others moving slower. This is because gas molecules have different masses and energies, leading to variations in their velocities. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that all gas molecules in a balloon are traveling at the same speed.

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• 8.

________ are the incredibly tiny particles that make up matter.

molecules
Explanation
Molecules are incredibly tiny particles that make up matter. They consist of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded together. This answer is correct because molecules are the fundamental building blocks of all substances and are responsible for the properties and behavior of matter.

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• 9.

Increasing the temperature of an object ____________ the average kinetic energy of the molecules within the object.

increases
Explanation
Increasing the temperature of an object causes the molecules within the object to move faster. This increase in molecular motion results in an increase in average kinetic energy. Therefore, as the temperature of an object increases, the average kinetic energy of the molecules within the object also increases.

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• 10.

When a liquid transforms to a gas in a closed container, and both liquid and gas a present simultaneously, the temperature of the substance ___________.

stays the same
Explanation
When a liquid transforms to a gas in a closed container, and both liquid and gas are present simultaneously, the temperature of the substance stays the same. This is because during the phase change from liquid to gas, the energy is used to break the intermolecular forces holding the liquid molecules together, rather than increasing the temperature. As a result, the temperature remains constant until all the liquid has transformed into gas.

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• 11.

Ice and liquid water a present in the container of Figure 13.8 at the same temperature. The ___________ of the two states is the same.

internal kinetic energy
Explanation
The internal kinetic energy of ice and liquid water is the same when they are present in the container at the same temperature. This means that the average kinetic energy of the particles in both states is equal. The temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles, so if the ice and liquid water have the same temperature, it implies that their internal kinetic energy is also the same.

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• 12.

A cold pan is placed on a hot stove burner . Thermal energy flows from the ________ to the _____________.

stove, pan
Explanation
When a cold pan is placed on a hot stove burner, thermal energy flows from the stove to the pan. This is because the stove burner is a source of heat and has a higher temperature than the cold pan. Heat always flows from a higher temperature region to a lower temperature region in order to reach thermal equilibrium. Therefore, the stove transfers its thermal energy to the pan, causing it to heat up.

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• 13.

For a given type of material, matter as a ____________ has the greatest electrical potential energy.

gas
Explanation
Gas particles have the greatest electrical potential energy compared to other states of matter. This is because gas particles are highly energetic and have the ability to move freely and rapidly. Due to their high kinetic energy, gas particles can easily collide with each other and with other objects, leading to the transfer of electrical charges. This results in a higher electrical potential energy compared to solids or liquids, where particles are more closely packed and have less freedom of movement.

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• 14.

The tiny constituent particles of which matter is composed.

Molecules
Explanation
The correct answer is "molecules" because molecules are the tiny constituent particles of matter. Matter is made up of atoms, and when atoms combine through chemical bonds, they form molecules. Molecules can be composed of atoms of the same element or different elements. Therefore, molecules are the fundamental building blocks of matter.

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• 15.

A measure of average kinetic energy of the molecules that make up an object.

Temperature
Explanation
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules that make up an object. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, and the temperature of an object is a measure of how fast its molecules are moving. When the molecules move faster, they have more kinetic energy and the temperature is higher. Conversely, when the molecules move slower, they have less kinetic energy and the temperature is lower. Therefore, temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object.

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• 16.

The constant, irregular motion of very fine particles suspended in a fluid and observed with a microscope.

Brownian motion
Explanation
Brownian motion refers to the constant, irregular movement of tiny particles that are suspended in a fluid and can be observed under a microscope. This phenomenon was first observed by the botanist Robert Brown in 1827 and is caused by the random collisions of the fluid molecules with the particles. The particles move in a zigzag pattern due to the continuous bombardment by the fluid molecules, which results in their erratic motion. Brownian motion is an important concept in physics and has applications in various fields, including biology, chemistry, and materials science.

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• 17.

The transfer of microscopic kinetic energy between two solid objects (a hot one and a cold one) that are in physical contact with each other.

Heat conduction
Explanation
Heat conduction is the transfer of microscopic kinetic energy between two solid objects that are in physical contact with each other. This transfer occurs due to the collision of particles within the objects. In this process, the hotter object transfers its energy to the colder object until both objects reach thermal equilibrium. Heat conduction is a fundamental mechanism of heat transfer and occurs in various everyday situations, such as when a metal spoon placed in hot soup becomes hot due to conduction.

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• 18.

Model that explains the behavior of gases observed by Maxwell

Molecular model
Explanation
The correct answer is "Molecular model". This model explains the behavior of gases observed by Maxwell. The molecular model describes gases as being composed of individual particles (molecules) that are in constant motion and collide with each other and the walls of their container. This model helps to explain properties of gases such as pressure, temperature, and volume. By understanding the behavior of individual molecules, the molecular model can provide insights into the macroscopic behavior of gases.

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• 19.

Force per unit area

Pressure
Explanation
Pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area. It is a measure of the amount of force exerted on a given area. This means that the greater the force applied over a smaller area, the higher the pressure. Pressure is a fundamental concept in physics and is used to describe a wide range of phenomena, such as fluid dynamics, gas laws, and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the correct answer is pressure.

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• 20.

Between two objects, heat always travels

• A.

From a cooler to a warmer object

• B.

From a warmer to a cooler object

• C.

Randomly between the two objects regardless of their temperature

• D.

Heat doesn't travel between objects

B. From a warmer to a cooler object
Explanation
Heat always travels from a warmer to a cooler object because heat transfer occurs in the direction of the temperature gradient. This means that heat energy naturally flows from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower temperature until thermal equilibrium is reached. This principle is known as the second law of thermodynamics.

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• 21.

For nearly all substances, the density of physical states increases in which order?

• A.

Solid, gas, liquid

• B.

Liquid, gas, solid

• C.

Solid, liquid, gas

• D.

Gas, liquid, solid

D. Gas, liquid, solid
Explanation
The correct answer is gas, liquid, solid. This is because in a gas, the particles are far apart and have high kinetic energy, resulting in a higher number of available energy states. In a liquid, the particles are closer together and have lower kinetic energy, leading to a lower number of available energy states compared to a gas. In a solid, the particles are tightly packed and have the lowest kinetic energy, resulting in the fewest number of available energy states. Therefore, the density of physical states increases in the order of gas, liquid, solid.

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• 22.

The average distance between molecules in the states of matter increases in which order?

• A.

Gas, liquid, solid

• B.

Liquid, solid, gas

• C.

Solid, liquid, gas

C. Solid, liquid, gas
Explanation
In a solid, the molecules are tightly packed together, resulting in the smallest average distance between molecules. In a liquid, the molecules are still close together but not as tightly packed as in a solid, so the average distance between molecules increases. In a gas, the molecules are far apart from each other, resulting in the largest average distance between molecules. Therefore, the correct order is solid, liquid, gas.

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• 23.

If a large bucket of water and a small bucket of water have the same temperature

• A.

Both have the same total internal energy

• B.

Both have the same total molecular kinetic energy

• C.

The average molecular speed is the same for both

• D.

Both have the same total energy

• E.

The water molecules in the small bucket are moving faster than those in the large bucket

C. The average molecular speed is the same for both
Explanation
When the large bucket of water and the small bucket of water have the same temperature, it means that the average molecular kinetic energy of the water molecules in both buckets is the same. The average molecular speed is directly related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules. Therefore, if the average molecular kinetic energy is the same, it implies that the average molecular speed is also the same for both buckets.

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• 24.

Heat conduction occurs from a warm room through a closed window on a cold day because

• A.

The molecules in the glass window are moving faster than those in the air inside the room

• B.

Fast molecules go through the window to the outside

• C.

Slow molecules enter the room from the outside

• D.

Slow molecules transfer energy to faster ones with which they collide, on the average

• E.

Fast molecules transfer energy to slower ones with which they collide on the average

E. Fast molecules transfer energy to slower ones with which they collide on the average
Explanation
Heat conduction occurs when there is a temperature difference between two objects in contact. In this scenario, the warm room and the cold window have a temperature difference. The molecules in the warm room have higher kinetic energy and are moving faster compared to the molecules in the cold window. When these fast-moving molecules collide with the slower-moving molecules in the window, they transfer some of their energy to them. This transfer of energy from fast molecules to slower ones is what causes heat conduction, allowing heat to pass through the closed window from the warm room to the cold outside.

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• 25.

Evaporation of water from the skin has a cooling effect. This is because

• A.

The most massive water molecules escape into the surrounding atmosphere

• B.

Water molecules with the greatest speed escape into the surrounding atmosphere

• C.

Water molecules with the least kinetic energy escape into the surrounding atmosphere

• D.

Into the surrounding atmosphere transfers its energy into the water

• E.

The least massive water molecules escape into the surrounding atmosphere